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Publications are our primary means of disseminating research findings to the scientific community and to the general public. We have published over 90 peer-reviewed journal articles and several book chapters on our research.
Peer-Reviewed Publications
Hafner BJ and Sanders JE. Considerations for development of sensing and monitoring tools to facilitate treatment and care of persons with lower-limb loss: A review. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014; 51(1): 1-14. PMID: 24805889.

D'Silva K, Hafner BJ, Allyn KJ, Sanders JE. Self-reported prosthetic sock use among person with transtibial amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2014; 37(4): in press. PMID: 23986464.

Sanders JE, Severance MR, Swartzendruber DL, Allyn KJ, Ciol MA. Influence of prior activity on residual limb volume and shape measured using plaster casting: Results from individuals with transtibial limb loss. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013; 50(7): 1007-1016. PMID: 24301437.

Sanders JE, Cagle JC, Harrison DS, Myers TR, Allyn KJ. How does sadding and removing liquid from socket bladders affect residual limb fluid volume? J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013; 50(6): 845-860. PMID: 24203546.

Sanders JE. Commentary on Troedsson's 1964 article, 'Stump arterial circulation and its relationship to the prescription of a prosthesis for the geriatric patient.' J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013; 50(5): xvii. article.

Sanders JE, Harrison DS, Cagle JC, Myers TR, Allyn KJ. Post-doffing residual limb fluid volume change in people with trans-tibial amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2012; 36(4): 443-449. PMID: 22588848.

Sanders JE, Allyn KJ, Harrison DS, Myers TR, Ciol MA, Tsai EC. A preliminary investigation of residual limb fluid volume changes within a day. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012; 49(10): 1467-1478. PMID: 23516051.

Sanders JE, Cagle JC, Harrison DC, and Karchin A. Amputee stump socks: How does sock ply correlate with sock thickness? Prosthet Orthot Int 2012; 36(1): 77-86. PMID: 22228614.

Sanders JE, Severance MR, Allyn KJ. Computer-socket manufacturing error: How much before it is clinically apparent? J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012; 49(4): 567-582. PMID: 22773260.

Sanders JE, Harrison DS, Allyn KJ, Myers TR, Ciol MA, Tsai EC. How do sock ply changes affect residual limb fluid volume in people with trans-tibial amputation? J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012; 49(2): 241-256. PMID: 22773526.

Sanders JE, Harrison DS, Myers TM, Allyn KJ. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis. J Rehab Res Dev. 2011; 48(10): 1231-1248. PMID: 22234667.

Sanders JE, Fatone S. Residual limb volume change: Systematic review of measurement and management. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011; 48(6): 949-986. PMID: 22068373.

Sanders JE, Severance MR. Assessment technique for computer-aided manufactured sockets. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011; 48(7): 763-74. PMID: 21938663.

Sanders JE, Severance MR, Myers TR, Ciol MA. Central fabrication: carved positive assessment. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2011 Mar; 35(1): 81-9. PMID: 21515893.

Sanders JE, Harrison DS, Allyn KJ, Myers TR. Clinical utility of in-socket residual limb volume change measurement: case study results. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2009 Dec; 33(4): 378-90. PMID:19961297.

Sanders JE, Rogers EL, Sorenson EA, Lee GS, Abrahamson DC. CAD/CAM transtibial prosthetic sockets from central fabrication facilities: how accurate are they? J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007; 44(3): 395-405. PMID:18247236.

Sanders JE, Jacobsen AK, Fergason JR. Effects of fluid insert volume changes on socket pressures and shear stresses: case studies from two trans-tibial amputee subjects. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2006 Dec; 30(3): 257-69. PMID:17162516.

Sanders JE, Zachariah SG, Jacobsen AK, Fergason JR. Changes in interface pressures and shear stresses over time on trans-tibial amputee subjects ambulating with prosthetic limbs: comparison of diurnal and six-month differences. J Biomech. 2005 Aug; 38(8): 1566-73. PMID:15958212.

