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PAL Questions: 2 - Garden Tools: 1 - Recommended Websites: 7
Can you direct me to information available on the transplant tolerances of different tree species?
There is general information on transplanting trees and shrubs from Morton Arboretum.
There is a table on "Ease of Transplanting" from Principles and Practice of Planting Trees and Shrubs by Watson and Himelick (Int'l Society of Arboriculture, 1997). It is the longest list of any I have found that covers this topic.
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Can you direct me to a list of deciduous trees whose leaves generally emerge in early spring, or a list of trees ranked in order of their leaf emergence? I know this will vary from year to year and from individual tree to individual tree due to climate and genes, but if there is a list out there with a general sequenced time schedule, it would be a great tool for design.
An early American observer of the varying timing of leaf emergence was Henry David Thoreau, whose journals list leaf-out dates for the trees and shrubs he saw in Massachusetts in 1854. In fact, his data is now being used in climate change research. Though it's a subject that hasn't been much approached from a garden design standpoint, the increased interest in climate change means that more research on phenology and the leafing out sequence is becoming available. See the following article, "Turning Over New Leaves" by Richard Primack in the Arnold Arboretum newsletter. Primack (of Boston University) is the author of many articles on this topic. Primack and Caroline Polgar co-authored "Leaf-out phenology of temperate woody plants: from trees to ecosystems" (New Phytologist, Volume 191, Issue 4, pages 926-941, September 2011) which states that "maples (Acer spp.), birches, alders (Alnus spp.), and poplars" tend to leaf out earlier, while "oaks, ashes (Fraxinus spp.), and hickories (Carya spp.)" are among the later-leafing trees.
The article "Why Do Temperate Deciduous Trees Leaf Out at Different Times? Adaptation and Ecology of Forest Communities," (The American Naturalist December 1984, Martin J. Lechowicz) has a chart (p. 825) showing the tree species the author studied leafing out in this order:
- Acer rubrum
- Populus tremuloides
- Betula papyrifera
- Sorbus americana
- Acer saccharinum
- Betula alleghaniensis
- Ulmus americana
- Tilia americana
- Quercus macrocarpa
- Fraxinus pennsylvanica
- Populus grandidentata
- Fraxinus nigra
Another chart on the same page compares 1980 and 1981 leafout dates, with Populus tremuloides and P. balsamifera and Betula species consistently leafing early, followed by Acer and Prunus, then Fagus and Populus grandidentata, then Fraxinus and Tilia, and finally Carya and Juglans.
You may want to read a short article in the March 11, 2015 online version of Conservation Magazine on predicting the future of forests, based on two centuries of data from citizen scientists in England. Here is an excerpt:
"It is likely that the variation in each species' sensitivities to both spring forcing and winter chilling will mean that forests will look quite different in the future. Those species for whom spring forcing is most important will grow leaves earlier in the year; those for whom the autumn and winter chill is more critical could leaf later in the year. Eventually, a late-leafing species like oak might wind up growing its leaves earlier than an early-leafing species like birch."
Another resource that may help you determine the leaf-out date of specific trees is The Botanical Garden: volume 1: Trees & Shrubs by Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix (Firefly, 2002). The book presents photos of branch samples from many tree species, often showing the young leaves associated with a date (though not with the geographical location; bear in mind that the authors reside in England). While it doesn't have such a photo for every tree, it might have enough trees for you to get useful data.
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Silvics of North America Online by United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, 1990.
Property owners with woodlots and tree lovers alike will find the Silvics of North America an informative and authoritative reference source on trees. Two hundred, mostly North American native trees are described including native habitat, associated trees and shrubs, propagation details, growth rate, and information on the major pests that may damage the tree. Many entries have information on the root development, which can be helpful in learning if a chosen tree will tolerate construction, or be appropriate for planting over water utilities.
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January 13 2017 10:35:53