Alexander Svoboda's Journal of a Journey to Europe

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April


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Journal
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of a Journey to Europe
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by Land Road
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via Damascus and Beirut
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Starting on the 10th of April
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1897
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Alexander Svoboda
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Departure from Baghdad and Farewells

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1897

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April 10th


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AND SO, we decided to travel to Europe. Our departure will be
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on Wednesday morning, the 13th of this month"Thirteenth of the month" Alexander is mistaken about the date, Wednesday was the 14th of the month.. We have already hired the riding animals
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and a mule litterMule litter: [taḫterewān] From the Persian taḫt-e revān (taḫt meaning seat or throne, revān meaning moving). It was commonly used in Iraq, sometimes in the abbreviated form taḫt. In the English diary of the return journal, Alexander used the term teḫtersin, for which we have been unable to find any references. and have arranged everything. Nothing is left but to put Baghdad behind us.
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For the past three days until now, many visitors have come and are still coming to bid us goodbye,
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especially our family who are coming often to visit. We are traveling in the company of
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the BaliozThe word Balioz was originally the Turkish form of the title of the Baglio, the Venetian representative to the Ottoman court. In later years the word 'Balioz' became a vulgar term for any foreign consul. The British Consulate or Residency in Baghdad was commonly known among the inhabitants there as "the house of the Balioz". Here the term refers to the British Consul-General., Colonel MocklerColonel Edward Mockler: The British Consul General in Baghdad from 1892 to 1897, when he was replaced by Colonel William Loch and journeyed overland to Cairo with Alexander Richard Svoboda and his parents. Born in 1839, he served in several positions in the British Army in India and the Middle East. He was also a scholar and linguist. For more information see (http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Edward_Mockler) the Edward Mockler page in the Svobodapedia., who has decided to go to London. We shall take
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the land road to al-Dayral-Dayr: An abbreviation commonly used by the diarist for the town Dayr al-Zawr., Damascus, and Beirut, and thence to Cairo,
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God willing.
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April 11th
As today is the last Sunday for us in Baghdad we started
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to go around and bid our friends goodbye after hearing mass. We
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visited nearly 20 houses and a good number of people
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came to say goodbye and wish us a happy journey. At sunset we spent time
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with my paternal Aunt ElizaAunt Eliza: Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda (12/03/1830-04/26/1910). She was married to Fathallah Kasperkhan some time before the first JMS diaries (ca.1862). They had two sons, Johnny [Jany] and Artin [Arteen], and four daughters: Guiseppina, Theresa [Taroosa], Regina, and Jenny (who became a nun).[See Appendix] at the house of KasperkhanKasperkhan: Fathallah [Fettohi] Kasperkhan was born around 1819 and married some time before 1862 to Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda (Alexander's Aunt Eliza). He was an Armenian who seems to have worked both for the Ottoman government and in the construction business. He was the relative of Tanton Kasperkhan whose daughter was married to Selman b. Berbin, who worked for Seyyid Turki, the Sultan of Muscat. Fathallah died at nearly 76 on 07/19/1895. [JMS-MM27:117; JMS-MM41:11] and we returned at
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3:00 Turkish timeTurkish time: Refers to the Turkish version of the traditional time-keeping called ġurūbī (sunset) time or eẕānī [edhānī] (call-to-prayer) time. According to this practice the "day" began at sunset and was divided into two 12 hour periods, the first ending at sunrise and the second at sunset. The period between sunset and sunrise was divided into twelfths as was the period between sunrise and sunset. This resulted in "hours" that varied in length throughout the year. In the "Turkish time" developed after the spread of mechanical clocks, the day was divided into two periods of 12 hours of equal length beginning at sunset. All clocks were re-set at sunset. "European" or "Western" time was "mean time" which ran from high noon to high noon with regular hours and had no other connection to hours of light and dark. very pleased and happy. I also heard
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at sunset today by telegraph from Basrah to the House of LynchThe House of Lynch: The Lynch Brothers Trading Company, a shipping and trade conglomerate operating mainly in the Middle East, founded the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company in 1861. It operated two 100 ton steamers between Basrah and Baghdad along the River Tigris because the Euphrates River was thought to be unsuited to navigation by deep-draft vessels. These steamers transported a mix of passengers, wool, dates, rice, and other cargo. http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Lynch_Brothers_Trading_Company, that
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they had been informed of Iskander Wakil's death in Basrah due to tuberculosis.
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Yesterday at 10:00 Western timeWestern time: [al-frangiyyeh] Also known as European time. See above note on Turkish time. [8] Major FaganFagan: Major Charles George Forbes Fagan (1856-1943) was born to a military family. He served in the second Afghan War of 1878-1880. He was Assistant Political Agent in Basrah when he met Alexander Svoboda. See http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Major_Charles_George_Forbes_Fagan, the Consul in Basrah, came from Basrah to Baghdad
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with the new English Consul-General, Colonel LochColonel Loch: Col. William Loch replaced Col. Edward Mockler in 1897 as the British Consul General in Baghdad.,
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and his wife and. Since we decided to travel

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with Colonel Mockler, who has for quite some time been awaiting Colonel Loch's arrival
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to leave Baghdad for his retirement in London,
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it is more certain now that our journey will be on Wednesday.
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April 12th
A cloudy and rainy morning today with an East windIn Iraq, the East wind is actually a southerly wind..
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The clouds were thick and dark but the weather cleared after a few hours.
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I went to the office in the afternoon and asked Colonel Mockler for a certificate of my two years service
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at the ConsulateConsulate: [al-ḳonṣolḫāne] The diarist refers to the British Consulate in Baghdad, which was established under Mamluk rule in 1802 and staffed by a British Consul-General who also acted as a political agent to the Government of India and ranked second to the British Ambassador in Istanbul.. He gave me his word to have it ready for me tomorrow. At sunset we went
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for one last visit to the home of my maternal Uncle AntoneUncle Antone: Antone Jebra Marine was the brother of Alexander's mother Eliza Jebra Marine [Sayegh/Svoboda]. Antone worked for the British Residencies in Baghdad and Basrah and was part owner of the Marine family date groves at Sufyah. After his proposal of marriage within the Svoboda family was rejected, he married Theresa [Taroosa] Hannosh Asfar on 04/11/1880. Their children: Rosa Guiseppina (b. 03/10/1881), Ellen Iranohy Semiramis (b. 02/08/1883), Gabriel Yousif Abdulmessih [Joury, Jeboory] (b. 04/11/1884), Mary Goseppine, Yousif, John and Philip who died in infancy. [JMS-MM23:143-32:8; JMS-MM15:146; JMS-MM22:2] and they announced their intention
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to send their son Joury with us. He will attend school in Beirut. One hour before sunset
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I brought my harmoniumHarmonium: The portable harmonium used in India and the Middle East is a type of reed organ that rests on the ground. The musician usually kneels and plays with one hand while the other pumps a bellows located at the back of the instrument. The sound is similar to that of an accordion. from home to my Uncle's house to leave it in their care
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while we are away. Today too, many people, friends, and relatives came to bid us goodbye.
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April 13th
An extremely miserable night, cloudy with unceasing thunder.
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A very heavy rain fell at midnight. It soaked all the streets and turned them into rivers. It broke and cleared
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in the morning it became a nice spring day with an exceedingly lovely sun.
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Today again many people came to bid us goodbye, but when I went to the office I heard
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that Colonel Mockler decided to leave on Thursday afternoon instead of Wednesday.
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Truthfully I was saddened by these changes, with something new every day.
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Thus we decided that we would hopefully travel on Thursday afternoon. The family of
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Uncle HenryUncle Henry: Henri Charles Pierre Svoboda (06/28/1847-10/17/1901), the son of Antoine Svoboda and Euphemie Joseph Muradjian. Henry worked on the Lynch Bros. steamships. He married Marie Chanteduc (b.12/1851 - d.05/26/1922) who was the daughter of a neighbors of the Svobodas, with whom Antoine had a long standing quarrel. They had seven daughters and five sons, of whom Louisa Madeline (d.1954), Hariette [Henriette Adeline] (d.1971), Marie Josephine [Soeur Marie-Louise] (d.1966), and Louis Pierre Augustin (d. 1956) survived to adulthood.[See Appendix] came to visit us at sunset with Aunt MedulaAunt Medula: [Medoola, Medooli, Madalena] (05/07/1843-08/31/1913) Madeleine Fransisca Svoboda, the daughter of Antoine Svoboda and Euphemie Joseph Muradjian. She was married to Stephan Andrea (d.01/31/1884) sometime before 1862, and they had only one duaghter, Guiseppina (d.09/18/1886). Medula's second marriage was to the Polish apothecary Vincent Grzesiky (d.01/29/1900) and the third, one year later to Rezooki Andrea. [JMS-MM32:12; JMS-NA50:98; Appendix; JMS-MM26:186 and 29:26] , JohnnyJohnny: [Jany](nd) The son of Fathallah Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. Johnny was born sometime before 1862 and employed at Lynch Brothers in Baghdad ca.1874 by his aunt Carolina's husband Mr. Thomas Blockey. In 1886, he married Guiseppina (d. 09/29/1893), the youngest daughter of Antony Hanna Andrea (d. 09/04/1877) and Takooyi. They had two children: Antoine Marie Albert (b.10/20/1887) and Rosa (b.03/14/1889). [JMS-MM30:141 and 33:66; JMS-MM13:85; JMS-MM18:104 and 26:186], and ArtinArtine: (b.05/28/1859) The son of Fathallah Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. Like his brother Johnny, Artine was employed by Lynch Bros. He married Sirpohy, daugher of Dr. Cazassian on 11/26/1889 and they had two daughters: Henriette Elizabeth Marie (b.09/12/1900) and Marie (b.10/03/1901). [JMS-NA51:82 and Appendix].
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They stayed with us until half past one but they did not bid us a final goodbye. I went in the afternoon
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to bid some friends farewell and afterwards I went to see the mule litter in which we are to travel.
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April 14th
Today is a very happy day. The sun is shining with no clouds at all
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and the mud has mostly dried in the streets.

