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Viral Tropism - CCR5 and the Trophile
Testing for HIV Viral Tropism & Use of CCR5 coreceptor inhibitor Maraviroc
The expression of the chemokine co-receptors CCR5 or CXCR4 on a cell determines whether it can be infected with R5 or X4 using HIV virual strain respectively. Tropism refers to which co-receptor HIV uses to enter a CD4 cell. Dual-tropic viruses can use either CCR5 or CXCR4 co-receptors. Mixed-tropism refers to a viral population that contains both CCR5 or CXCR4 using viral strains.. The current tropism assay cannot differentiate dual-tropic from mixed-tropic, thus the term “dual-mixed” (D/M) virus has emerged.
Maraviroc (MVC, Selzentry, Pfizer) is the first chemokine coreceptor antagonist to be FDA approved (August 2007). It is designed to prevent HIV infection of CD4 cells by blocking CCR5.
Trinh, L, Han, D, Huang, W, et al. Technical validation of an enhanced sensitivity Trofile HIV coreceptor tropism assay for selecting patients for therapy with entry inhibitors targeting CCR5. Antiviral therapy 2008; 13 Suppl 3:A128.
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