Jackson School Journal
of International Studies

Author Archive

Volume 5 Number 1 – Spring 2014

Sean Ventura

Transnational Rivers,
Regional Conflict:

Water Security Implications in Diyala, Iraq


“Iraq is a nation with a troubled recent history. The nation languished under dictatorship, suffered through international sanctions, foreign invasion, nine-year occupation, and sectarian tensions leading to civil war. Climate change and regional instability relating to water resources may severely complicate Iraq’s future, and failure to secure agreements with neighbors concerning transnational water sources is harming Iraq’s future stability. The issues of Turkish and Syrian claims to water from the Tigris- Euphrates river basin are well known, however transnational water issues in Iraq’s eastern “breadbasket” region of Diyala may instigate conflict with Iran, or reignite sectarian tensions into civil war that will engulf the country. This paper argues that Diyala may instigate a time-bomb of social instability. Given that a large percentage of Diyala’s population is agrarian and the government is unable to adequately provide services or police the region, severe water restriction in the province will cause increased unemployment and migrations which may further polarize the formerly
ethnically mixed population into protectionist enclaves.”

Volume 5 Number 1 – Spring 2014

Karthik Palaniappan

Veiled Violence:

Veiled Violence
An Examination of the Rhetoric Surrounding the Banning of
the Veil in France


“In France in 2008, the firing of a Baby Loup nursery worker who refused to take off her
niqab (full face veil) was recently addressed and upheld by the Court of Cassassion—
the highest court of appeals for civil and criminal cases in France.The court’s decision
reflects the views of many about the public display of religious symbols. The wearing
of the veil by French Muslims has become a particular focus. Rhetoric used by political
figures has commonly focused on the practice of laïcité, permeating the dialogue
around the importance of secularism in France and creating misconceptions about
the veil, and more broadly, Muslim culture. The rhetoric surrounding the veil not only
represents French politicians’ failure to understand the role of the veil in the lives of
French Muslims, but also that the rhetoric itself is a subtle form of violence. Violence is
defined as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against
oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or
has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment,
or deprivation.”1 The rhetoric that both the French media and politicians use when
referring to the veil creates social pressures that act to psychologically harm individuals
and therefore can be considered subtle violence. This paper begins by establishing
that the rhetoric around the veil is one-sided and creates a biased characterization of
Muslim women and of Islam as a culture. The language surrounding the veil creates a
dichotomy that is used as a political wedge issue, in which the values held by “Muslims”
are pitted against those held by the “French.” It then goes on to argue that the rhetoric
itself is a form of violence. It concludes by arguing that the violence projected toward
the Muslim community is not a product of a fear of the minority, but is a way to
preserve a power relationship over a minority.”

 

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Volume 5 Number 1 – Spring 2014

Bevin McLeod

An Obsolete AUMF:

Questions of Legality Surrounding the Continued Use of
Military Force Abroad


“This paper addresses the legality of the US Congress’s Authorization of the Use
of Military Force (AUMF) in its current form, and evaluates two distinctly different
perspectives around the issue: the first, which is consistently used by the Obama
administration, is that the AUMF is both legal domestically under the Commander in
Chief clause of the Constitution, and internationally under the Customary Law and
International Humanitarian Law right to self-defense.1 However, many legal scholars
counter that under domestic law there is no legal consensus as to the legality of the
AUMF in its current form, and our use of military force is illegal under international law.2
In this paper, the language, interpretations and revisions of the AUMF are examined as
well as the language and interpretations of international law. This paper argues that
our current military actions against al Qaeda and “affiliated forces” are not legal and
do not conform to International Humanitarian Law, Human Rights Law, or Customary
Law standards of war. Furthermore, domestically, the AUMF in its current form is of
questionable legality and is no longer relevant to the continued hostilities that the
United States is engaged. In order to align within an appropriate legal framework
for current military actions, this paper makes two recommendations on how both
the Executive Branch and Congress could work together to meet both domestic and
international legal standards.”