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After visiting some friends and family I came home and heard
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that Uncle Antone, feeling very anxious about his son, changed his mind and Joury will not travel with us.
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What a pity for Uncle Antone to miss an opportunity like this that may not
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present itself again. My paternal Aunt EmiliaAunt Emilia: Emilia Josephne Svoboda Rogers (12/25/1837-05/09/1921), the daughter of Antone Svoboda. Sometime before the birth of her daughter Alice in 1861, she was married to Mr. Richard Rogers, an Englishman who worked at the British Residencies in Baghdad and Basrah. Following the death of her husband in 1859, she returned to her father's house where she remained following his death (09/07/1878) until the marriage of her daughter to Captain Clements (06/20/1880), when she went to live in their house. [JMS-MM28:65, 19:193, 20:09, 22:50 and Appendix] came to our house before noon today.
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She accepted our breakfast invitation.
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After breakfastBreakfast: Alexander meant "lunch" but wrote "breakfast" because in the late nineteenth century, "lunch" was rarely used. In Joseph Mathia's diaries, breakfast was the main meal of the day. A light meal was taken in the early hours of the afternoon, and supper was the last meal. my friend Jamil Abdul Karim came to see me and brought a letter with him
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that I put with my private papers. It is addressed to
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Razouk DinhaDinha Razouk: The friend of Joseph Mathia. When Alexander made the return trip from Europe with his wife, Marie, Joseph Mathia sent a letter to Razouk at al-Dayr. Razouk traveled with Alexander from Dayr al-Zawr to Baghdad in 1900. [Journey to Baghdad from Europe via Der-el-Zor and Musul, Oct. 1900] who lives at Dayr al-Zawr. Catherine YaghechiCatherine Yaghechi: [Catherina Yaghchi] is Catherina Sayegh. Fathallah Sayegh, Eliza Marine's first husband, was Catherina's Uncle. She was married to Rafael Yaghchi (d.05/28/1878), and their children were Theresa [Terooza], Mikh'ail, Yousif, and their youngest son Gabriel. Gabriel pursued religious studies in Mosul with his uncle Père Augustin [Elias Sayegh] and Père Louis. Mikh'ail tutored Harry Tom Lynch in Arabic during Lynch's visit to Baghdad and accompanied him to Basrah and eventually became a clerk in Basrah. [JMS-MM19:162; JMS-NA39:120; JMS-MM36:142]
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came to bid us goodbye, and she was very sad about our parting.
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April 15th
Today is the day of our journey. As we decided yesterday,
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we will cross to the other bank in the afternoon today. This morning
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was cloudy, windy, and very unpleasant. But the weather cleared
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two hours after sunrise and the day became nice and lovely. After I
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went to church and received Holy Communion, as today is Easter Thursday,
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I returned home at 8:30 Western time.
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I was there preparing my things and securing the closet doors at the kefeshkanKefeshkan: From the Persian kefsh-ken "a place for removing shoes" (kefsh meaning shoe and ken, from kenden means to dig up or peel off). As used in Iraq it referred to a small elevated chamber in old Baghdad houses used mostly for storage. It was usually reached by the stair leading to the roof or by a wooden ladder. Joseph Svoboda’s diaries also indicate that it was used for sleeping at the beginning of the hot season, especially April and May.
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when some friends came to see me and I bid them goodbye for the last time.
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At noon we awaited the arrival of the mules to take the things
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and when it turned 1:00 in the afternoon all of our family began to arrive at our house
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for the last goodbye. Truthfully, I found it very difficult when I began
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to talk to them about parting. They were all very grieved.
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At last, when it turned 2:30 Western time, our mules arrived and they began
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to load the baggage. So all of our family, and I too, cried loudly.

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I did not think that the parting would be so difficult. After they tied on
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the loads, they left the house with a zaptiye whom we had taken on by means of an official decree,
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and we ordered them to cross to al-KhirrKhirr bridge: In 1897, the Khirr Bridge was inaugurated in the presence of provincial governor Ata Pasha, as well as Field Marshal Rajab Pasha and high state officials, both military and civilian. The bridge was called the Hamidi Bridge, but people continued to call it the Khirr Bridge. and wait for us there where we would
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spend the night. When it was time to part and the hour neared all of our family,
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my paternal aunts Emilia, Eliza, and Medula and Aunt Emilia's daughter, AliceAlice: Alice Rogers Clements (09/29/1861-03/10/1904) is the daughter of Emilia-Josephine Svoboda Rogers and Richard Rogers. She took her first communion at the Latin Church in Baghdad on 04/27/1873. In the first week of March 1880, Captain Clements, who worked on the Lynch Bros. steamers, proposed to Alice and they were married in the British Residency on 06/20/1880. Alice was widowed on 07/31/1895, when Captain Clements died of illness. [JMS-MM28:65; Appendix; JMS-MM12:7; JMS-MM41:13; JMS-MM22:50, and 21:200] with Uncle Henry's daughter
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LouiseLouisa: [Louise] Louisa Madeleine (03/20/1876-01/18/1954), the daughter of Henri Charles Pierre Svoboda and Mary Chanteduc [Mariam, Mari, Menusha]. On 12/19/1895, her father bought her a piano. She married Yousif Yaghchi on 11/21/1898. Their sons and daughters are Philip (01/21/1901-08/19/1918), Mary (b. 08/19/1902), Jano, Robby, and Camille.[JMS-NA16:24; Appendix; JMS-MM42:3; JMS-NA60:171; JMS-NA51:178] and her mother, Aunt Eliza's daughters, TarousaTaroosa: Theresa [Terousa], the daughter of Fathalla Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. On 02/20/1881, she was married to Razouki, the son of Antone Sayegh, Eliza Jebra Marine's first husband. Razouki's mother was named Catherina. Razouki Sayegh and Terroza Kasperkhan had only one daughter born on 02/14/1882 named Bella. Bella later married Razouki Batta, a shopkeeper in Basrah on 11/17/1907.[JMS-MM23:33; JMS-MM24:79; JMS-MM24:79] and ReginaRegina: The daughter of Fathalla Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. She married Duncan Alexander, who worked as a clerk on board the S.S.Comet. In 1904, Duncan Alexander was appointed to Bombay with his wife and left Baghdad. They had one son who did not survive infancy, and a daughter named Daisy. [JMS-NA51:25; JMS-NA60:63; JMS-NA51:25 and 60:103], and the wife of my maternal
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Uncle Antone with her daughters, RosieRosie: Rosie Giuseppina (b.03/10/1881) was the daughter of Antone Jebra Marine and Taroosa Hannosh Asfar. "Rosie" is Alexander's nickname for "Rosa". [JMS-MM23:45] and EllenEllen: Ellen Iranohy Semiramis (b. 02/08/1883) was the daughter of Antone Jebra Marine and Taroosa Hannosh Asfar. In Basrah on 09/11/1907, Ellen was betrothed to Antone Bedroni, a native of Jaffa who was employed in the Russian Agency's Steamers at Bushire. His mother was Syrian and his father, Italian. [JMS-MM25:143; JMS-NA60:183], all began to cry
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loudly in sorrow at our parting. For the first time in my life I found myself so unhappy
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to be saying goodbye that the tears did not cease for a moment. The affection
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that they showed on their part for me was very strong and I had not thought that
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they loved me so much. At last it turned 4:00 Western time and I went up for the last time to the kefeshkan.
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I put on the 'akkal and the kaffiyah'Akkal and Kaffiyah: The headscarf [jaffiyah, more commonly known as kaffiyah] worn by Middle Eastern males, which is fastened to the head by a corded loop ('akkāl). and came down from my dear kefeshkan for the last time
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bidding it farewell, saying "Adieu, who knows
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when I will see you again." As I joined our family wearing my
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full riding outfit they all burst into tears, at which my father arose
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and said, "We must leave you all." Thus, together with my mother and father, we kissed
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all our family, each in turn, with tears pouring down like rain. We came down to the inner court and they
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stood on the balcony waving to us. So I turned my eyes and said,
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"I commend you to God's protection. O, all my family, pray for me and wish me luck!"
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When I went out by the door they were all at the window waving at me.
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I turned for a final look and waved back to them with my kaffiyah for the last time while
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copious tears ran down my cheeks.
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Thus I bade our family and our house goodbye and turned my head toward the market. While
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walking down the road to the bridgeBridge: The Baghdad Bridge. In the last decade of the nineteenth century there were two bridges crossing the Tigris, which connected the two parts of Baghdad: Karkh to the west and Ressafa to the east. The Baghdad Bridge, a very old bridge, was at the center of the town. Upstream was the Aʿzamiya Bridge near to the Bab al-Muʿadhdham formerly known as the Bab Khurasan (the Khurasan Gate), which connected the little town of Kādhimiya [Kāẓimīya] to the district of Mu'adhdham. Both bridges were approximately 200 meters long. The Baghdad bridge was wider, at about 8 meters. They were both pontoon-type bridges consisting of wooden planks laid on barges coated with bitumen and fastened to buoys with iron chains. The modern Baghdad Bridge ordered by the Ottoman governor of Baghdad province, Namık Pasha, was completed in 1902. It was later burnt (1916) by retreating Turkish troops., I met my friend Jamil KrekorJamil Krekor: The son of Kirikor Hanna Koorookchi [Kurukchy]. He travelled from Basrah with his nurse, Mina, on the road to Hudayda on the Red Sea for an appointment as a clerk in the Societe du Tombac. His sister married Artin, the son of Eassayi Elias 'Aysa in 1892. [JMS-NA51:70 and 37:126]

