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Search Results for ' Woody plant propagation'

PAL Questions: 17 - Garden Tools:

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Keywords: Paulownia tomentosa, Woody plant propagation, Invasive plants

PAL Question:

How can I propagate a Paulownia tree?

View Answer:

Something to consider before propagating this tree is its invasive potential. Depending on your location, increasing the population of Paulownia trees may not be wise. The Plant Conservation Alliance includes Paulownia tomentosa on their "Least Wanted" list. If you are in King County in Washington State, you may be interested to know that the Center for Invasive Species shows this tree in its Early Detection and Distribution map.

Nevertheless, directions for propagation are available. Peter Thompson's book, Creative Propagation (2nd edition, Timber Press, 2005), states that Paulownia is best propagated by seed in the spring, or by semi-mature root cuttings laid horizontally just below the surface of the soil. I suggest that you think twice before propagating this tree.

Season All Season
Date 2007-12-13
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Keywords: Clerodendrum, Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

When and how can I propagate a glorybower? There are suckers coming up at the base of the plant.

View Answer:

Regarding propagating Clerodendrum trichotomum (harlequin glorybower), the book Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles Vol. I (by W. J. Bean, 1981, p. 667) says that shrubs can be propagated by root-cuttings, or by the young suckers which frequently spring from the roots.

Since you mentioned that there were suckers (gardening term) coming up around the plant, it is most likely the species is C. trichotomum and not C. bungei (one of the others commonly grown in our climate). C. bungei, according to the same source, should be divided in the spring.

Another source, Flora, Vol. 1, (chief consultant, Sean Hogan, 2003, p. 393) says regarding Clerodendrum (genus-level information) that propagation is done by sowing seed in spring or by taking cuttings of half-hardened wood during winter or summer.

Season All Season
Date 2006-03-02
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Keywords: Schisandra chinensis, Woody plant propagation, Herbs

PAL Question:

How can I propagate the Schisandra fruit vine?

View Answer:

It does not sound like the easiest plant to propagate from seed. Cuttings or layering might be less challenging. The Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association has a guide to growing Schisandra, including propagation information. Here is an excerpt:
"Propagate Schisandra by seed, cuttings or layering. The seeds can be planted in prepared seedbeds 1/4-inch deep in the fall soon after they ripen or indoors in March. Dry seeds need to be soaked overnight. In Herbal Emissaries: Bringing Chinese Herbs to the West, Steven Foster and Yue Chongxi say that in China an acid scarification process is sometimes used, because the seeds have such a hard coat."

Plants for a Future's database includes propagation details for Schisandra chinensis:
"Seed: best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Pre-soak stored seed for 12 hours in warm water and sow in a greenhouse in the spring. Germination can be slow and erratic. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for their first 2 years. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer.
"Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, August in a frame. Overwinter in the greenhouse and plant out in late spring.
"Layering of long shoots in the autumn."

Season All Season
Date 2008-01-17
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Keywords: Campsis, Woody plant cuttings, Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

I have a trumpet vine. I needed to move it, and during the relocating, I also cut its woody upright trunk about 3 feet up, and it was about 6 feet -- the woody part. It had a lot of leaves, or branching growth. I wonder what would I have to do to start a new plant from this part I've cut off?

View Answer:

The best way to propagate the top part of your vine Campsis radicans) is with semi-ripe or hardwood cuttings. North Carolina State University Extension has good general information on propagation. The Royal Horticultural Society's page about Campsis includes information on various propagation methods.

Season All Season
Date 2008-01-31
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Keywords: Grafting, Woody plant propagation, Juglans

PAL Question:

Is it possible to graft a walnut scion onto a maple tree?

View Answer:

The book, Plant Propagation edited by Alan Toogood (American Horticultural Society/DK Publishing 1999) says that Juglans regia and Juglans nigra, grown for their edible nuts, are usually whip-and-tongue grafted. You would "use a slightly narrower scion than the stock so the thinner scion bark will align with the stock's cambium more easily."

I was not able to find any information on grafting a walnut scion onto a maple, but here is an article (pdf) on propagating Eastern black walnut trees by William Reid, which has detailed information.

This publication (a very large PDF!) from the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, entitled "Propagating deciduous fruit plants common to Georgia" (1999) indicates that whip grafting or ring budding will work best for walnuts.

Season All Season
Date 2007-04-03
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation, Salix

PAL Question:

Why do willow trees propagate so easily?

View Answer:

The technical explanation is that willows (Salix) have preformed or latent root initials that will elongate into an established root system when a part of the parent plant is removed.

If you were to take cut willow branches and make a kind of tea by soaking them in water, that water could be used as a sort of natural rooting hormone to help root other types of plants. This indicates that willows naturally contain a high level of the hormone that contributes to root formation.

