Interface Materials
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> Residual Limb Volume Fluctuation
> Advanced Socket Fabrication
> Interface Materials
> Compartment Syndrome
Purpose/objectives: The goal of this project is to create a test center to characterize existing and emerging interface liner materials used in external prosthetics. Testing techniques we develop and data we
Interface Materials
We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Institutes of Health, R01HD-065766.

Peer-reviewed publications:
#1: Sanders JE, Cagle JC, Harrison DC, Karchin A. Amputee stump socks: How does sock ply correlate with sock thickness? Prosthet Orthot Int. 2012; 36(1): 77-86. PMID: 22228614.
#2: Sanders JE, Nicholson BS, Zachariah SG, Cassisi DV, Karchin A, Fergason JR. Testing of elastomeric liners used in limb prosthetics: classification of 15 products by mechanical performance. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004 Mar; 41(2): 175-86. PMID:15558371.
#3: Sanders JE, Cassisi DV. Mechanical performance of inflatable inserts used in limb prosthetics. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001 Jul-Aug; 38(4): 365-74. PMID:11563488.
#4: Sanders JE, Greve JM, Mitchell SB, Zachariah SG. Material properties of commonly-used interface materials and their static coefficients of friction with skin and socks. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1998 Jun; 35(2): 161-76. PMID:9651888.

Recent meetings presentations:
A: Amputee socks: How does sock ply relate to sock thickness? American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists 38th Academy Annual Meeting and Scientific Symposium, Atlanta, Georgia, 2012

collect are available on the web at site: The project is intended to enhance the practitioner's toolchest by providing information about how liners interact with residual limb soft tissues and how liners mechanically differ from one other. This information should help practitioners select appropriate liners for their patients. The materials testing center should also be helpful to companies by providing detailed engineering characterizations of their existing and emerging products.

Findings to date: Practitioner feedback from our previous reports testing elastomers, foams, and others materials [#1, #3] has been key towards the current effort. We are creating tests to characterize liner material: compressive cushioning, shear cushioning, suspension, adherence, volume accommodation, breathability, thermal conductivity, and durability. Results will be presented in an easy to understand format (see above).