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and he accompanied me along with Jamil Abdul Karim, Shukrullah SayeghShukrullah Sayegh: Shukrullah [Shekoory] was the son of Antone Sayegh. His father passed away in 1873 and his mother's name was Catherina. Eliza Jebra Marine's first husband Fathalla Sayegh was his uncle. On 02/01/1894, the Armenian priest Phillipus officiated his marriage to Takooyi Eassayi Elias Aysa. Shukrullah's brother was Razouki, who married Theresa, the daughter of Fathallah Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. [JMS-NA39:30; JMS-MM23:33], and Yaqoub
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TessyYaqoub Tessy: The son of Hannsoh Tessy (d.02/12/1893), the uncle of Ferida Ghorgis Faraj (d.03/14/1892). Yaqoub Tessy worked for the Lynch Brothers in Baghdad. He married Medula Sayegh, daughter of Fathallah Sayegh and Eliza Jebra Marine on 05/10/1880. [JMS-NA37:27; JMS-MM36-106; JMS-MM22:23], the husband of my sister MedulaMedula: Alexander’s half-sister, the oldest of the children of his mother Eliza Jebra Marine and Fathulla Sayegh. This was not Alexander's Aunt Medula., who were going with us. We walked across the bridge and then, because Uncle Henry
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was on board the KhalifaKhalifa: The name of one of Lynch steamships (Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company). It was built with parts from England in Maghil, southern Iraq, and brought up to Baghdad in 1879 by Lynch's agent Mr. Thomas Blockey, the husband of Alexander's Aunt Carolina . steamship due to leave today, he came up onto the ship's deck
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and saluted us. Likewise we waved to him until we passed him and crossed over the bridge. We came to AlawiAlawi al-Hilla: ʿAlawi al-Ḥilla 33° 20' 0" North, 44° 23' 0" East. This place is in the western part of present day Baghdad. It was known to Joseph Mathia as "al-Alwa" and appeared in a 1908 map of Baghdad as "Alawi al-Hilla". [JMS-MM21:194]
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al-Hilla and there we found the riding animals ready to take us to al-Khirr.
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Thus, the time to bid farewell to the rest neared too, so we kissed each other and then turned towards al-Khirr. Dear Baghdad
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was left behind us. I turned back towards my homeland and said, "Farewell to thee, land of the beloved,
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land of the dear ones, when will we meet again?" The hour was 4:15 Western time and we mounted the animals and set out.
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At 4:45 we came to al-Khirr bridge and crossed over. We went a little further and we found the entire caravan
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ready, our tent pitched with the baggage around it. Colonel
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Mockler's tents and baggage had also arrived and the tents of Issa al-ZhairIssa al-Zuhair: [Zheir] In Joseph Mathia's diaries, is the son of Abdullah Zhair and the brother of Salih Abdullah Zhair. The Zhair family lived in the walled city of Zobeir and were known for their political role during the Ottoman rule of Iraq and their titles of "Sheikh", "Bey", and "Pasha". [JMS-MM13:45, 29:59, 27:96]
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who will travel with us to Damascus with his little son Abdullah in order to take him to school there. We entered our tent and rested,
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but I was feeling very pained by the parting that for the first time struck me with grief.
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Then I summoned up patience and put my trust in God for sorrow is of no avail.
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After we arrived I was pleased to write to my dear Louise and tell her how grieved I was
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at parting with her. So I took the paper and pen out of my satchel and wrote a few lines. A half an hour before sunset
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I saw Colonel Mockler coming with the bicycleBicycle: To be completed. and following him were Mrs.
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MocklerMrs. Mockler: Mrs. Mockler was the daughter of Colonel Edward Charles Ross, the chief political resident of the Persian Gulf for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the Trucial States (1872-1891). During Colonel Mockler's service at the British Residency at Basrah, Mrs. Mockler delivered a child on board the mail steamer as she was traveling to Bushire (06/1885). [JMS-MM28:7], Miss TannerTanner: 'Miss Tanner'. We have no references for her. She was most likely an employee of the British Residency., and Uncle Antone. After they dismounted, Uncle Antone
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came to see us and we bade him stay for dinner and to spend the night. A few minutes after sunset
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Aunt Eliza's son Johnny came from town and I was truly quite happy to see him come from our family.
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He stayed with us overnight and we all dined together and went to bed but we absolutely could not sleep
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because we were still confused and unsettled. Johnny bedded down
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in the mule litter and Uncle Antone slept on the carpet covered with the woolen cloaks. This is the last
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day we are near Baghdad. The arrangement with
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Colonel Mockler was to wake up at 8:00 Western time tomorrow and go on to the first station.

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Departure from the Homeland and the Journey from al-Khirr

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April 16th
WE WERE UP at dawn today, all of us awoke because of this dreadful night.
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After we drank tea we heard that the Khalifa steamship will pass by our camp
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and we saw its smoke from a distance. We hurried off at once and went towards the river. We saw the steamship
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coming and just then we also caught sight of Aunt Eliza's son, Artin, who came from Baghdad
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to see us. When the steamship passed Uncle Henry was standing on deck waving to us
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and so did we until he was out of sight. At 8:00 Western time we packed the tents
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and they tied on the loads and prepared the caravan. They lifted our mule litter as we
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must sit in it now and they put up the wooden ladder at its door.
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Mother and I got in and sat inside. That was the first time in my life
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that I sat in a mule litter. The entire caravan was ready and we were prepared to set off.
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We put our trust in God. The mule litter set out with us in it, the caravan following behind and Uncle Antone, Johnny,
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and Artin accompanied us. After traveling a half hour's distance Uncle Antone approached and we stopped
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the mule litter. He dismounted and came to bid us goodbye as he had to return hastily to town.
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So we exchanged goodbyes and shed tears at our parting. Then we drove the mules on.
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Here, the entire desert is dry and much in need of rain. After we had gone some two and a half hours
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Baghdad still glittered at us in the distance, and the minarets of al-KhadhumMinarets: These are the minarets of al-Kadhim/al-Kadhimiya [al-Kāẓim/al-Kāẓimīya] (also Persian: Mashhad-e Kāzimiya), a Shi’ite religious shrine in Baghdad with two gilded domes. Originally the burial place of the Imam Mūsā ibn Jaʿafar al-Kāẓim, the seventh imam of the Twelver Shi’a, who died in 799. Since then the shrine became a pilgrimage site for the Shi'ite community and a town grew round the graveyard, known as the Kādhimiya. In 835, the ninth imam, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī at-Tāḳī al-Jawād was also buried by the side of his grandfather. Hence the name Kāẓimayn (Kadhimayn), referring to the two Kāẓims (the enduring ones). A noted school of theology was founded in this town and it is still a source of learning. The present shrine dates back to the 16th century. The gold tiles for the two cupolas were provided by the Iranian Shah Agha Muhammad Khan in 1796. It is said that al-Manṣūr, the second Abbasid Caliph (754-775) ordered the construction of a graveyard here, on the west side of the Tigris, adjacent to his famous round city of Baghdad. His eldest son Jaʿfar al-Akbār was the first to be buried here in 767. The graveyard was also known as the Quraysh (Ḳurayş) cemetery and the western part of the mosque was known as the Sahn Quraysh (Ṣaḥn Ḳurayş—the Court of the Quraysh). Up until the early 20th century, the main language of the Kāẓimayn was Persian. were still visible. Finally,
19
.
I bade the city farewell from afar until we lost sight of any sign of Baghdad. At 11:00 Western time
20
.
Johnny and Artin also bade us farewell. They were the last who had accompanied us this far.
21
.
I gave Artin three letters, one to Louise, another to my dear
22
.
friend Johnny PahlawanJohnny Pahlawan: The son of Yaqoub Pahlawan (nd) and Farida (nd). The Pahlawan family were neighbors of Joseph Mathia. In 1906, he was the agent of the Ottoman Bank of Basrah and the following year, he transferred to the Mosul branch. [JMS-NA59:45, 183], and the third to my friend Antoine GuiliettiAntoine Guilietti: The son of the French superintendent and inspector of the Turkish Telegraph line. Mr.Guilietti was responsible for erecting and inspecting telegraph lines along the Tigris River, especially in southern Iraq from Baghdad to Basrah. His family settled in Baghdad and were friends with the Svoboda family. [JMS-MM26:186; JMS-MM42:23]. I expressed my
23
.
great sorrow at parting with them. Thus we marched on unaccompanied, cutting across

