Literature cited in "Divers Feeding Fishes: A Continuing Issue in MPA Management" by William Alevizon, in the November 2004 issue of MPA News:

Blount, T.  1998. Wildlife Feeding - Who Wins?  Resource Management Newsletter, January 1998. U.S. National Park Service/Shenandoah National Park.

Burgess, G. H. 1998. Diving with elasmobranches: a call for restraint. Shark News (Newsletter of the IUCN shark specialist group).  July, 1998.  Berkshire, UK.

Cole, R.G.  1994. Abundance, size structure, and diver-oriented behavior of three large benthic carnivorous fishes in a marine reserve in northeastern New Zealand. Biological Conservation 70: 93-99.

Conover, M.  1999. Can waterfowl be taught to avoid food handouts through food aversions?  Wildlife Society Bull. 27: 160-166.

Dick, H. 1995. Feeding deer: fodder for thought.  New York State Conservationist 50: 10-11.

GBRMPA. 1999. Guidelines for Fish Feeding on the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townesville (Queensland), Australia.

Hawaii DLNR. 1998. Hawaii's State of the Reefs Report -1998. State of Hawaii (Dept. of Land and Natural Resources).

____________. 1999. Current Line (Newsletter, Division of Aquatic Resources): Vol. 3; No. 2 (August 1999). State of Hawaii (Dept. of Land and Natural Resources).

Hultquist, J.R. 1997.  Effects of fish feeding on a coral reef.  Final Research Report.  University of Hawaii (Hilo) Marine Options Program, Hawaii Sea Grant.

Jurek, R. 1997. If you love them, please don't feed them.  California Coast and Ocean 13: 22-23.

Macphail, E.M. 1982. Brain and Intelligence in Vertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Maldives. 2004. " - Homepage of the Maldives" (  Designed and maintained by (Copyright 1998 - 2004).

National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA). 1994. Report to Congress on results of feeding wild dolphins. NMFS/Office of Protected Resources. Silver Spring, MD.

Oberbillig, D.R.  2000. Providing Positive Wildlife Viewing Experiences. Colorado Division of Wildlife.

Perrine, D. 1989. Reef fish feedings: amusement or nuisance?  Sea Frontiers 35 (5):272-279.

Quinn, N.J. and B.L. Kojis. 1990. Are divers destroying the Great Barrier Reef's Cod Hole? Diving for Science 1990: Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences Tenth Annual Scientific Diving Symposium: p.303-309. AAUS, Costa Mesa, CA.

Wilkinson, T.  1997.  Biting the hand the feeds: a well-intentioned handout today could mean disaster for panhandling wildlife tomorrow. Backpacker 25 (7): 34-35.

Zabala, M. 1996. Impacto biologico de la creación de una Reserva marina: el caso de las Islas Medes.  In: La Gestión de los Espacios Marinos del Mediterráneo Occidental.  Inst. Estudios Almerienses. Diputacion de Almeria.

For more information:
William Alevizon, Marine Conservation Program, WCS International, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460, USA. E-mail:

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