Vol. 6, No. 2: October - November 2012
(For this issue in PDF format, click here.)


New blogs on the OpenChannels website this month

"Turning the Dials" in the Direction of Progress: Reflecting on the Largest Study of Marine EBM in Practice

EBM Toolbox: Funding for Tool Development

Tundi's Take: How Objectives-Oriented EBM Propels Us Away from Static, Formulaic Marine Management

Perspective: 10 Must-Be-Read Publications on the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries

Organization Spotlight: OceanElders, a Catalyst for Ocean Conservation

Notes & News: Ireland - MSP - Recreational fisheries - World Risk Report - Lionfish invasion - Guides for Ocean Frontiers - Crowdsourcing seafloor research

Announcements: Ocean Health Index live chat - Webinar on MPA capacity-building - Webinar on Mesoamerican eco-audit


When is an MPA not an MPA?: The case against advocating for MPA networks
By Ameer Abdulla, University of Queensland

Offshore wind and marine spatial planning: Challenges and opportunities
By Marissa Newhall, Clean Energy States Alliance

Keeping the Boogeyman out of your research
By Dave Kellam, SeaPlan

Top 14 publications on coral reef management
As ranked by Tim McClanahan, Wildlife Conservation Society

Make a splash with your conservation video: Tips for effective filming
By Toni Parras, communications professional

... Plus dozens of additions to our library, new webinars, job and grant listings, a sleek new design, and more.

Dear MEAM reader,

The OpenChannels website is a new joint initiative of MEAM and MPA News.  It serves to help you and your peers around the world share knowledge more easily on sustainable practices in ocean planning and management. 

With blogs by experts in the field, comment-capable articles from MEAM and MPA News, live chats, a searchable and curated literature library, and more features to come, OpenChannels is designed to become your regular source for news, guidance, and community discussion.  Come join us at!

John B. Davis
MEAM Editor

OpenChannels is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.


Recognize the connections within ecosystems.  Balance the needs of those ecosystems with the needs of humans.  Manage in an adaptive way.  Collaborate.

These and other principles of ecosystem-based management have been laid out in numerous publications.  But what do these concepts look like when translated into actual use?  Now, thanks to a project that takes an unprecedented view of marine EBM in practice worldwide, we have a clearer idea than ever.

In June 2012, the website "Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice" was launched, sharing 22 in-depth case studies and 43 shorter "case snapshots" of EBM efforts from around the world (  The website describes the approaches and accomplishments of each EBM project as well as the challenges it faced. 

Each of the in-depth cases was developed through extensive interviews and document reviews, while the case snapshots were generated primarily from web sources.  From the total of 65 cases, the website distills lessons for improving the practice of marine EBM, and suggests cases to illustrate each lesson.  The cases are also searchable by factors such as governance type, ecosystem scale, and more. 

Funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the project was carried out by research teams at the University of Michigan, Brown University, and Duke University, each in the US.  The Michigan team, headed by Julia Wondolleck and Steven Yaffee, produced 16 of the comprehensive cases.  The Brown/Duke team, led by Heather Leslie, generated six. 

Here MEAM talks with Yaffee, Wondolleck, and Leslie about the project and the lessons it holds for marine EBM:

Your project website notes that none of the 65 cases in your study meet all the key elements or principles of EBM (see box, "Five principles of ecosystem-based management", at the end of this article).  Rather, the cases are "moving toward" a marine EBM approach.  Will any marine project achieve full EBM?

Steven Yaffee:  We are not sure that there is something called "full marine EBM".  That is, most of the principles are ideals to strive for but rarely will be fully achieved.  The elements we highlight on the website can be seen as a set of dials.  Effective managers seek to turn the dials in the direction of progress, but they will always be faced with implementation challenges of a variety of kinds.  Success is best defined not as "achieving marine EBM," but rather as moving management in the right direction: incorporating more elements of a system in decision-making, considering larger spatial and temporal scales, promoting dialogue among scientists and user groups, assuring protection of ecosystems while promoting ecosystem services, and seeking to manage using an adaptive approach.

Julia Wondolleck:  One of the lessons of our case study research is that there is no single right way to do these things.  Rather there are various strategies and approaches that need to be matched to the context and conditions of the specific issues, places, and circumstances.  There are rules of thumb that managers and policy makers can follow, and we have tried to highlight these in the Lessons Learned section of our website.  But managers should be somewhat reassured to know that success can lie simply in making progress. 