Zachariah SG, Saxena R, Fergason JR, Sanders JE. Shape and volume change in the transtibial residuum over the short term: preliminary investigation of six subjects. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004 Sep; 41(5): 683-94. PMID:15558398.

Sanders JE, Nicholson BS, Zachariah SG, Cassisi DV, Karchin A, Fergason JR. Testing of elastomeric liners used in limb prosthetics: classification of 15 products by mechanical performance. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004 Mar; 41(2): 175-86. PMID:15558371.

Sanders JE, Fergason JR, Zachariah SG, Jacobsen AK. Interface pressure and shear stress changes with amputee weight loss: case studies from two trans-tibial amputee subjects. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2002 Dec; 26(3): 243-50. PMID:12562072.

Hafner BJ, Sanders JE, Czerniecki J, Fergason J. Energy storage and return prostheses: does patient perception correlate with biomechanical analysis?. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2002 Jun; 17(5): 325-44. PMID:12084537.

Hafner BJ, Sanders JE, Czerniecki JM, Fergason J. Transtibial energy-storage-and-return prosthetic devices: a review of energy concepts and a proposed nomenclature. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2002 Jan-Feb; 39(1): 1-11. PMID:11926321.

Sanders JE, Cassisi DV. Mechanical performance of inflatable inserts used in limb prosthetics. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001 Jul-Aug; 38(4): 365-74. PMID:11563488.

Zachariah SG, Sanders JE. Standing interface stresses as a predictor of walking interface stresses in the trans-tibial prosthesis. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2001 Apr; 25(1): 34-40. PMID:11411003.

Sanders JE, Zachariah SG, Baker AB, Greve JM, Clinton C. Effects of changes in cadence, prosthetic componentry, and time on interface pressures and shear stresses of three trans-tibial amputees. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000 Nov; 15(9): 684-94. PMID:10946102.

Sanders JE. Thermal response of skin to cyclic pressure and pressure with shear: a technical note. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2000 Sep-Oct; 37(5): 511-5. PMID:11322149.

Sanders JE, Greve JM, Clinton C, Hafner BJ. Changes in interface pressure and stump shape over time: preliminary results from a trans-tibial amputee subject. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2000 Aug; 24(2): 163-8. PMID:11061203.

Sanders JE, Zachariah SG, Hafner BJ. Artificial Limbs. Encyclopedia of Electronics Engineering. Webster JG editor. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1999. 692-704. Wiley Online.

Sanders JE, Daly CH. Interface pressures and shear stresses: sagittal plane angular alignment effects in three trans-tibial amputee case studies. Prosthet Orthot Int. 1999 Apr; 23(1): 21-9. PMID:10355640.

Sanders JE, Greve JM, Mitchell SB, Zachariah SG. Material properties of commonly-used interface materials and their static coefficients of friction with skin and socks. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1998 Jun; 35(2): 161-76. PMID:9651888.

Sanders JE, Bell DM, Okumura RM, Dralle AJ. Effects of alignment changes on stance phase pressures and shear stresses on transtibial amputees: measurements from 13 transducer sites. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1998 Mar; 6(1): 21-31. PMID:9535520.

Sanders JE, Lam D, Dralle AJ, Okumura R. Interface pressures and shear stresses at thirteen socket sites on two persons with transtibial amputation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1997 Jan; 34(1): 19-43. PMID:9021623.

Zachariah SG, Sanders JE. Interface mechanics in lower-limb external prosthetics: a review of finite element models. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1996 Dec; 4(4): 288-302. PMID:8973955.

Sanders JE, Silver-Thorn B, Brienza DM. Guest editorial: Introduction to "Soft tissue interfaces in rehabilitation" IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1996 Dec; 4(4): 285-287. IEEE Xplore.

Sanders JE, Daly CH. How does vacuum forming affect Pelite mechanical properties?. Prosthet Orthot Int. 1994 Apr; 18(1): 43-8. PMID:8084749.

Sanders JE, Daly CH, Burgess EM. Clinical measurement of normal and shear stresses on a trans-tibial stump: characteristics of wave-form shapes during walking. Prosthet Orthot Int. 1993 Apr; 17(1): 38-48. PMID:8337099.