Season All Season
Date 2006-11-28
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Keywords: Gaultheria, Woody plant propagation, Germination

PAL Question:

What specific requirements are needed to germinate Gaultheria procumbens in soilless media?
Any tips on seed stratification, cultural advice, etc., etc.?

View Answer:

The information below comes from the website of Plants for a Future:

"The seed requires a period of cold stratification. Pre-chill for 4-10 weeks and then surface sow in a lime-free compost in a shady part of the greenhouse and keep the compost moist. The seed usually germinates well, usually within 1- 2 months at 20c, but the seedlings are liable to damp off. It is important to water them with care and to ensure that they get plenty of ventilation. Watering them with a garlic infusion can also help to prevent damping off. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are about 25mm tall, and grow them in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. The seedlings are susceptible to spring frosts so might need some protection for their first few years outdoors. The leaves remain very small for the first few years. If you want to grow from cuttings, use half-ripe wood 3-6cm long, and in July/August place in a frame in a shady position. They form roots in late summer or spring. A good percentage usually take. Division can be carried out at almost any time of the year, but works best in the spring just before new growth begins. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted directly into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring."

Another source says to propagate by seed starting in July in a mix of acid peat and sand in a cold frame.

I consulted the book, Seeds of Woody Plants in North America by James A. Young (Dioscorides Press, 1992, rev.ed.), and the general information on Gaultheria states that cold dry storage will help maintain seed viability. G. procumbens has 6800 seeds per gram. Seeds are initially dormant and prechilling is needed for germination (from 30-120 days with a variety of substrata). Salal (G. shallon) seeds appear to require light for germination. This resource says that G. procumbens seeds should be sown in the fall.

Season All Season
Date 2007-01-11
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Keywords: Hamamelis, Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

Do you have any information on how to propagate vernal witch hazel?

View Answer:

To propagate vernal witch hazel (Hamamelis vernalis), Michael Dirr's Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation (Varsity Press, 1987) says the following:

From seed:
70% germination after 3 months cold stratification,
75% after 3 warm months/3 cold,
81% after 4 warm months/3 cold,
85% after 5 warm/3 cold.
Fall planting improves success.

From cuttings:
Easy to root and keep alive.

Grafting is not used much as a propagation method.

The American Horticultural Society's book, Plant Propagation (DK Publishing, 1999) says that softwood cuttings do not overwinter well. One should take early nodal stem-tip cuttings as soon as new growth in spring is 2 3/4 - 4 inches long. Provide bottom heat and rooting hormone to speed rooting in 6-8 weeks. Layering can also be done in spring. Grafting can be done in late summer.

The following is from the Royal Horticultural Society:

"To propagate by seed, harvest as soon as the fruits mature in late summer to early autumn and sow in a cold frame promptly before they have a chance to dry out. Fresh seeds may take up to 18 months to germinate. When the seedlings appear, prick them out and pot them up for overwintering in the greenhouse for their first year. They can be planted out late the following spring and will reach flowering size in about six years. Witch hazel suckers freely and also can be propagated by layering in early spring or autumn. Layering works well, but the process will take a year. Softwood cuttings can be rooted in the summer. Volunteer seedlings can also be potted up and transplanted."

Season All Season
Date 2007-02-21
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Keywords: Styrax, Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

Could you tell me how I would propagate Styrax?

View Answer:

All the propagation information I found in our reference books indicates that Styrax is best propagated by softwood cuttings in June to early July (cuttings are easy to root and overwinter easily), or by fresh seed as soon as ripe, kept at 50 degrees for 3 months and then moved to the refrigerator for 3 months.

If you wish to try grafting Styrax, this link to general grafting information from North Carolina State University's Extension Service may be of use.

Season All Season
Date 2007-02-21
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation, Propagation, Abelia

PAL Question:

How would you propagate Abelia x grandiflora?

View Answer:

According to the American Horticultural Society's Plant Propagation edited by Alan Toogood (DK Publishing, 1999), Abelia may be propagated from softwood cuttings in spring, from greenwood cuttings in late spring, and from semi-ripe cuttings in early to late summer. "Cuttings... root very readily in a closed case or mist bench. Softwood cuttings from the first flush of root growth in 2-4 weeks. In colder regions, do not pot greenwood cuttings taken after midsummer; prune cuttings into a bushy habit, but allow new growth time to ripen--if not well established, they overwinter badly. Keep semi-ripe cuttings taken in late summer frost-free. Plants flower in 1-2 years."

Here are links to general information on propagation from cuttings:

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings: Instructions for the Home Gardener, from NC State University
Propagating Plants from Stem Cuttings, from Rainyside Gardeners

Season All Season
Date 2007-08-01
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation, Magnolia

PAL Question:

I have a Magnolia wilsonii in my garden, and this year there is a definite profusion of seed that followed a long flowering season (I'm collecting more every day). What is the best way to sow and grow these?