Heather Leslie:  In each of the six cases that the Brown/Duke team produced - cases with distinct ecological and social contexts from California to Mexico to the Western Pacific - ecosystem-based approaches were layered on top of existing institutions.  Consequently, the principles were translated quite differently in differently places.  And, not surprisingly, we observed quite different outcomes.

Ecosystem-based management on land has a longer history in practice than marine EBM.  Steve and Julia, your backgrounds were originally in the management of public lands and forests.  In what ways is EBM for inland ecosystems similar to or different from EBM in the marine environment?

Wondolleck:  Many of the challenges that we identified in the marine EBM cases are the same as those in terrestrial situations.  Scientific complexity and uncertainty, jurisdictional complexity, competing interests and lack of a shared vision, ineffective plans, and limited resources are evident at many ecosystem-scale conservation efforts - on land and in the water.  At the same time, there are also several factors that can promote success in either domain.  These include a strong sense of place or issue of concern, preexisting government programs or structures, evidence of political will or organizational commitment, effective collaborative processes, and the availability of technical and financial resources. 

Yaffee:  There may be more room for innovation in marine systems.  In the terrestrial realm, decades of management conflict, a strong sense of property rights and entitlement, and a robust set of competing constituencies have produced a longstanding set of conflicts that constrain opportunities for creative problem-solving.  Terrestrial EBM has become a process for managing this conflict as much as managing the land.  While it has achieved small-scale successes, it has been extraordinarily challenging to move forward in many places.

In contrast, in the marine realm, rights are not as well-defined; the systems themselves may be less intrinsically fragmented and more likely to be controlled by government; economic interests may be more threatened by declines in fisheries and hence willing to experiment with change; and community-based fishing interests may be less obstructionist.  Marine EBM initiatives appear to evidence a wider array of forms than those seen in terrestrial EBM.  As a result, agencies involved in marine EBM initiatives may have greater political space to experiment.

A decade ago, the concept of integrated coastal management was in relatively wide favor.  Then ecosystem-based management became popular and was embraced by several nations in their ocean and coastal policies.  Now marine spatial planning is becoming a hot concept, sometimes with EBM as a component of it.  What impact do these changes in terminology and focus have on ocean management?

Yaffee:  Terms come and go, sometimes due to political changes and sometimes just to symbolize investments in something new.  At bottom, though, many of the key ideas underlying an ecosystem approach remain as normative ideals regardless of how they are labeled, simply because they make sense.

Leslie:  To move from policy rhetoric to concrete action beyond pilot areas, we need to be able to assess when and how ecosystem-based approaches substantially improve ecosystem condition and human well-being, compared to alternative management frameworks.  That is the question we are addressing with these case studies.

Yaffee:  We hope that these cases provide a benchmark for the current state of marine EBM from which we can continue to assess progress and capture additional lessons.  The goal of marine EBM - healthy oceans supporting healthy communities - will only be achieved through experimentation and adaptation.  Learning from real-world experience is essential to that process.

To comment on this article:

For more information:

Steven Yaffee, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, US. Email:

Julia Wondolleck, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, US. Email:

Heather Leslie, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, US. Email:

BOX: Five principles of ecosystem-based management

The Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice project identifies five principles, or elements, of EBM:

Scale: Marine EBM seeks to use ecologically relevant boundaries rather than political or administrative boundaries, and often involves management at larger geographic scales or longer time frames.

Complexity: Marine EBM views marine resources as elements of complex systems, and seeks to employ strategies that acknowledge and use complexity in management.

Balance: Marine EBM seeks to balance and integrate the needs of multiple human user groups while maintaining the health of the underlying system that supports those needs.

Collaboration: Since managing across boundaries involves the interests of more people, and managing complexity involves more areas of knowledge, marine EBM is usually collaborative and involves a diverse set of organizations and individuals in thinking about and making decisions.

Adaptive management: Given the existence of uncertainty in what we know and the inevitability of change in the future, marine EBM seeks to be adaptive through monitoring and evaluation tied to changes in future management directions.