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01
.
wastelands and rough terrain. At 12:30 we approached AkarkufAkarkuf: A prominent landmark located in the desert of Southern Mesopotamia, situated about nine miles to the northwest beyond the town of Baghdad near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers. It is thought to be the remains of a ziggurat (Babylonian pyramid) that marks the site of the 14th century (BCE) Kassite city of Dur Kurigalzu. Originally a huge tower of more than fifty meters in height on a 70 X 68 meters base, only the base remains today with the inner mud-brick core rising above it. and passed it on our right.
02
.
It remained in view until 2:30 when finally it seemed like a dotDot: The word translated as "dot" here is problematic. The Arabic is clearly written as n-gh-ṭ-a-' [nuġṭāʾ] but no such word appears to exist in either literary Arabic or the dialects. The closest match is the form n-gh-ṭ [nuġuṭ] found in several standard dictionaries of classical Arabic including the Lisānu’l-ʿArab and al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ [http://www.baheth.info] with the meaning "tall persons". We know that Alexander would have had an excellent education in classical Arabic at the Carmelite School in Baghdad, which boasted such outstanding teachers as the noted philologist Père Anastas and it is somewhat remotely possible that he might have retained a vague memory of a classical term that he for some unknown reason wrote with the added alif and hamza. Indeed the receding sight of Akarkuf might have resembled a "tall person". However, given the context we have leaned toward the very tentative conclusion that Alexander was rendering his pronunciation of the word nuḳṭa in the meaning of "dot". When nuḳṭa is used in the sense of a "police post" he spells it correctly but it is possible that when it means "dot" he thinks of it as a different word which he renders phonetically [nuġṭā’]. until it entirely disappeared.
03
.
And so we urged on the riding animals. Sometimes I got out of the mule litter to ride in place of my father.
04
.
Other times I walked and then returned to the mule litter again. Now and then
05
.
we pass tents of Arabs, who are all al-Zobaal-Zobaʿ: One of the three main branches—with the Abda and Aslam—of the Shammar tribal confederation which migrated to Iraq from the northern Najd in the 17th century and became a major power in the Jazīra up to Mosul. Alois Musil says of them, "The Zōbaʿ are descendents of the Ṭajj (Ṭayy) tribe. Their main camping ground lies between al-Mahmūdijje, Abu Ḥunta (Ḥabba), and the highroad from al-Felluǧe to Baghdad." [ME, 127] in these lands. The countryside is very much in need of rain. Some
06
Abu Ghrayb
of it is cultivated with rain-fed plantations and every two hours we pass low hills
07
.
and some desert areas with greenery. At 2:00, at a distance on our left, we passed the small shrine of an imam
08
.
with a nearby well. At 2:30 we crossed a small arched bridge.
09
.
A narrow stream runs beneath it flowing from the Euphrates River. We stopped and drank a little from the stream
10
.
and some people washed. Half an hour later we came to another shrine.
11
.
It is larger than the first and called Imam Abu Dhaher al-H'mudImam Abu Zahir al-Hamud [İmām Abū Ẓāhir al-Ḥ’mūd] It is common in Iraq that imam (prayer leader) means "shrine" and does not necessarily refer to the title or occupation of the person named. This is probably the tomb of Ḥ’mūd ibn Ṯāmer (Ḳabr Ḥ’mūd), who was chief of the Muntafiq tribe early in the 19th century. The reference to the Mutafiq tribe conflicts with information from Joseph Svoboda's diaries. [ME, 127]. We were near the first
12
.
station, that is to say Abu GhraybAbu Ghrayb: The name of one part of Baghdad, located to the west of the city center. The old road to Jordan passed through Abu Ghrayb. The city of Abu Ghrayb was established by the Government of Iraq in 1934.. At the end we came to a land covered with stones. We were across from a station called the
13
.
SanniyaSanniya: The sannīya lands refers to land held personally by the sultan, "crown lands." Here Alexander may be referring to a building that preceded what Musil calls the "Ḫān as-Seniyye". [ME, 126] depot. It has a few zaptiye to watch over the depot where the provisions of the Sanniya are kept.
14
.
This place seemed good to us and so we stopped the caravan. They took down the loads and pitched
15
.
the tents. It was then 3:45. This land is also called Abu Ghrayb.
16
.
Our caravan has fifty riding animals and three mule litters.
17
.
After we had dismounted and settled down here, I took up the pen to write the above.
18
.
Then having finished writing, I lay down to rest a little. At sunset
19
.
we heard on all sides the pleasant voice of the francolin.
20
.
It appears that this bird is abundant here. I took the opportunity to write a short letter
21
.
to our family telling them, among other things, about our health and my grief at our parting.
22
.
I decided to send it with the sons of the NawwabNawwab: Literally means "representative". Joseph Mathia's diaries repeatedly refer to the "nawwab and his sons" for Nawwab Ahmad Agha. The Nawwab bought the Gerara garden and socialized with Joseph Mathia's family and other foreign diplomats, traders, etc. [JMS-NA51:10, 59:168 and 60:82] who traveled
23
.
with us to go hawking at FallujaFalluja: A town of ancient origin near to the Euphrates on the main west road about 69 km from present day Baghdad. At the time of Alexander’s journey much of the land around Fallujah was owned by the Kouyoumdjian brothers, Kerop and Hagop, who seem to have been acquaintances of the Svobodas. For an unpublished history of the Kouyoumdjians, see http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svoboda/public/kouyoumdjian/index.html .. We had an early dinner at sunset
24
.
and slept through the night. We were tired from the caravan's march.

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01
April 17th
We were up in the morning today. It was extremely pleasant with a cold westerly wind.
02
.
The night had been very cold and almost like winter nights.
03
.
It rained a little at midnight but the morning was nice with clear weather. While we were
04
.
in our tent Tommy DexterTommy Dexter: Tom Dexter has a long history in Iraq. Captain R. E. Cheeseman (of the Secretariat of the High Commissioner for ʿIraq) in his 1923 article "A History of Steamboat Navigation on the Upper Tigris" related a story that he received "first hand" from Tom Dexter, who was a dragoman at the British Residecy in Baghdad at the time of writing (1922). According to Cheeseman’s account, a steamer named the Comet was built in Bombay to replace a steamer by the same name which had sailed out of Basrah since 1852. Tom Dexter was, at the time, a 17 year-old apprentice at the Bombay dockyard. He was assigned to the post of engine-driver on the Comet’s trial voyage. Because he was a member of the foreign community in Baghdad of English and Armenian parentage, he was sent with the ship when it traveled to Baghdad in 1885. Shortly thereafter he served on it during an adventuresome exploratory journey up the Tigris to Mosul. Of the many amusing stories he related to Captain Cheeseman, we will cite just one, which has especial relevance to Alexander Svoboda’s journey in the company of the colorful Dexter. Cheeseman writes: "On one occasion, seeing a band of mounted Arabs in the distance, Dexter thought a visit on a bicycle might impress them. Mounting his 54 inch bicycle he went out to meet them dressed in his white uniform. The effect was not exactly that desired. The whole cavalcade turned and put their horses into a gallop, and nothing could be seen of the column but flying dust and gravel. Doubtless the unfamiliar outline had been sufficient and the mirage had done the rest." Subsequently a rumor reached the ship that a long thin white jinn (Ar. spirit) haunted the lands of Waush-haush, that was three times as high as a man and could travel faster than a horse. The bicycle afterwards became famous, and visitors from distant tribes came in from afar to see for themselves this wonder of machinery. At the time he accompanied the Svobodas and Colonel Mockler on their journey, Tom Dexter would have been 29 years old and may have been working for the Lynch Brothers as was Alexander’s father. It is also possible that the bicycle that accompanied the caravan and amused Alexander, was similar to or the same as Dexter’s famous machine. [Cheeseman, The Geographical Journal Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan. 1923, 27-34; Navigation, 32] , who is with Colonel Mockler, came to tell us that the Colonel
05
.
said he cannot travel today because Mrs. Mockler is in poor health, and so he must
06
.
halt the journey here. Truthfully, we regretted very much to hear this because today we had planned
07
.
to travel to Falluja. In the end we had to consent.
08
.
I asked Colonel Mockler to ride the bicycle for a while. I took it and tried to learn how to ride.
09
.
Sometimes I fell off and at other times I went on riding. This was the first time in my life that I tried
10
Abu Ghrayb
myself on a bicycle and I persisted for almost one hour. I found that I was very
11
.
fast and I rode by myself without assistance about ten times.
12
.
When I got off, afterwards I felt tired to the utmost degree and as if all my bones were broken. However,
13
.
I think that I will learn to ride in time. We were obliged to spend the day here. So at
14
.
9:00 Western time we all went to the Sanniya depot across from our campsite and walked around.
15
.
It has a big roof and some stores containing the provisions of the Sanniya. After breakfast
16
.
Sheikh Dhaher al-H'mud came to visit and sat in our tent. He is the son of the imam whose shrine we passed
17
.
yesterday afternoon at 3:00 Western time. The Sheikh,
18
.
almost 80 years old, as he informed us, seems to be a wise and sensible man. We offered him Basrah dates and he ate some. Then he asked
19
.
us for eye medicine for his son's sore eyes. We gave him a remedyRemedy: The Arabic here gives the letters t-r-k-h for which the various possibilities include "something left behind, abandoned, the property of a deceased person". None of these make much sense in context. Our tentative suggestion is that Alexander intends the word tiryak/tiryaki which is a theriaca (antidote, cure-all, medicinal compound, remedy). He may also be representing the European term "theriaca" in Arabic characters as he has done in other cases.. Half an hour later
20
.
he mounted and rode back to his people. The Sheikh had wanted to see Colonel Mockler but he had gone hunting and so the Sheikh
21
.
left without seeing him. At 1:30 in the afternoon, Colonel
22
.
Mockler who had been hawking for some five hours, returned from the hunt with twelve francolins. His servant came
23
.
with two for us but they are very small and have thin meat because it is their nesting season now
24
.
and they do not hunt this bird at this time.

