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Brown Beret Chapters 1969-1972
In the barrios of Los Angeles, Chicano youth founded the Brown Berets in 1967, modeled after the Black Panther Party. The organization concentrated on combatting police brutality and fighting racism but some chapters also demanded education, job, and housing equality. By 1969, there were 29 chapters mostly in California but units also formed in Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, Texas, and Washington. When the Brown Berets were disbanded by Prime Minister David Sanchez in 1972, a total of 36 chapters had been established primarily near college and university campuses. Researched by Josue Estrada. Sources below.
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Sources: “Brown Beret Units,” La Causa. May 23, 1969.
Chavez, Ernesto. Creating Aztlan: The Chicano movement in Los Angeles, 1966-1978. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles, 1994.
Correa, Jennifer G. Chicano Nationalism: The Brown Berets and Legal Social Control. Masters Degree. Texas A&M University, Kingsville, Texas, July 2006.
Espinoza, Dionne E. Pedagogies of Nationalism and Gender: Cultural Resistance in Selected Representational Practices of Chicana/o Movement Activists, 1967-1972. Doctoral Dissertation. Cornell University, May 1996. Fox, Rona Maria F. The Brown Berets: A Participant Observation Study of Social Action in the School of Los Angeles. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Southern California, January 1970.
Menchaca, Martha. The Mexican Outsiders a Community History of Marginalization and Discrimination in California. 1st ed. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1995.
Montejano, David. Quixote's Soldiers. University of Texas Press, 2010.