Editor's note: The goal of The EBM Toolbox is to promote awareness of tools for facilitating EBM.  It is brought to you by the EBM Tools Network, an alliance of tool users, developers, and training providers.

THE EBM TOOLBOX, by Sarah Carr

Funding for tool development

Dozens of innovative tools have been created to help integrate scientific research and societal values into management in exciting ways, but many of these tools fail.  One reason is that tool developers are unable to find consistent, long-term funding for their work.

A recent article in the journal BioScience (Curtice et al., "Why Ecosystem-Based Management May Fail without Changes to Tool Development and Financing", ) highlights these funding problems and offers recommendations for addressing them.  Among the most important recommendations is to find multiple revenue streams to sustain a tool.  Potential revenue streams include:

•  Venture capital
•  Grants from government agencies or philanthropic organizations
•  Internal government funding through an influential tool champion within a government agency
•  Charging a fee for services related to the tool such as training courses, access to technical support, and tool customization
•  Charging a fee for use of the tool
•  Donations from users ("shareware") and corporate sponsorship
•  Interest-generating endowments, and
•  "Skunkworks", the most common source of funding for EBM tool development, in which funding for scientific research or conservation or management work is used to develop a software product even though no money was specifically allocated for it.

The authors urge developers to move away from relying solely on skunkworks projects and to consider scaled fee-for-license and fee-for-service models that allow users with limited funding to adopt them while still bringing in revenue.  These revenues will ultimately lead to better, more user-friendly tools that will justify their cost.

To comment on this article:

Sarah Carr is coordinator for the EBM Tools Network.  Learn more about EBM tools and the EBM Tools Network at

Tundi's Take:

By Tundi Agardy, MEAM Contributing Editor.

Management of anything at all - a business, a household (or, even harder, teenagers within a household), fisheries, or marine environments - is focused on achieving positive outcomes.  That is stating the obvious.  But conventional management, and even much of EBM today, focuses not on what can be achieved with management, but what is to be avoided. 

That is, far too much marine management today aims to preserve the things being managed (a coral reef, a fishery, a stretch of coastal zone) or to abate the threats to those things (pollution and overuse, over-fishing, unsustainable development).  This is usually done by tackling a single use at a time, and commonly according to standard formulae.

This static approach to meeting the challenges of our ever-increasing uses of and impacts on the marine environment has, sadly, not resulted in mostly positive outcomes.  And the reflexive targeting of certain users as the "bad guys" that need to be controlled or denied access does even worse: it can create strong opposition to conservation and management that results in wasted effort and sometimes even very negative outcomes.

Objectives-oriented (OO) management takes stock of what needs protecting from overuse or environmental degradation, and it focuses on threats.  The difference between more conventional management and OO EBM is that the myriad tools in the management toolkit - legislation and regulations, conflict resolution, spatial planning and zoning, surveillance and monitoring, enforcement and outreach to gain compliance, etc. - are all harnessed with very specific goals in mind.

The Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans defines objectives-based approach to management as:

"...essentially an outcomes oriented system that promotes management and use of marine areas and resources in a manner that addresses the multiple needs and expectations of society, without jeopardizing the options for future generations to benefit from the full range of goods and services provided by the ocean." 

In practice, this means identifying the needs and expectations of society, along with developing an understanding of the systems that provide those goods and services, and how we come to negatively impact them.

Distinguishing between a focus on uses versus a focus on outcomes may seem like esoteric argument.  However, there is significant divergence in the way management is planned and executed under these two different approaches. 

A clear example of OO EBM being put into practice comes from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).  Last decade the rezoning of the vast and complex protected area was based on clearly articulated objectives, not on existing human uses.  Had the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority followed a conventional management process, they might have mapped existing uses, sought to restrict the most classically damaging uses (commercial fisheries, oil/gas operations) from as many areas as possible, and created a zoning plan according to their vision.  In that case, the reason for the zoning would have been to maintain the status quo by restricting the most egregious uses, wherever they could achieve that.  Instead, the new zoning system takes stock of both ecosystem attributes (which areas are the most ecologically critical) as well as the realized and potential values to society.  Zoning is one of many tools that the planners use to achieve the collective vision for the Great Barrier Reef's future. 