Sanders JE, Daly CH. Normal and shear stresses on a residual limb in a prosthetic socket during ambulation: comparison of finite element results with experimental measurements. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1993; 30(2): 191-204. PMID:8035348.

Sanders JE, Daly CH, Burgess EM. Interface shear stresses during ambulation with a below-knee prosthetic limb. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1992 Fall; 29(4): 1-8. PMID:1432723. Portions of this paper published in: Inforth. 1993; 1(2): 11.

Innovative technology

Redfield MT, Cagle JC, Hafner BJ, Sanders JE. Classifying prosthetic use via accelerometry in persons with transtibial amputation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013; 50(9): 1201-1212. PMID:

Sanders JE, Murthy R, Cagle JC, Allyn KJ, Phillips RH. A device to monitor sock use on people using prosthetic limbs. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012; 49(8): 1229-1238. PMID: 23341315.

Sanders JE, Severance MR. Measuring foam model shapes with a contact digitizer. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2011 Jun; 35(2): 242-5. PMID: 21938663.

Sanders JE, Lee GS. A means to accommodate residual limb movement during optical scanning: a technical note. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2008 Oct; 16(5): 505-9. PMID:18990654.

Sanders JE, Rogers EL, Abrahamson DC. Assessment of residual-limb volume change using bioimpedence. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007; 44(4): 525-35. PMID:18247249.

Sanders JE, Karchin A, Fergason JR, Sorenson EA. A noncontact sensor for measurement of distal residual-limb position during walking. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2006 Jul-Aug; 43(4): 509-16. PMID:17123190.

Zachariah SG, Sorenson E, Sanders JE. A method for aligning trans-tibial residual limb shapes so as to identify regions of shape change. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2005 Dec; 13(4): 551-7. PMID:16425837.

Sanders JE, Mitchell SB, Zachariah SG, Wu K. A digitizer with exceptional accuracy for use in prosthetics research: a technical note. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2003 Mar-Apr; 40(2): 191-5. PMID:15077643.

Saxena R, Zachariah SG, Sanders JE. Processing computer tomography bone data for prosthetic finite element modeling: a technical note. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2002 Sep-Oct; 39(5): 609-14. PMID:17642025.

Mitchell SB, Sanders JE, Garbini JL, Schuessler PK. A device to apply user-specified strains to biomaterials in culture. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2001 Feb; 48(2): 268-73. PMID:11296883.

Zachariah SG, Sanders JE. Finite element estimates of interface stress in the trans-tibial prosthesis using gap elements are different from those using automated contact. J Biomech. 2000 Jul; 33(7): 895-9. PMID:10831765.

Hafner BJ, Zachariah SG, Sanders JE. Characterisation of three-dimensional anatomic shapes using principal components: application to the proximal tibia. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2000 Jan; 38(1): 9-16. PMID:10829384.

Mitchell SB, Sanders JE. An accurate inexpensive system for assessment of walking speed. JPO. 2000; 12(4): 117-9. JPO Online.

Sanders JE, Goldstein BS, Leotta DF, Richards KA. Image processing techniques for quantitative analysis of skin structures. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1999 Jun; 59(3): 167-80. PMID:10386766.

Baker AB, Sanders JE. Fluid mechanics analysis of a spring-loaded jet injector. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1999 Feb; 46(2): 235-42. PMID:9932345.

Byers GJ, Goldstein BS, Sanders JE. An electromechanical testing device for assessment of hand motor function. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1998 Mar; 6(1): 88-94. PMID:9535527.

Sanders JE, Miller RA, Berglund DN, Zachariah SG. A modular six-directional force sensor for prosthetic assessment: a technical note. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1997 Apr; 34(2): 195-202. PMID:9108346.

Sanders JE, Garbini JL, Leschen JM, Allen MS, Jorgensen JE. A bidirectional load applicator for the investigation of skin response to mechanical stress. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1997 Apr; 44(4): 290-6. PMID:9125811.