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01
.
It was 3:00 when I awoke and had tea. Afterwards I went out
02
.
and toured the desert a little and at sunset Colonel Mockler came to see us and returned
03
.
to his tents half an hour later.
04
April 18th
A nice and joyful morning with clear and cold weather. The night was
05
.
colder than yesterday. As we planned yesterday,
06
.
the caravan was prepared to travel to the second station after tea, at 7:45 Western time.
07
.
Everything was ready and we set out. The queasiness
08
Falluja
I felt when I was in the mule litter became somewhat less today. We traveled through
09
.
lands that were pleasant and flowery and nearly all had yellow flowers. Starting from Abu Ghrayb,
10
.
all the land is full of large and small stones and the plainsPlains: [al-saḥāb] We were unable to find a direct reference for the word al-saḥāb with any meaning that makes sense. The usual meaning (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman) of "clouds, cloud" is not tenable here. Our conjecture is that Alexander has confused and conflated s-ḥ-b with s-h-b which in the form sahb, suhūb means "level country, plains", which fits the sense of the passages in which it is used are even and flat.
11
.
From there on the desert became a little higher and then lower. At
12
.
9:25 we passed a small hill on our left on which a tomb finished with white plaster is built.
13
.
Then at 12:15 we reached the village of Falluja, which came into view at a half-hour's distance.
14
.
Built on the Euphrates River the village has some 400
15
.
to 500 souls, has three cafes, two inns, and a small house belonging to Kadhim PashaKadhim Pasha: (nd) The Turkish commander of the troops. Toward the end of 1892, Joseph Mathia mentioned Kadhim Pasha and the troops went in pursuit of Sayhood of the Elbu Muhammad in the marshes south of Iraq. Seyhood's Arabs attacked the Lynch Brothers' Khalifa steamship in 07/08/1880. Kadhim Pasha possessed a palace on the western side of the Baghdad. Built around 1875, the palace was known as Khadim Pasha's palace after the brother in-law of the last Ottoman Sultan who resided there as a political detainee. It was purchased by Sir Arnold Wilson to provide offices for the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox and remained in British hands until 1932, when the League of Nations took it as their headquarters in Baghdad. [JMS-MM25:126, 36:151, 22:64; The British Embassy - Baghdad]
16
.
who together with Kerop AghaKerop Agha: (1846-1902) The son of Mardiros Narutiun Kouyoumidkian by his first wife. Kerop's grandfather was an Armenian from Izmir. Both his father and grandfather were goldsmiths. His wife was Maritza, and they had three daughters (Vergin, Shoushan, and Eva) and three sons (Kaloust, Misag, and Harutiun). In 1890, Kerop worked for Messrs. Gulbenkian who had substantial businesses in Istanbul. In 1892, he represented their holdings in Baghdad.[The Kouyoumdjians - A History and reminiscences compiled and written by J. Kouyoumdjian] had purchased most of the land here. We approached
17
.
and crossed the village bridge. It is narrow and made of 25 tarred boats.
18
.
This was the first time in my life that I saw the Euphrates River from such places.
19
.
When the caravan arrived, Colonel Mockler said that it would be better to rest for about one hour
20
.
here and have tiffinTiffin: Transcribed as t-f-n in the Arabic text. A usage popularized in British India with the meaning "lunch" or "a light meal/snack".. Then we will march on for a few more hours because, with the mule litters, the third station is
21
.
about 10 or 12 hours away. So we agreed, and after taking a light meal,
22
.
we left Falluja intending to go halfway to
23
.
the third station. It was then 1:20 in the afternoon. Unlike the dry deserts in the morning
24
.
the land here is very wet and mostly swamp. At 2:00 Western time

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01
.
we passed near some greenery with 24 date palms, four fig trees
02
.
and one white berry tree. This place is called the Orchard of the Lady of Sparrows, Bustan Umm al-Asafir. From
03
.
here on we crossed arched bridges every five minutes, some of which are high and others low.
04
.
The deserts have turned green, the grass is plentiful, and the lands
05
Sin al-Thiban
resemble those of the al-Mi'danMiʿdan/ Maʿdan: The so-called "Marsh-Arabs", who dwelt in the swamps around Basrah and in the vicinity of Amara. Led by powerful local sheikhs, they generally remained independent of the Ottoman Government and the Bedouin tribes of Iraq. They raised large herds of water buffalo and sheep and, on occasion, raided shipping traveling up the Euphrates.'s next to Basrah. At 3:50 we passed
06
.
the date palms of al-Saklawiyaal-Saklawiya: [al-Ṣaklawiya] In Joseph Mathia's diaries (ca. 1872-1876), the Saklawiya was the name of a canal connecting the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Saklawiya canal branched from the Euphrates a few miles above the village of Falluja upstream carrying river water to the Tigris, entering the town of Baghdad to the south through the Masʿūdī canal that encircles the Western parts of Baghdad. The canal was closed in 1883 and by the early 19th century its bed was used as farmland. In his account of a 1912 journey along the Euphrates, Alois Musil twice refers to "the settlement of as-Saḳlāwiyye". This is likely the site referred to by Alexander in his journal.[JMS-MM15:9; JMS-MM12:33; ME, pp. 151-152] on our right with small hills on our left, where one can see
07
.
the rocks shimmering like far-off diamonds. At last 10 minutes later, we
08
.
reached our stopping place and camped on the Euphrates River opposite the hills.
09
.
This place is called the Fly's Tooth, Sin al-Thiban, because the first hill, Tel al-Awwal is located here,
10
.
so far the very first beyond Baghdad. It was
11
.
5:00 in the afternoon and almost sunset when we put up the tents. Here the plains are pleasant.
12
.
My health declined since morning and I have a severe cold.
13
.
I got worse at sunset and we will see how I will feel by tomorrow.
14
.
I went to bed immediately after dinner. The decision was made that tomorrow we will go directly to
15
.
Ramadial-Ramādī: [ar-Ramadi, ar-Rumādī] The name of a town to the northwest of Baghdad on the Euphrates River. It was founded and built in 1869 by the Ottoman Wali of Baghdad Midḥat Pasha (1869-1872) to control the nomadic Dulaim (Dulaym/D'laim) tribes of the region, but it also proved to be an important stopping point along the caravan route between Baghdad and the Levant. al-Ramadi is the capital of al-Anbar province in Iraq and most its inhabitants are Sunni Muslims from the Dulaim tribe. Alois Musil’s account of his 1912 journey describes ar-Ramādī as a "wealthy settlement of about fifteen hundred inhabitants" with extensive land holdings. It also had a population of some 150 Jews who had their own synagogue. [ME, 33], the third station.
16
April 19th
An extremely cold morning with a strong easterly wind.
17
.
I spent the most miserable night with a fever from sunset until morning
18
.
and it was extremely cold. I was in agony until daylight.
19
.
At 7:30 the caravan was prepared to march but since the hill of the Fly's
20
.
Tooth is nearby, I wanted very much to go and climb it. So at once I took the horse
21
.
and went riding towards the hill with the zaptiye. I reached it in a half an hour and wanted
22
.
to climb it on horseback but the horse refused. I dismounted,
23
.
left the horse with the zaptiye, and went on foot up the hill which is almost 30 meters high.
24
.
Then I stayed on top to wait for the caravan.