The countries of the EU and those of the Barcelona Convention (Mediterranean) are also adopting OO EBM as they define Good Environmental Status and the Ecological and Operational Objectives that will steer management toward EBM with maximum benefit.

A clear difference between this approach and conventional management is that OO EBM is more forward-thinking.  In addition - and this may be the most critical distinction - OO management requires that planners and managers meaningfully reach out to stakeholders and to society at large to know what they are aiming for.  This does not take the form of asking people to react to a plan.  Rather it places stakeholders front and center in the development of that plan, and the very clear and precise articulation of what that plan is meant to achieve.

The indicators of management effectiveness are then not solely ecological, but include assessment of and perceptions about human well-being.  This puts social science on par with natural science as a foundation for management.  It also puts marine management squarely at the service of human society.

To comment on this article:

Editor's note: Kevern Cochrane is former Director of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Resource Use and Conservation Division for the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and is now a professor in the Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science at Rhodes University, South Africa.  MEAM invited him to compile a list of the "Top 10" publications on the ecosystem approach to fisheries.  The list he created (below) now appears on the OpenChannels website, whose literature library contains similar lists on a variety of ocean management topics, all curated by experts in the field:


By Kevern Cochrane

The list below is based on a combination of consultation with other experts, consideration of citations as listed on Google Scholar, and my own judgment.  An important consideration in adding my own views was the need to embrace the full scope of the ecosystem approach to fisheries, or EAF - encompassing ecological, human and governance dimensions.  I take full responsibility for the final list.

In order to solicit the views of others engaged in EAF (also referred to as ecosystem-based fisheries management, or EBFM), I contacted more than 30 leaders in development and implementation of EAF/EBFM of whom 10 generously responded with suggestions.  The list obtained from them included 54 very good references, which gives an indication of the breadth and quality of the information available. 

It is also significant that one publication (the FAO Guidelines) was listed by four respondents, two others by three respondents, six publications by two respondents and the remainder were proposed by only one respondent.  Again, this relatively thin and widely spread response demonstrates the breadth of the material being used by people working on EAF/EBFM, and that the approach is being built and implemented on a broad and strong foundation rather than being led by a few far-sighted individuals or groups.  While this may be disappointing for some ambitious scientists, I believe that it is a positive reflection of the strength of the underlying science and scientific capacity for EAF/EBFM and important affirmation that we are on the right track.

Finally, for the reasons given in the previous paragraph, it would be misleading to describe the list as the "Top 10" most important or noteworthy publications.  Based on my analysis, there is no such general Top 10 set of papers and the most important will depend on the specific needs and context of a reader.  Instead I have proposed a list of 10 "must-be-read" publications, which I consider a better reflection of the list.

The List, in alphabetical order of first author (links to all of these are in the literature library on

• De Young C., Charles A., Hjort A. 2008. Human Dimensions of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: An Overview of Context, Concepts, Tools and Methods. Fisheries Tech. Paper, 489. FAO, Rome. 165pp.

• FAO Fisheries Department. 2003. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 4, Suppl. 2. Rome, FAO. 112 p.

• Fletcher, W.J. 2005. Application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritise issues for fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Research, 62:1576-1587

• Garcia, S.M. and Cochrane, K.L. 2005. Ecosystem approach to fisheries: a review of implementation guidelines. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 311-318.

• Larkin, P. A. 1996. Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem management. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 6:139-164.

• Link, J. S. 2002. What does ecosystem-based fisheries management mean? Fisheries, 27:18-21.

• Murawski S.A. 2007. Ten myths concerning ecosystem approaches to marine resource management. Marine Policy, 31: 681-690.

• Pikitch, E. K., C. Santora, E. A. Babcock, et al. 2004. Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science, 305:346-347.

• Sainsbury K.J., Punt A.E., Smith A.D. 2000. Design of operational management strategies for achieving fishery ecosystem objectives. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 731-741.

• Worm, B., R. Hilborn, J.K. Baum, et al. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science, 325: 578-585. 

To comment on this article:

For more information:

Kevern Cochrane, Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. Email:

Organization spotlight:

Launched in 2010, the nongovernmental organization OceanElders is a group of experienced global leaders who use their collective influence to promote ocean conservation.  The first Ocean Elder appointed was oceanographer and explorer Sylvia Earle.  Now there are twelve, including Virgin Group CEO Sir Richard Branson, Queen Noor of Jordan, Jean-Michel Cousteau, billionaire Ted Turner, and former Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority chairman Graeme Kelleher.

