Youth Violence Interventions

Family literacy programs

Low bonding to school has been identified as a risk factor in youth for the development of violent behavior (Hawkins 1987). Recent efforts to decrease the risk of school failure have been aimed at improving literacy through interventions in the family, especially during the child’s infancy, toddlerhood and preschool years. For example, the "Beginning with Books" program gives children’s books to families during the first years of life. The program has resulted in more literacy experiences for children in their homes and higher reading abilities in early elementary school (Bean 1990). These interventions have been adopted by many clinics, with favorable reaction from families and children (Needleman 1991).