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01
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It came into view half an hour later with Colonel Mockler and the riflemen at the front. After coming down Colonel Mockler
02
.
told me I had just narrowly escaped a grave fate. While I sat motionless on the hilltop wearing
03
.
clothes the same color as the hill and only my head black, Colonel Mockler, waiting for me
04
.
at a distance, mistook my head for a bird and took out guns
05
.
and shells to shoot. But by the will of God, I moved to come downhill at the very moment
06
.
he was about to shoot. Later when I reached the bottom, I thanked the Creator for averting this
07
.
disaster. At 7:45 the caravan left yesterday's stopping place. I rode the mount
08
.
for two hours but afterwards I preferred to ride in the mule litter. At 9:30
09
Ramadi
I met four people on their way to Baghdad. I immediately recognized one of them
10
.
who is a realtorRealtor: The Arabic word "sagha", "سغاء" is unclear in the diary. Alexander used it to refer to a leasing agent. In the handwritten diary, the غ and the ق are easily confused. Joseph Mathia used "سقاء" with a "qaf" to mean water carrier. [JMS-MM61:4] in Baghdad. I asked him to stop while I wrote a few lines
11
.
to our family in Baghdad. I took out my portfolio at once and wrote as follows, "Our Dear Family, we are very well. Our pace
12
.
is slow and we are between Falluja and Ramadi. Pray for us and wish us well. Your dutiful Alexander." I then gave him the letter
13
.
and got in again. The land around here is all dry and not at all pleasant.
14
.
On our left the chain of hills, near to which we have been continually traveling, never broke off.
15
.
At 10:00, on our right, we passed some twelve widely-scattered tombs.
16
.
Having come this far from Baghdad, here we passed under the telegraphTelegraph: To be completed. wire for the first time and continued
17
.
to travel in its vicinity for about three hours. At 11:00 we passed a large shrine set into the hill to our left.
18
.
It has one room and some Arabs were inside. It is called Imam
19
.
Sheikh Mas'oudSheikh Mas'oud: Musil mentions "the little sanctuary" of Sheikh Masʿūd located on the bluffs above the ruins of al-Bārūd on the outskirts of al-Ramādī. [ME, 34]. At last, after an exhausting march, we reached
20
.
the village of Ramadi at 2:00 in the afternoon. We entered through the north gate and exited
21
.
by the south gate a half an hour later. We marched between the houses all built
22
.
with mud wattle except for a few built with stone. This village is far more extensive

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01
.
than Falluja, perhaps five times larger and with some 600 souls.
02
.
Beyond the village we crossed a small river that is eight cubitsCubit: The cubit (dirāʿ) is a measurement of length. In Baghdad, the cubit is equivalent to 75 centimeters. There is a cubit of Aleppo at 68 cm and a cubit of Persia. wide, called al-Aziziya, and we set up camp
03
.
on the desert side of its riverbank. Today upon entering Ramadi all the village people
04
.
came out of their houses to look at us and we became a quite a spectacle.
05
.
I was in low spirits to such a degree that even my head felt like it would burst from
06
.
pain and no sooner had they pitched our tent than I took tea and slept for some time.
07
.
The weather was cloudy and dusty at sunset with a very high wind blowing. It was an utterly unpleasant evening.
08
.
I did not like our stopping place at all. I went to sleep
09
.
immediately after dinner. After sunset the Qa'imaqamQaʾim maqam: [Ḳāʾim-maḳām, qā’imaḳam] Established during the Ottoman "Tanzimat" (reform, reorganization) period in the late 19th century, the qaʾim maqam was the highest administrative official of a sub-district appointed by the district governor and confirmed by the provincial governor. He handled all administrative and financial affairs of the sub-district, including taxation and policing. here sent us a few zaptiye to guard us
10
.
overnight because this place is dangerous. We decided that tomorrow we will travel
11
.
halfway to al-Hital-Hit: First mentioned in accounts of a visit by the Assyrian king Tukulti Enurta II in 885 BCE. At that time it was known as Īd and later as Īs, Iskara, and Ispolis, all of which are thought to be related to words for "bitumen". The town is mentioned by writers from Herotodus to Talmudic and Arab sources. Musil, in his account of a 1912 visit, describes al-Hit as follows: "The dark brown buildings of the town of al-Hit cover from top to bottom a yellowish cone about thirty meters high. The largest and tallest houses are on the east side, where also stands the old mosque with the leaning minaret. A broad street divides the town on the cone from the khans and warehouses at its southwestern foot. Between the suburb and the gardens of ad-Dawwāra are ovens for melting and refining bitumen. al-Hit has about five thousand inhabitants, two-thirds of whom come from the Dlejm [Dulaym] tribe and only about a fifth from the ʿAḳejl [ʿAḳeyl]. The houses are usually two stories high, the streets narrow, crooked and dirty, as they are washed only during the copious winter rains. Above the houses rises the tall minaret. Among the inhabitants are numerous Jewish families who have lived there from time immemorial… The principal occupations of the inhabitants are gathering bitumen and naphtha, quarrying stone, gardening, and building boats (şaḫātīr)… The ground in the vicinity of al-Hit consists of yellow limestone, covered with a thick layer of roughly crystallized gypsum, from which issue many springs with salt or somewhat bitter water, the latter smelling of sulfur. From these springs various gasses escape, which form large bubbles. The bitumen flowing to the surface resembles dirty scum. The salt surrounded by rosy-tinged slime settles on the edges of the springs." [ME, 27-28], a station some four or five hours away.
12
April 20th
An extremely unpleasant morning with high winds from the west,
13
.
blowing as hard as possible. The sand and dust blind us and the weather is overcast and troubled. After
14
.
I drank tea I felt my health had improved since
15
.
yesterday evening when I drank a bowl of nousha flowerNousha flower: [(Ar.) ward an-nūsha] It is unclear what Alexander means by 'nousha flower', as we have not been able to find a native speaker who recognises it. Nousha is typhoid fever in Arabic and this may refer to a flower used in an infusion to reduce fever. It is also possible that he is (also) reflecting or recreating the common word for violet in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, banafsha which in Kurdish speaking areas is pronounced wanawsha. tea.
16
.
At 7:15 we saw a big caravan coming from Aleppo bound for
17
.
Baghdad, one mule litter with three people inside, two boys, and a woman with dark skin was at the rear.
18
.
I wanted to send a brief message to our family
19
.
with this caravan. I asked our guide to find
20
.
someone he knew to whom he could give the letter. Returning later he asked me to prepare the note, and so I sat down
21
.
immediately and wrote the following on a visiting card, "Ramadi, Tuesday morning
22
.
the 20th of April. Our Dear Family. We are all in good health, God permitting, you are as well.

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01
.
We will move on from here in one hour and go to al-Hit. Pray for us and wish us well. We kiss you all. Missing
02
.
you all, Alexander." I put the letter in an envelope and sent it right away addressed to Uncle Antone,
03
.
and to be sent on to the Svoboda (Z'boyde) house in Baghdad. At 8:00 we prepared to march
04
.
but Colonel Mockler had gone to the village to take some photographs. It was 8:15 when we returned
05
.
and we left Ramadi at once intending to go halfway to al-Hit. So we got the caravan moving
06
.
at 8:30, and then at 9:30 we came to a place on our right with some 30 date palms.
07
.
It is called the Orchard of Abu AjhayshAjhaysh: A tribe of the Al BuJamel/BuKamil confederation.. From there we began
08
.
to march among hills, rugged lands, and ground completely covered with stones. The Arabs of these
09
.
places are called al-Dulaymal-Dulaym: [D'laym] A Sunnī tribe of Iraq made up of both nomadic and sedentary populations inhabiting a large area in the Jazīra along the Euphrates from Fallūjah to al-Ḳāʾim. Arabs. We then passed hills on our left which are called al-Tash.
10
.
At 11:45 we journeyed down the middle of a very narrow valley. It is the first valley
11
Shariat Abu Rayat
we have passed and it takes about 15 minutes to cross. It is the Valley of Ways al-Qarrani and called AkbahAkbah: Alexander writes the name of this "valley" as اعكبه [a-'-k-b-h] which we believe refers to the rocky ridge called al-ʿOḳoba that forms one side of this valley [wādī]. [Musil, ME, 32 and 158].
12
.
When we emerged from the valley we passed the shrine of Imam Wais al-QarraniImam Wais al-Qarrani: Musil mentions "the little shrine of al-Imâm al-Uwîs" who is likely Alexander’s Wais al-Qarrani. [ME, 33] on our right. Here an elderly Arab
13
.
followed us around. We gave him some alms he begged of us to support the imam of the shrine. Then we began to march
14
.
amid dry sands but, thanks be to God, the wind quieted. It had killed us as we made our way so far this morning.
15
.
At 1:30 in the afternoon, we came to the banks of the Euphrates
16
.
River and the place where we will camp until tomorrow. It is called
17
.
Shariat Abu RayatShariat Abu Rayat: [Şarīʿat Abū Rayāt] Musil describes this place as "…the farm and khan of Abu Rajjāt, where there are several small ponds filled with water from the Euphrates." A şarīʿa is a pond or watering hole or the flat land surrounding a pond. [ME, 32]. When we took down the loads and pitched the tents on the riverside, we found the place
18
.
to be extremely nice and pleasant. It resembles the riversides at GheraraGerara: [Gherara, Gherrarah, Gherareh] In the late nineteenth century, Gerara was the name of a garden on the Tigris river bank to the southeast of Baghdad. The garden was private property, walled, and frequented by local and foreign dignitaries such as Nawwab Ahmad Agha, who owned the gardens during Joseph Mathia's lifetime. [JMS-MM30:131,132], but much better and more pleasant
19
.
with the greenery and the k'roudJerd: Waterlifts [kard, pl. kurūd/kroud, also cherd/çerd]. A kind of waterlift that employs a draft animal going down an inclined path pulling a rope over a pulley. The pulley is on top of an upright pole and the rope is attached to a cow skin or goatskin sack or bucket that draws water from the river and empties it on land. The kard of Mesopotamia resembles the sakya of Egypt. on the opposite bank. The wind became
20
.
very cold with a stiff breeze blowing. This is the first time we have made a halt in such a good place.
21
.
But at sunset many bugs bit us and the gnats were worse.
22
.
It appears that this night will be
23
.
as cursed as one could be.