"OceanElders' members are from many different areas of human activity," says Kelleher.  "Its members hold the potential to influence government, industry, and societal policy in relation to the oceans."  The organization drew original inspiration from The Elders, a group convened in 2007 by Nelson Mandela to advance global peace and human rights.

The OceanElders organization, whose members and staff work on a voluntary basis, aims to work catalytically with other organizations.  "OceanElders was created to be collaborative," says Gigi Brisson, a US-based investor and philanthropist who founded and now manages the organization.  "There are wonderful ocean organizations run by amazing and passionate people, but the structure of the nonprofit world often causes them to compete for awareness and for funding.  OceanElders is set up to avoid replicating the great work that is being done by others.  We wish to support that work and elevate its visibility and impact by using our personal connections, our business networks, our combined experience, and media."

Ten years from now, Brisson would like the organization to have played a role in multiple ocean management advances, from eliminating bycatch in fisheries to setting aside more than 20% of world oceans in MPAs, and more.  She says the organization is open to adding more Ocean Elders over time.  The OceanElders website is

To comment on this article:


[To comment on anything in this section:]

Ireland releases integrated marine plan

The Government of Ireland has released an integrated marine plan to support sustainable development of its ocean resources and ensure that government departments work together more efficiently and effectively on marine issues.  The plan, titled "Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth", sets out three goals - a thriving maritime economy, healthy ecosystems, and strengthening the country's maritime identity - as well as 39 action items to help meet those goals.  The plan is at


Report on theory and practice of marine spatial planning

Released to the public in draft form a few months ago, the final version of a report by the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel of the Global Environment Facility provides a summary of marine spatial planning (MSP) worldwide.  The report describes available tools, barriers to use, and innovative methods.  Drawing from examples, the report discusses the potential that MSP has to align conservation and development interests while protecting vital ecosystems and the services they deliver.  The report "Marine Spatial Planning in the Context of the Convention on Biological Diversity" is at  (The title of the draft report was "Synthesis Document on the Experience and Use of Marine Spatial Planning".)


FAO guidelines for responsible recreational fisheries

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has released technical guidelines for the management of sustainable recreational fisheries.  Recreational fishing is prominent in many coastal ecosystems of industrialized countries, and its importance is increasing rapidly in transitional economies as well.  The new FAO guidelines provide detailed sections on policy and institutional frameworks (tailored to policy-makers), management actions and strategies (tailored to fisheries managers), recreational fisheries practices (tailored to individual recreational fishers), and recreational fisheries research (tailored to researchers and managers).  The 176-page guidelines are at


World Risk Report: Degradation of reefs and wetlands creating greater risk

Widespread degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems is leading to significantly increased risk for coastal populations, according to the latest annual assessment of global risk levels.  The World Risk Report 2012 - produced by United Nations University, The Nature Conservancy, and Alliance Development Works - calculates the relative risk level experienced by each country worldwide.  The level was determined by the extent to which communities are exposed to natural hazards such as droughts, storms, or earthquakes, and also by their degree of vulnerability. 

"Where protective reefs, mangroves, and wetlands have degenerated or even completely disappeared, the forces of nature impact with far higher force on inhabited areas," said Peter Mucke of Alliance Development Works.  Added co-author Christine Shepard of The Nature Conservancy, "Coral reefs, oyster reefs, and mangroves offer flexible and cost-effective first lines of defense [against natural disasters], as well as other benefits like healthy fisheries and tourism that sea walls and breakwaters will never provide."  The report is at


Guidelines on controlling invasive lionfish

A new manual by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provides the first guidelines for coastal managers to control the spread of invasive lionfish.  Native to Asia, the lionfish has no natural predators in waters of the southeastern US, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean regions.  As a result, it is spreading rapidly while preying on native fish species.  With the ability to remove up to 60% of prey fish from a given habitat, the lionfish poses a substantial threat to the region's marine ecosystems.  "Invasive Lionfish: A Guide to Control and Management" is available at