View Answer:

According to the American Horticultural Society's Plant Propagation, edited by Alan Toogood (DK Publishing, 1999) you can collect fresh seeds in the fall, and thoroughly clean them (the book recommends using a fungicide to prevent rot or damping off).To extract the seeds, gather the ripe cones and dry them until the fleshy fruits come away. Soak them in warm water with liquid detergent for a couple of days to remove the outer coating. Once softened, drain the water. Remove any flesh still attached, and dry the seeds with tissue. Sow fresh and overwinter in a cold frame, or mix with moist vermiculite, sand, or peat, and store in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for 2 months before sowing. Seedlings may be transplanted the following summer, and put back in the cold frame for a second winter.

Another method is to stratify the seeds for 3-6 months at 41 degrees Fahrenheit, sow under cover in spring with bottom heat (68 degrees) for germination to take place in about a month. It will take plants grown from seed from 3 to 10 years to flower, but some species take much longer.

Texas A & M University's horticulture department has an article on starting Magnolia from seed. The article focuses on Southern magnolia, but should still be relevant. Here is an excerpt:
"The seeds should be collected as soon as possible after the fruit is mature which is usually mid-September or early October. The cone-like fruit should be spread out to dry for several days until they open. The seeds can then be shaken from the dried cone or fruit.
"If the seed is to be kept for any length of time, the red pulp should be allowed to dry enough to lose its fleshy character, placed in sealed containers and stored at 32 to 41 degrees F. If stored over winter at room temperature seed will lose its viability. The seed should be cleaned before planting or stratifying. To remove the fleshy seed coat, soak the seed overnight in warm water. Remove the seed coat by rubbing against hardware cloth or window screening. After cleaning, the seeds should be sown immediately or stored for 3 to 6 months at about 40 degrees F and planted in the spring. An excellent way to stratify seeds is to use a polyethylene bag and place alternating layers of a moist medium such as a sand and peat mixture and seeds in the bag. Tie the top of the bag and place in a refrigerator at about 40 degrees. The medium should be just moist enough to stick together but not so wet that it will drip if squeezed by hand.
"Whether sown in the fall or stratified in the refrigerator and sown in the spring, the seeds should be covered with about l/4" of soil and mulched to prevent drying. Seedbeds should be kept moist until germination is complete. Partial shade should be provided the first summer for seedlings."

Season All Season
Date 2007-08-24
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation, Transplanting, Arbutus menziesii

PAL Question:

We've lived in the Northwest for years and love madrone trees. Yesterday, we "rescued" two madrone trees from a construction site with the hope of transplanting them to our Seattle garden. After reading more information on madrone transplanting, I don't think it's an easy task. Do you have more information on this subject?

View Answer:

I've seen several references to madrone trees being difficult to transplant. This one is from Wikipedia: "The trees are difficult to transplant and a seedling should be set in its permanent spot while still small. Transplant mortality becomes significant once a madrone is more than one foot (30 cm) tall."

According to Native Plants in the Coastal Garden (April Pettinger, 2002), "Arbutus seedlings do not like to be transplanted because they have a single, long taproot." However, she does suggest they are not difficult to grow from seed by planting the whole berries in fall where you want the tree to be, and pulling up any extra seedlings that arise. According to Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants (Robin Rose et al, 1998), the seedlings will grow only a centimeter a year at first.

Even if the trees aren't looking great, it might be worthwhile to plant them and see if they come back from the roots, as they tend to have an underground burl that can re-sprout after the original trunk dies.

You might also try contacting the King County Master Gardeners, whose phone clinic can be reached at 296-3440.

Season All Season
Date 2007-10-01
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation, Brugmansia, Pruning

PAL Question:

When should I cut back angel's trumpet and can I replant the part that was cut?

View Answer:

I've checked a book called Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples by Ulrike and Hans-Georg Preissel. It has a whole chapter on growing angel's trumpets from cuttings as well as a section on pruning them, which should be done after they bloom. As you probably know, they can't take freezing temperatures, so people often prune them in the fall to make them easier to bring into a greenhouse (for overwintering warm) or 41-50 degree room (for overwintering cool). The important thing to remember is to confine your pruning to the flowering part of the plant, so you don't have to wait as long for more flowers. The book says you can tell the flowering part of the plant by looking closely at the leaves--the flowering part has an asymmetrical leaf base on each leaf, but the base of the "vegetative" leaves is symmetrical.