Zachariah SG, Sanders JE, Turkiyyah GM. Automated hexahedral mesh generation from biomedical image data: applications in limb prosthetics. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1996 Jun; 4(2): 91-102. PMID:8798076.

Sanders JE, Smith LM, Spelman FA. A small and lightweight three-channel signal-conditioning unit for strain-gage transducers: a technical note. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1995 Oct; 32(3): 210-3. PMID:8592292.

Sanders JE, Smith LM, Spelman FA, Warren DJ. A portable measurement system for prosthetic triaxial force transducers. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1995; 3(4):366-372. INSPEC:5168674.

Schreiner RE, Sanders JE. A silhouetting shape sensor for the residual limb of a below-knee amputee. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1995; 3(3):242-53. INSPEC:5056089.

Sanders JE, Daly CH, Cummings WR, Reed RD, Marks RJ. A measurement device to assist in amputee prosthetic fitting. J Clin Eng. 1994; 19(1):63-71. INSPEC:4738316.

Sanders JE, Daly CH. Measurement of stresses in three orthogonal directions at the residual limb-prosthetic socket interface. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1993; 1(2):79-85. INSPEC:4594963.

Sanders JE, Daly CH, Boone DA, Donaldson TF. An angular alignment measurement device for prosthetic fitting. Prosthet Orthot Int. 1990 Dec; 14(3): 143-4. PMID:2095531.

Skin Adaptation

Sanders JE. Pressure Ulcer Research: Current and Future Perspectives. Bader DL, Bouten CV, Colin D, Oomens CW, editors. Heidelberg Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin; 2005. Chapter 9, Stump-socket interface conditions; 129-147. Springer.

Wang Y, Sanders JE. Pressure Ulcer Research: Current and Future Perspectives. Bader DL, Bouten CV, Colin D, Oomens CW, editors. Heidelberg Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin; 2005. Chapter 15, Skin model studies; 263-285. Springer.

Wang YN, Sanders JE. How does skin adapt to repetitive mechanical stress to become load tolerant? Med Hypotheses. 2003 Jul; 61(1): 29-35. PMID:12781637.

Sanders JE, Mitchell SB, Wang YN, Wu K. An explant model for the investigation of skin adaptation to mechanical stress. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2002 Dec; 49(12 Pt 2): 1626-31. PMID:12549745.

Sanders JE, Goldstein BS. Collagen fibril diameters increase and fibril densities decrease in skin subjected to repetitive compressive and shear stresses. J Biomech. 2001 Dec; 34(12): 1581-7. PMID:11716860.

Goldstein B, Sanders J. Skin response to repetitive mechanical stress: a new experimental model in pig. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Mar; 79(3): 265-72. PMID:9523777.

Goldstein B, Sanders JE, Benson B. Pressure ulcers in SCI: does tension stimulate wound healing? Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Mar-Apr; 75(2): 130-3. PMID:8630193.

Sanders JE, Goldstein BS, Leotta DF. Skin response to mechanical stress: adaptation rather than breakdown--a review of the literature. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1995 Oct; 32(3): 214-26. PMID:8592293.

Sanders JE. Interface mechanics in external prosthetics: review of interface stress measurement techniques. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995 Jul; 33(4): 509-16. PMID:7475380.

Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering

Karchin A, Wang Y-N, Sanders JE. Modulation of gene expression using electrospun scaffolds with templated architecture. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012; 100(6): 1605-1614. PMID: 22447576.

Karchin A, Simonovsky FI, Ratner BD, Sanders JE. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds. Acta Biomater. 2011 Sep; 7(9): 3277-84. PMID:21640853.

Sullivan MM, Barker TH, Funk SE, Karchin A, Seo NS, Höök M, Sanders J, Starcher B, Wight TN, Puolakkainen P, Sage EH. Matricellular hevin regulates decorin production and collagen assembly. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 15; 281(37): 27621-32. PMID:16844696.

Mitchell SB, Sanders JE. A unique device for controlled electrospinning. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006 Jul; 78(1): 110-20. PMID:16604530.

