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We are putting in a new garden, and want to install a drip irrigation system to conserve water. The area is full sun. Can you direct us to some information on systems, and offer suggestions on plants?
Here is some information from a colleague who has experience installing and maintaining watering systems on a large scale (at Seattle Public Library's sites).
- a sprinkler system using broadcasting spray heads is difficult to install and wastes water; they also contribute to fungal diseases
- these systems also have to be blown out in the fall (winterized)
- drip irrigation is easy to install
- install after the plants are in, or place parallel lines appropriately spaced to provide enough water while allowing for plant root zone increase
- if installed after plants are in, try to encircle the root zones of trees and shrubs, allowing for increase in size
- no need to encircle perennials; they are fine with a line on one or both side
- for such a large area, use more than one zone or there will be no pressure (and no drip) at the end of the line
- use a pressure reducer at the water source or the lines may come apart at junctions
- if on a slope, follow the contours of the slope
- bury at least 6 inches so settling and soil loss do not expose lines--and so lines don't freeze (no winterizing)--but too deep and you can't tell if it's working or not
- draw a picture of the system
- anchor the line with stakes (they are the shape of croquet wickets, but ~ 4" x 2") and can usually be purchased with the drip line
- buy "splicing" supplies for breaks: female connectors are easier to install and I think Netafim is the most versatile line
- scheduling: staggering helps (a short watering period followed by a long one) and remember that it has to be left on for a long time (i.e., 1-2 hours for the long session but not every day)
The Saving Water Partnership offers the plant list and watering guides linked here:The Plant List
Smart Watering Guide
See their tips on the best practices for watering.
Here is an article on drip irrigation from Fine Gardening.
I think that the best plant choices for your site in full sun will be drought-tolerant perennials, shrubs, and trees. Here are links to resources on selecting plants and maintaining a low-water-use garden.Colorado State University Extension features several links on Xeriscaping.
An article on drought-tolerant gardening by Ann Lovejoy.
An article by Valerie Easton in the Seattle Times on drought-tolerant garden design.
You may also want to make a practice of mulching the garden to conserve water. Excerpt from www.greenbuilder.com:
Use a deep layer of mulch in planting beds to help retain moisture, slow weed growth, and prevent erosion.
The use of mulches on sloped areas along with terracing and plantings can help prevent runoff and erosion problems.
Examples of organic mulch material include:shredded bark
cotton seed hull
The depth of mulch needed will depend on the type used. As a general rule, the coarser the material, the deeper it should be applied. A 3 to 4 inch layer of bark mulch should be sufficient. Mulch needs to be reapplied as it decomposes.
The book, Water-Wise Gardening by Thomas Christopher (Simon & Schuster, 1994), recommends matching the mulch to the planting. For example, using pine needles around a clump of evergreens enhances the woodland appearance of the landscape. Using organic materials (such as compost, bark, pine needles, leaves) as mulch moderates the access of air to the topsoil, and conserves humus. Mulch suppresses weeds and keeps the surface of the soil from crusting over. Ann Lovejoy's book, Organic Design School (Rodale Press, 2001), recommends compost as the ideal mulch. Finished compost can be pressed through a fine mesh screen to topdress ornamental plants, while coarser compost can be used around shrubs and trees. Compost is a feeding mulch, improving soil texture as well as nutritional value. Here is what Lovejoy has to say about wood by-products as mulch: "To a greater or lesser degree, most tie up soil nitrogen temporarily as they decompose (fresh sawdust uses the most nitrogen, while coarsely ground wood chips use the least. Although I never use shredded bark as mulch on planting beds, many gardeners do. It makes an attractive, deep brown mulch (that) does not tend to rob nitrogen from the soil." She cautions against using thick layers of pine needles (over 2 to 3 inches) which can get matted down and shed water instead of letting it reach plants' roots.
Here is information from the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension, describing the best choice of mulch for a drought-tolerant garden:
Generally, the best mulch for the landscape is one that is organic, fine-textured and non-matting. Examples include pine straw, pine bark mini-nuggets, shredded hardwood mulch or cypress mulch. Inorganic mulches, such as rock or gravel, are not good mulches because they absorb and re-radiate heat around the plant canopy and increase evaporative loss of water from the plant. Fine-textured mulches, such as mini-nuggets or shredded hardwood, do a better job of holding moisture in the soil than more porous coarse-textured mulches.
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Garden Tool: Without our traditional April showers, how will we grow our flowers in May (and the rest of the summer)? With a new, efficient drip irrigation system. Now is the time to install a drip irrigation system or at least do a little research. A book by Robert Kourik called Drip Irrigation (Metamorphic Press, $15.00) has excellent illustrations and make this dull subject easy to understand. On the Web you'll find introductions to the why and how of setting up drip irrigation in a home garden:
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December 12 2014 11:33:49