Americans have always been a moving people, coming from other places, moving to new places. Not only has the nation long attracted people from beyond its borders, it also claims high rates of internal migration. Here are interactive graphics and maps that allow us to track the changing population decade-by-decade since 1850. Select a state and see where people were born, both other countries and other states. We have more detail about key states, including racial breakdowns, see the separate pages for: California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington state.
This visualization tool is hosted by Tableau Public and may take a few seconds to respond. If slow, refresh the page. Everything is based calculations of Census data provided the University of Minnesota's IPUMS USA.
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Note on data issues: Birth state information is missing for about 5% of US-born persons in 1970 and about 2% in 1960. These birthplaces are labeled "United States, ns" in the charts. Birthplaces were not recorded for enslaved persons in the 1850 and 1860 censuses, so it is not until 1870 that reliable data on African Americans became available. Native Americans were not routinely included in decennial censuses until 1900.
Source: U.S. Census data from the Minnesota Population Center's IPUMS USA: Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 6.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2015, the following samples: 1900 1%, 1910 1%, 1920 1%, 1930 1%, 1940 1%, 1950 1%, 1960 5%, 1970 1% State FM1, 1980 5% State, 1990 5% State, 2000 1%, 2010 ACS 1%.
Maps and calculations: James Gregory.
California's history is keyed to migration. The most populous state in the union became so because so many people from other states and other lands have moved there. It was not until 2010 that the number of native-born Californians surpassed the number who had migrated from somewhere else. And still today most adults are from another state or another country. [more]
More than any other southern state, Florida has consistantly attracted newcomers. Today only about one third of the population claims a Florida birthplace; two thirds are from somewhere else, many from Cuba and Latin America but really from every state and most nations. Migration to Florida is an old story, In the late 1800s, Florida grew rapidly as whites from neighborhing states moved south looking for land to farm. [more]
Illinois, like other midwestern states, experienced rapid population growth through migration in the 19th century and much slower growth since then. Recording a population of 851,000 in 1850, the state doubled its numbers by 1860, doubled again by 1880, and again before 1910. It has taken a century to double the 1910 total. Migration in the 19th century drew heavily on states to the east of Illinois, especially New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. European immigrants from Gemany and Ireland came in huge numbers in the same period. The 1880 census showed that roughly half the population were from out of state with Germany, New York, Ohio, and Ireland the leading contributors. [more]
New York has always been the gateway state, the state that absorbs the greatest diversity of newcomers from abroad. In 1850 when for the first time the US census recorded birthplaces, the leading birthplaces for residents not born in New York were in order: Ireland, Germany, England, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Jersey, and Canada, with a dozen other countries further down the list. [more]
Texas has been a migration magnet throughout its history, which helps explain the record of growth that now makes it the second most populous state following California. Migration, most of it illegal, from Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi fueled the rebellion that wrestled the province from Mexico in 1836. In the decades that followed an enormous number of southerners moved west to expand the cotton belt, many of them enslaved. [more]
Washington remains today a state where most residents came from somewhere else, another state or another country. Occupied by Americans since the 1840s, it's population grew slowly until statehood in 1889, then surged after the discovery of gold in Alaska and the Yukon in 1896. Farming, timber, and fishing attracted newcomers from the upper Midwest and from northern Europe, along with smaller numbers of Chinese and Japanese. [more]