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Combivir®

Other Names: Zidovudine (AZT) 300mg/Lamivudine (3TC) 150mg
Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithkline

What is it?

AZT and 3TC are antiretroviral drugs, specifically nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. They are used to treat HIV, a retrovirus. Retroviruses use the genetic material in the body’s cells to produce more virus which can infect other cells.

How does it work?

AZT and 3TC interfere with the life cycle of HIV to stop it from producing more virus. Specifically, these drugs tie up the reverse transcriptase enzyme so it cannot build the genetic material needed to make more virus and infect more cells.

How do I take it?

  • Combivir® is available as a single tablet containing 150 mg of lamivudine (3TC) and 300 mg of zidovudine (AZT).
  • The usual dose of Combivir is one tablet twice daily.
  • Combivir may be taken with or without food.

It is extremely important that you take Combivir® and your other antiretroviral medications exactly as directed. You should set up a system that will help you remember to take your medicines so that you do not miss any doses. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible; however, if you skip a dose, do not take two doses at once. Do not stop taking the medication for any reason at any time unless you are directed to do so by your study clinician. If you are unable to continue taking your medication due to side effects, you should contact your study clinician immediately.

Special Considerations

  • Combivir® should be stored at controlled room temperature in a dry place, out of the reach of children.
  • Please bring your medication bottles (empty and partially used) to each study visit.

Interactions

Some drugs taken together may have interactions that cause illness or impair the effectiveness of the drugs. It is a good idea to always check with your study clinician before taking any other medications, prescription or otherwise, to be sure it will not interact with Combivir®.

Side Effects

Not everyone experiences side effects. When they do occur, they may be mild, moderate or severe. Some side effects cannot be felt by the patient but can be found through laboratory tests, so it is important to see your study clinician regularly for checkups so that side effects can be detected early and treated.

The most common side effects of AZT are headache, nausea, fatigue, muscle aches or pain, restlessness, skin rash, anemia (low red blood cell count), and neutropenia (low white blood cell count).

The most common side effects of 3TC are headache, fever, chills, muscle aches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, restlessness and rash. Other side effects of 3TC include changes in liver function, changes in pancreas function, neutropenia (decrease in white blood cells) and anemia (decrease in red blood cells).

Symptoms of anemia or neutropenia that you may notice include unusual tiredness or weakness, shortness of breath, or any sign of infection. If you begin having these symptoms, please contact your study clinician.

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as Combivir® have been associated with a condition called lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, in the blood. Early symptoms can be vague and non-specific and can include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, abdominal pain, sudden unexplained weight loss, and shortness of breath. If you are experiencing these symptoms and they cannot be explained by other causes, please contact your provider immediately. Although lactic acidosis is a rare condition, it can be life-threatening if not treated

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