Sanders JE, Lamont SE, Mitchell SB, Malcolm SG. Small fiber diameter fibro-porous meshes: tissue response sensitivity to fiber spacing. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005 Mar 1; 72(3): 335-42. PMID:15657935.

Sanders JE, Lamont SE, Karchin A, Golledge SL, Ratner BD. Fibro-porous meshes made from polyrethane micro-fibers: effects of surface charge on tissue response. Biomaterials. 2005 Mar; 26(7): 813-8. PMID:15350787.

Sanders JE, Nicholson BS, Mitchell SB, Ledger RE. Polymer microfiber mechanical properties: a system for assessment and investigation of the link with fibrous capsule formation. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003 Dec 15;67(4): 1412-6. PMID:14624529.

Sanders JE, Rochefort JR. Fibrous encapsulation of single polymer microfibers depends on their vertical dimension in subcutaneous tissue. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003 Dec 15; 67(4): 1181-7. PMID:14624504.

Sanders JE, Wang YN, Malcolm SG, Lamont SE. Biomaterial mesh seeded with vascular remnants from a quail embryo has a significant and fast vascular templating effect on host implant tissue. Tissue Eng. 2003 Dec; 9(6): 1271-9. PMID:14670115.

Neumann T, Hauschka SD, Sanders JE. Tissue engineering of skeletal muscle using polymer fiber arrays. Tissue Eng. 2003 Oct; 9(5): 995-1003. PMID:14633383.

Neumann T, Nicholson BS, Sanders JE. Tissue engineering of perfused microvessels. Microvasc Res. 2003 Jul; 66(1): 59-67. PMID:12826075.

Sanders JE, Cassisi DV, Neumann T, Golledge SL, Zachariah SG, Ratner BD, Bale SD. Relative influence of polymer fiber diameter and surface charge on fibrous capsule thickness and vessel density for single-fiber implants. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003 Jun 15; 65(4): 462-7. PMID:12761836.

Iurlaro M, Sanders JE, Zhu WH, Scatena M, Mitchell SB, Nicosia RF. Use of vascular explants for ex vivo neovascularization of biomaterials. Microvasc Res. 2002 Nov; 64(3): 398-404. PMID:12453434.

Sanders JE, Bale SD, Neumann T. Tissue response to microfibers of different polymers: polyester, polyethylene, polylactic acid, and polyurethane. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002 Nov; 62(2): 222-7. PMID:12209942.

Sanders JE, Malcolm SG, Bale SD, Wang YN, Lamont S. Prevascularization of a biomaterial using a chorioallontoic membrane. Microvasc Res. 2002 Jul; 64(1): 174-8. PMID:12074644.

Sanders JE, Baker AB, Golledge SL. Control of in vivo microvessel ingrowth by modulation of biomaterial local architecture and chemistry. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002 Apr; 60(1): 36-43. PMID:11835157.

Sanders JE, Stiles CE, Hayes CL. Tissue response to single-polymer fibers of varying diameters: evaluation of fibrous encapsulation and macrophage density. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000 Oct; 52(1): 231-7. PMID:10906696.

Baker AB, Sanders JE. Angiogenesis stimulated by mechanical loading. Microvasc Res. 2000 Sep; 60(2): 177-81. PMID:10964592.

Sanders JE, Zachariah SG. Mechanical characterization of biomaterials. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Dec 31; 831: 232-43. PMID:9616715.

Clinical Prosthetics Research
Innovative Technology
Skin Adaptation
Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering
A listing of our peer-reviewed publications is provided below. Papers are grouped into the following categories:
Clinical Prosthetics Research




Cagle JC, Yu AJ, Ciol MA, Sanders JE. Amputee socks: Thickness of multiple socks. Prosthet Orthot Int. In press. PMID: 24240023.

Sanders JE, Cagle JC, Allyn KJ, Harrison DS, Ciol MA. How do walking, standing, and resting influence transtibial amputee residual limb fluid volume? J Rehab Res Dev. 2014; 51(2): 201-212. PMID: 2493371.
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