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01
April 21st
A cold morning with a pleasant westerly wind. Last night was miserable
02
.
because the insects and gnats tortured me all night long so that
03
.
I was unable to sleep at all. I awoke in the morning after a sleepless night. After we had tea we prepared ourselves to march.
04
.
When the caravan was ready, I rode the horse
05
.
with the zaptiye and went half an hour ahead of all the others because the pace of the mule litter is very
06
.
slow. At 7:45 we left our stopping place at Abu al-Rayat heading towards al-Hit.
07
.
At 10:00 we reached a big valley situated between mountains that are all made of marble.
08
.
We entered, going up and down. This was the first time that I had seen such a place.
09
al-Hit
All the ground seemed like one piece of clean and shiny marble, polished and slippery.
10
.
After half an hour we reached the end of this frightening valley, where it is dangerous for the animals to walk
11
.
and feared by all the muleteers. It is called AkbahAkbah Hit: We believe that Alexander is referring to the same rocky ridge [al-ʿAḳoba] mentioned in the note on 014:11. This would be a section of the ridge near the town of al-Hit.
12
.
al-Hit. From here on there were more hills and they became higher. We passed between them every five minutes.
13
.
At 11:05 we crossed a small shallow river wading because there was no bridge. It is
14
.
three cubits wide and called al-Muhammadi Riveral-Muhammadi River: [Mḥammadī] In Musil’s map of Northern Arabia, the al-Muhammadi River is shown between Abu Rayyat and al-Hit entering the Euphrates near the village of al-Muhammadi. [e-f17 in ME]. At 11:30 we reached the banks
15
.
of the Euphrates River and kept following it for almost a half an hour, always
16
.
amid rocky hills and over endless stones, from Abu Ghrayb on.
17
.
At 11:45 I saw an Arab quickly passing us by mounted on a camel accompanied by one zaptiye.
18
.
It was the Damascus or the Turkish Post camelThe Damascus Post: The Turkish Post for Damascus and Beirut. From the information given in the diaries about the letters' dates and the dates Joseph Mathia received from them by the Damascus Post, a letter would normally take nearly three weeks to arrive from Europe. [JMS-MM25:6] that takes eight days to come
19
.
from Damascus to Baghdad, traveling day and night. After a short march, at
20
.
12:20, the minaret of al-Hit came into view at a distance and we rode toward it. Starting from here
21
.
the color of some hills changed to black, the black of flowing bitumen.
22
.
We also passed some places with stagnant water. They said it is from the salt spring
23
.
we will see at al-Hit. At last, after we had tired of marching, we came to al-Hit

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01
.
at 1:30 in the afternoon. What a stench hangs over the outskirts of the village and
02
.
such a lot of dirt too! Built on a high mountain, from a distance, the village has a pleasant appearance
03
.
that resembles European scenes. But let it be known that this is from a distance of a half an hour's march.
04
.
Coming nearer, the village has a dirty look that distresses the heart and its houses cling to the heights
05
.
like forts. While here we wished to go and see the springs of bitumen and salt.
06
Springs of
After we had walked among the dirty hills filled with bitumen we came to the spring and I found
07
Bitumen
it to be lovely, leaving one to wonder at the creations of God Almighty. One sees the gushing bitumen
08
and Salt
spouting from the earth and pouring out. Likewise, a bluish water flows
09
.
at the salt spring. It is a sulfur water that hardens when exposed to the air and becomes natural salt.
10
.
This is the main thing that amazed me. It is such a wonder! We returned immediately afterwards, because we have
11
.
to spend the night outside the village. So we mounted again and after three quarters of an hour came to our stopping place.
12
.
An extremely bad smell hangs over and around the village and bitumen here is as abundant"abundant as sand": A local expression repetitively used by the writer throughout the text, meaning "in great quantity".
13
.
as sand. They even use it to build the orchard fences
14
.
instead of mud and plaster. Our stopping place for today is nice, facing hills
15
.
and greenery. The village of al-Hit with its minaret came into view at a distance and they make an extremely fine sight.
16
.
But the wind is blowing hard and the dust has been blinding us since noon.
17
.
And of all things that happened to us the worst was the Persian antsPersian [Farsi] ants: The Persian ant that is called "Farsi ant" in the Arabic diary is the Sahara Desert ant, Cataglyphiss bicolor. that, as abundant as sand, invaded
18
.
our place at sunset and began to bite us like bugs, if not worse! We are afraid they will
19
.
disturb us at night.
20
April 22nd
A nice humid morning, and the night was fine and cool.
21
.
I slept very well. The ants did not climb into our beds, thanks be to God.
22
.
At 7:45 we left our stopping place and headed toward the next station. After we

Page 017


01
.
set out at 9:45 we passed a small, extremely nice island on our right,
02
.
with a ruined house and a date palm orchard. The sight of it from the bank is quite lovely and here they call it
03
.
al-Flaywial-Flaywi: [al-Flaywī, al-Flīwī, al-Eflīwī] Musil describes this as an "islet…which has been converted into a garden" [ME, 26]. Today our entire march stretched between hills and rugged places
04
.
with climbs and descents. It is not an easy road and tires the riding animals.
05
al-Baghdadi
At last, at 2:30 in the afternoon, we reached our stopping place for the day. It is also situated on the Euphrates River
06
.
and called al-Baghdadial-Baghdadi: [al-Baġdādī] Musil describes crossing the small wadi of al-Ḳaṣr, "…near which a zaptiye station and the khan of [al-Baġdādī] stand on the banks of the Euphrates." [ME, 25]. We are continuously surrounded by hills and mountains, but
07
.
in the past the hills have not been as high as they were today. Perhaps
08
.
the higher we climb the higher the hills will become. Here I saw the water wheelWater wheel: [al-nāʿūr, an-nāʿūra] Musil describes one of these water wheels as follows: "…a large wooden wheel with longish earthen jugs tied to its rim. The wheel rests very deep in the river on an axis supported by two pillars of stone. It is connected with the bank by a row of set pillars carrying arches, on which a trough is placed. The stream sets the wheel in motion, the water fills the jugs and is poured by them into the trough, from which it flows into the fields. The hoarse squeaking of these wheels is heard day and night." [ME, 17] . It is used instead of the kroud and is like
09
.
some sort of huge round lid with pots made of clay around it. The river current turns the wheel
10
.
and empties out onto the land. It is a truly fine device, more useful than the jerd, and
11
.
also quicker in pouring the water. There are several water wheels along these banks
12
.
and the sound of their turning comes with the wind from afar. Today
13
.
we passed more flowery lands than before.
14
April 23rd
Nice, clear weather today with a cold and windy morning
15
.
and a cold night too, colder than yesterday. After tea it turned 7:45
16
.
and we loaded our things and rode to the next stopping place. We traveled
17
.
close to the hills and, after half an hour, entered big valleys and rugged places
18
Haditha
that are extremely dangerous, especially for the mule litter. At 8:45 we passed,
19
.
on the other bank to our right, a small orchard with about 100
20
.
or 200 date palms, called al-Ju'anaal-Ju'ana: (Ar.) meaning 'the hungry woman'.. Half an hour later we passed
21
.
a place called JubbaJubba: A settlement located on the island of Ālūs in the Euphrates. Musil notes its palm trees, seen from a distance. and then entered among valleys. Next there were rocky mountains
22
.
on which the animals' legs slip quite easily. Thus, from