Guidance available for educators on Ocean Frontiers movie

For educators who want to use the film Ocean Frontiers to teach about marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, there are now formal discussion materials available to supplement the movie.  A discussion guide walks university-level professors through concepts in the film, suggests questions for classes, and recommends readings.  A separate resource guide supports secondary-level educators with summaries and teaching tips.  The guides are at


Website enlists the public to identify seafloor habitat, organisms

In one of the latest examples of crowdsourcing environmental research, the new website Seafloor Explorer asks the general public to help identify marine life and habitats in seafloor images from the northwest Atlantic.  A collaboration between oceanographers and social scientists, the website guides visitors through a brief tutorial on what habitats they see (sand, gravel, cobble, and more) and what organisms are present (scallop, fish, seastar, crustacean).  Once trained, the visitors are directed into a database of 100,000 images taken by the HabCam habitat-mapping underwater vehicle.  The purpose of the project is to provide greater understanding of the region's seafloor ecosystems and create habitat maps at a resolution much higher than scientists would have been able to generate without the manpower this project provides.  The website is


The Ocean Health Index: Live Q&A with Ben Halpern, OHI lead scientist

Date: 31 October 2012
Time: 5 pm GMT / 1 pm US EST / 10 am US PST

Join us for the new EBM Tool "Office Hour" Series on  Next up: a live online chat with Ben Halpern, lead scientist of the Ocean Health Index.  Ben will answer your questions about the OHI.  You can join the office hour chat at

Background: The Ocean Health Index ( is a new measure of the ocean's overall condition.  It assesses the benefits that a healthy ocean provides through 10 diverse goals for a healthy, coupled human-ocean system.  Indices were calculated for all coastal countries with an optimal sustainable state having a score of 100.  Individual country scores ranged from 38 to 86.  The analysis was published in Nature.

The "Office Hour" Series is co-hosted by OpenChannels and the EBM Tools Network, and features live Q&A sessions about tools and resources for marine conservation, management, and governance.  The chats are conducted via typed text; there is no audio component nor formal presentation.  All participants are able (and encouraged) to post questions and comments, and all are able to view all posts.  It is an opportunity for multi-directional flow of information.


Webinar: Building the Capacity of MPA Programs around the Globe

Featuring Anne Walton of the US Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. Co-hosted by OpenChannels, the US National MPA Center, and the EBM Tools Network.

Date: 8 November 2012
Time: 6 pm GMT / 1 pm EDT / 10 am PDT

The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries' MPA Management Capacity Building Program works with 22 countries around the world on a wide range of topics including climate change adaptation, marine spatial planning, managing tourism, MPAs and fisheries, and other topics.  What can their experiences in other countries teach MPA managers in the US and elsewhere?  To register for the webinar, visit


Webinar: Evaluating Conservation and Management Efforts through an Eco-Audit

Featuring Melanie McField of Healthy Reefs Initiative and Ben Kushner and Lauretta Burke of World Resources Institute.  Co-hosted by OpenChannels and the EBM Tools Network.

Date: 13 November 2012
Time: 7 pm GMT / 2 pm EDT / 11 am PDT

The Healthy Reefs Initiative, in collaboration with the World Resources Institute and local partners, recently developed and implemented an "eco-audit" of the Mesoamerican Reef countries.  The process used standardized management indicators to analyze conservation and management efforts in marine and coastal areas.  The process gathered input from NGOs, government, and industry, and was reviewed by an independent auditing firm.  The eco-audit established a baseline for the status of reef ecosystem management efforts and is intended to help increase accountability within the public and private sectors and among NGOs. 

This webinar will cover the eco-audit process and results from the Mesoamerican Reef countries.  To register for the webinar, go to

Editor: John B. Davis

Contributing Editor: Tundi Agardy

OpenChannels Manager: Nick Wehner

Chair - David Fluharty, University of Washington
Sarah Carr, EBM Tools Network
Kevern Cochrane, Rhodes University
Jon Day, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
Mark Erdmann, Conservation International
Ben Halpern, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis
Karen McLeod, Oregon State University
Jake Rice, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada
Kristin Sherwood, The Nature Conservancy
Kevin Stokes, Fisheries consultant

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Marine Ecosystems and Management is published bimonthly by Marine Affairs Research and Education (MARE), a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation, in association with the School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington.

Financial support is provided in part by a grant from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.

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