We are currently accepting submissions for our Autumn 2014 issue! The deadline for submissions is April 11th, 2014.

Submissions go through a double-blind peer review process, and if your piece is selected you get the chance to work closely with an editor and faculty members.

For more information, check out the Submissions tab, or email us at jsjis@uw.edu.

The Journal is also looking for new Peer Reviewers!

The Journal depends on a core group of peer reviewers every quarter to help select pieces for publication. Our editorial board then works with authors and faculty to produce the journal. Reviewers and editors are eligible to receive 1-2 credits of SIS 499 (Independent Study) for working with the Journal. Reviewing is also a great way to get involved with the Journal, especially for those interested in applying for the Editorial Board.

For more information, check out the Reviewing tab. To become a peer reviewer, email us at jsjis@uw.edu.

Volume 4 Number 2 – Autumn 2013

Expert Insights

Interviews with Professor Mary Callahan


This section shifts away from student work in order to provide a professional perspective of someone working in the field of International Studies. For this edition of Expert Insights, the Jackson School Journal had the pleasure of interviewing Mary Callahan, who is an Associate Professor at the Jackson School and a nationally recognized expert on the political landscape of Burma. Also known as Myanmar, the country is currently experiencing a period of rapid and major reform. Callahan is the author of “Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma.” In this timely interview, Callahan discusses the current state of higher education in Myanmar and her recent trip there as an advisor to the Carter Center, and she provides some useful advice for Jackson School students. Callahan is currently on leave from the Jackson School, living in Myanmar over the next year to work as a research consultant and on a new book on recent changes in Myanmar.

Volume 4 Number 2 – Autumn 2013

Carl Hvenmark-Nilsson

A New Approach to Old Problems

Rethinking U.S. Policy Options for Addressing Drug Cartels and Destabilizing Violence in Mexico


“During recent years, Mexico has seen a dramatic rise in homicides, forced disappearances and destabilizing violence against civil institutions. Mexico and the United States have responded with a combination of military force and institutional policy solutions to tackle the spread of violence, but have so far been incapable of dealing with either local or national challenges. The number of killings is estimated to have surpassed 70,000 since December 2006, when then-president Felipe Calderón implemented his heavily militarized approach. This “war on drugs” continues to be one of the most stagnant areas of conflict management, wherein debate over effective response measures is sometimes driven more by politics or media sensationalism than empirical evidence. I suggest a demilitarized and more comprehensive approach to address the complex pattern of “narco-economics” and cartel violence. A holistic set of solutions would not only improve U.S. policy toward Mexico but perhaps also make a valid model for future efforts by the international community to effectively tackle transnational forms of organized crime and rebuilt crucial civic-state trust post-conflict areas.”

Volume 4 Number 2 – Autumn 2013

Akaisha Miller

Changing America’s Agricultural System

Cuba’s Lessons for Food Sovereignty


“Currently over 26 million Americans are struggling with hunger and diet-related illness as a result of food deserts, or areas with severely restricted access to fresh food. Evidence about urban agriculture from cities and countries all over the world has proven that urban farming is a viable and realistic option in the fight against food deserts. The use of urban agriculture also promotes food sovereignty, the idea that all people have the right to healthy, affordable, and sustainably produced foods. Food sovereignty has six principles which focus on socially and ecologically sustainable farming practices,
ensuring that local communities of food producers and consumers, rather than foreign or private interests, are in control of their own food and agricultural systems. Cuba is one country actively focusing on urban agriculture and food sovereignty. The collapse of the Soviet Union spurred Cuba towards urban farming as a way to feed its citizens and ensure the rights of those who produce and consume agricultural goods. Cuba’s success in urban agricultural cooperatives, agricultural training and education, urban farming legislation, and crop and livestock integration within urban farms serve as an example for the United States to follow in the pursuit of food sovereignty.”
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