The cuttings you take can be used to start new plants, and the success rate will vary depending on the time of year (spring and summer cuttings work best) and the variety of angel's trumpet you have. Viruses can be a problem, so keep your shears very clean. You can often get them to form roots by placing them in a jar of water so that only the lowest 1.5 inches of the stalk are under water. Alternatively, place woody fall cuttings "about 10 inches long...in a mixture of peat and sand, in vermiculite, or in pumice... temperature between 53 and 64 degrees... Many of these cuttings will form roots by the following spring. For root development the cuttings need the same light levels as for good growing conditions... It is a good idea to pot all cuttings into a nutrient-rich soil as soon as possible after they have formed roots."

Season All Season
Date 2007-11-20
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation, Ginkgo biloba, Propagation

PAL Question:

Onto what root stock should I graft a Ginkgo biloba scion?

View Answer:

According to The Complete Book of Plant Propagation (Taunton Press, 1997, Jim Arbury et al.), Ginkgo biloba can be propagated without grafting, by taking semi-ripe cuttings in midsummer and dusting them with rooting hormone and potting them up in a mixture of half peat, half sand/vermiculite. Cuttings should root by spring if kept moist, and need to be planted out once they have roots.

If you wish to graft it, you need a Ginkgo biloba rootstock, which you could grow from seed if you have access to a female ginkgo tree (they are hard to find), and (according to the American Horticultural Society Plant Propagation manual) you can use a whip-and-tongue or spliced side veneer graft done in late winter. The AHS manual also recommends taking softwood cuttings in late spring or early summer for ginkgo.

There is also helpful information from The Ginkgo Pages and Plants for a Future Database, which says that softwood cuttings are taken in spring, semi-ripe cuttings are taken in July and August, and hardwood cuttings are taken in December, and all are kept in a frame.

Season All Season
Date 2008-08-27
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Keywords: Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

I'm wondering what information you can give me about G. Guy Nearing, the Nearing Frame, and its use.

View Answer:

We don't have any titles or subject headings in the catalog that refer to G. Guy Nearing or the Nearing Frame, but some of the books on propagation may describe it. Ken Druse mentions it briefly in Making More Plants (2000). Here is a link to information about the frame which I found by browsing Ken Druse's blog. It refers to a book that we do have in the library:
"For detailed plans, see David Leach's Rhododendrons of the World. For Guy Nearing's original drawings and two-page patent application (1931), see the Summer, 2002 issue of the Journal of the American Rhododendron Society."

Season All Season
Date 2010-02-13
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Keywords: Acer palmatum dissectum, Grafting, Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

I have some standard Japanese maples onto which I'm trying to T-bud the weeping laceleaf maple. I've had pretty limited success, so I wonder if there's something I'm doing wrong. I've tried at different times of the year: late spring, summer. I cut a young small branch off the weeping Japanese maple. The I cut off a leaf bud. I use a very thin slice under the bud, and cut the leaf off the stem. I cut the T about an inch long in the standard Japanese maple, and slide the bud in. I've used duct tape and plumbing tape. I don't cover the bud but try to snug right up to it with the tape. I only get about 5-10% success doing this. Any suggestions?

View Answer:

You may want to consult the American Horticultural Society Plant Propagation manual (edited by Alan Toogood; DK Publishing, 1999), as it has detailed (and illustrated) information on T-budding and chip-budding. In the description of T-budding, the book emphasizes the importance of not pushing too hard into the bud. It also says to "sever the remaining tail of the bud by cutting into the bark again at the horizontal cut. Then secure the bud in place with plastic tape or raffia in the same way as for a chip-budded ornamental tree, leaving the bud uncovered to avoid exerting too much pressure on it." Texas A & M University also has an illustrated explanation of T-budding.

According to J.D. Vertrees's book Japanese Maples (Timber Press,2009), chip-budding is advantageous because it can be done at almost any time of year and uses less material per graft, allowing growers to make more trees with less. In any case, as long as your grafting knife is nice and sharp and you're working carefully, don't worry that not every graft takes. Professional propagators sometimes make four grafts expecting only one to take. You may find this article from Auburn University about grafting a Japanese maple (by Ken Tilt) useful.

Season All Season
Date 2010-05-20
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Keywords: Kolkwitzia amabilis, Woody plant propagation

PAL Question:

How do I propagate Kolkwitzia amabilis?

View Answer:

There are a couple of methods of propagating Kolkwitzia amabilis. Fine Gardening says to take greenwood cuttings in late spring or early summer, or remove suckers in spring.

The American Horticultural Society's Plant Propagation, edited by Alan Toogood (DK Publishing, 1999) says to take softwood and greenwood cuttings in late spring or early summer. Kolkwitzia amabilis is known to root easily from cuttings, and the new plants should flower in three years. The cuttings should be "two internodes or about 3 inches long; avoid thick, pithy water shoots and look out for tips distorted by aphids. Root semi-ripe cuttings in a tray or directly in pots. Rooting takes 4-6 weeks."

Season All Season
Date 2010-07-14
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June 24 2013 12:55:25