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.
al-Baghdadi until HadithaHaditha: [al-Ḥadīṯa] Musil describes al-Haditha as follows: al-Ḥadīṯa lies on an island. The houses of its northern half stand close together; in the southern half grow fine palm trees. A bridge leads to the right bank and close to it stand the zaptiye station and a khan. On the surrounding hillocks are seen many white graves. [ME, 23] we continually marched up and down between
02
.
high mountains and valleys. This stage was the most difficult
03
.
to accomplish so far. At last, at 4:30 in the afternoon, we came to Haditha.
04
.
It is a small village built long ago in the middle of the river, on an island surrounded by water.
05
.
One hour before coming to our halting place a chain of islands in the river appeared
06
Haditha
all planted with date palms and mulberry trees. It makes a lovely view from the bank. So far this stage was the
07
.
farthest we had traveled in a day.
08
.
Today as I went up and down the mountains I caught sight of several kinds of birds including
09
.
partridges, storks, and the magpie which resembles a small crow when it flies
10
.
and has black and white wings and tail. There were several kinds of
11
.
flowers such as anemones, another resembling a kind of nousha and stock flowers as well. In some of these areas
12
.
are crops such as barley and the plains appear to be a carpet in their abundance.
13
.
There are a number of other varieties that look and smell nice too. One variety, with only leaves
14
.
and no flowers, has a very strong smell similar to that of fragrant mint. Around here they call this wormwood.
15
.
Like the camel thorn it is plentiful and the animals enjoy eating it.
16
.
We were exhausted by today's march because the terrain and the climbs were extremely tiring and
17
.
at some places we had to get out of the mule litter. The village of Haditha is extremely poor
18
.
whereas Ramadi and al-Hit are far better off. A wooden bargeLarge wooden barge: The shakhtoor [şaḫtūr, pl. şaḫātīr] was a large, flat-bottomed, shallow draft barge that is made of wood and covered with bitumen. It can carry a load of approximately three or four tons. The shakhtoor is used to transport loads on the Euphrates River, especially between al-Hit and Mussayeb because deep-draft boats could not ply the river in this area. Once it reached its destination, it is then dismantled and sold as it cannot travel up river. Alois Musil describes building boats as one of the chief occupations of the inhabitants of al-Hit and goes on to say, "The material used in making these boats is wood and palm pulp, with pitch for coating both the outsides and insides. A boat sells for six or seven Turkish pounds ($27 or $31.50)." [ME, 27] reserved
19
.
for people to cross is available and departs every other hour. The current is very strong and the water wheels
20
.
become more numerous so that one water wheel appears every fifty cubits. We encamped in
21
.
an unpleasant area because all the lands here are cultivated and the crops are ripening.
22
.
Truthfully I am very tired of this exhausting travel because it lacks comfort and
23
.
settling down. We can rest only two or three hours a day.

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01
April 24th
This morning is nice and cold with a westerly wind blowing and the night
02
.
was cool. After we prepared to march I mounted the horse and, with the zaptiye
03
.
called Abbas, rode ahead of the caravan at 7:30. For the first two hours we marched along
04
.
the banks of the Euphrates River and afterwards we started to traverse
05
.
the mountains. Our march in the mountains lasted for about two hours on a kind of white sand resembling lime.
06
.
At 11:00, I dismounted and sat down at the foot of a mountain near some water.
07
Fahaymi
I waited for the caravan here and it arrived half an hour later.
08
.
I got into the mule litter and we traveled on. At 1:10 in the afternoon we came
09
.
to our next stopping place, which is called al-Fahaymi, a nice riverbank along
10
.
the Euphrates. Beyond it is an outpost where four zaptiye are posted to keep watch on the road.
11
.
But, in the middle of the river and opposite our tents is a long and narrow island
12
.
with low greenery and a fairly nice view. It lies some 25 cubits away from the riverbank.
13
.
Here the current of the Euphrates River is slower than at previous places.
14
.
When we arrived at al-Fahaymial-Fahaymi: [al-Fḥaymī] Musil describes the wide valley of al-Fahaymi and the zaptiye station by the same name “with two high piles of stone in front of it, which point the way.” These “piles” are surely what Alexander describes as looking like minarets., we caught sight of what seemed to be two low minarets on the high river bluffs.
15
.
These were made by order of Midhat PashaMidhat Pasha: Aḥmed Şefik Midhat, a noted Ottoman administrator, statesman, and reformer. He served in several high administrative positions including stints as grand-vizier and was active in promoting the broad administrative, educational, and social reforms of the Ottoman Tanzimat (Reforms) Period. Appointed as Governor of Baghdad (the highest position in the province of Iraq) in 1869, Midhat moved energetically to implement a program of reform which included consolidating the trend towards a centralized administration in an area that had been neglected for some time by the Ottomans. As part of this effort, he began to bring local, provincial administration into line with the organization of urban centers, to strengthen local government units, to settle the nomadic tribes, and to establish a regularized system of land tenure. In addition, he reformed the educational system, introduced modern communications systems (telegraph), and initiated building projects intended to modernize Iraq’s infrastructure. His tenure as governor was brief (1869 to 1872) but its influence on the modernization of Iraq was profound. as a landmark to guide travelers.
16
April 25th
A cold morning today, much colder than yesterday. Yesterday we decided
17
.
to set out early today, and so at 7:00 sharp
18
.
the caravan was ready and I mounted the horse and rode into the desert.
19
.
An hour later I rode in the mule litter because as soon as we reach 'Ana'Ana: [ʿĀna] Musil says the following about 'Ana: "…(W)e reached the gardens of the settlement of ʿÂna. Of the vegetables cultivated here, onions and garlic were the most plentiful. As to trees, besides the palms there were pomegranates, figs, mulberries, and, but rarely, olives. We rode at first among the gardens and along the rocky slope, in which are many natural and artificial caverns. Later we followed a narrow lane among the gardens and huts, which look as if they were pasted to the rocks, for the settlement is nothing but a single street almost five kilometers long between a steep cliff on the south and the Euphrates on the north.” He goes on to say that at the time of his visit (1912) the town had “about seven hundred Muslim inhabitants and five hundred Jewish inhabitants” who had a synagogue in the town. The houses in the Jewish quarter are described as being “built in the antique style, forming either a square or an oblong, narrower towards the top and covred by a flat roof enclosed by a low, machicolated wall. Many of them are three stories high but without windows on the ground floor." [ME, 19-20, fig. 12]
20
'Ana
I will ride out to see the village. Today our march went better than yesterday's and the march the day
21
.
before. We climbed mountains only three or four times. At 10:00 we passed
22
.
a small orchard called Haniya
23
.
on the other bank to our right. At 10:30 while traveling on the mountain we saw riders

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01
.
on their way to Baghdad. We approached and suddenly noticed Mudhaffar Bey, the son of Nasret PashaNasrat Pasha and Mudhaffer Bey: [In Ottoman Turkish, Nuṣret Paşa and Muẓaffer Bey] To be completed. ,
02
.
with his retinue. He had come from Aleppo for the inheritance of his father who
03
.
had passed away five months ago in Baghdad. At 11:30 the date palms of 'Ana
04
.
came into view. We arrived at noon. The village is a pleasant sight and its houses look strange
05
.
because their doors are no taller than one and a half cubits and all the houses
06
'Ana
are in a single row. Also, the village has just one street but the view of the village from the river
07
.
is quite lovely because it lies among orchards, trees, and date palms that cheer the heart. This is the
08
.
best of all the villages I have seen until now. One hour after nearing
09
.
the end of it, we came to the center of the village and here we found ourselves a beautiful stopping place situated on the river among trees
10
.
and date palms and facing a water wheel on the Euphrates. The caravan arrived at 1:30 in the afternoon
11
.
and we set up camp here. Our halting place is truly very nice and pleasant.
12
.
After our arrival I wrote a few letters to Baghdad and dispatched them with the zaptiye to
13
.
the Qa'imaqam to be sent by post. The zaptiye returned and said the letters would be sent the day after
14
.
tomorrow. When we entered 'Ana today all the village people were standing at their
15
.
doors and on the street looking at us. I found their children
16
[NON-AUTOGRAPH]
very dutiful, with smiling faces. One hour before our arrival here,
17
.
a major with 12 zaptiye came to meet us. They made a formal salute to Colonel
18
.
Mockler because the Wali of BaghdadThe Wali of Baghdad: The Wali of Baghdad in 1897 was Ata'ullah Pasha. had instructed the local Qa'imaqam to observe the necessary courtesies.
19
.
Afterwards when we set up the tents at sunset the Qa'imaqam Derwish EffendiQa'imaqam Dervish Effendi: To be completed. came to visit Colonel
20
.
Mockler himself.
21
April 26th
A cold morning with the easterly wind now still. The night was very cold
22
.
and damp. After tea we prepared ourselves to ride to the next station. So at
23
.
7:15 Western time, I mounted the horse and rode ahead. I kept riding for almost an hour

Page 021


01
.
and a quarter always on the only road along the riverside at 'Ana.
02
.
Truthfully, I was very tired of riding in the village because it takes nearly two hours from beginning to end.
03
.
At last I exited and came to a road that follows the base of the mountains.
04
.
It was frightening because the mountain here is steep and split in two parts, one of them
05
.
looming over the road. I rode for nearly two hours alongside the river. After this I came
06
al-Nahiyya
to a high mountain and rode on slippery footing among the rocks. Later at 11:00 I got into
07
.
the mule litter. Thus we continued to march, sometimes among mountains and at other times on even and flat terrain.
08
.
Truthfully, traversing the mountains is very difficult and tiring. At 2:00
09
.
in the afternoon we came to a place on the riverbank that is green with tamarisk and thickets. From here
10
.
the military post of al-Nahiyyaal-Nahiyya: [an-Nehīya] Musil remarks that al-Nahiyya is the name of a "zaptiye station ...lying south of the road near a pile of old building material". [ME, 18] came into view. The stifling heat worsened here with the burning sun. The wind
11
.
from the East that had been still since morning tormented us so much that it became impossible to remain in the mule litter
12
.
so we rode the animals. At 3:15 we came
13
.
to al-Nahiyya, but before we arrived we caught sight of some tents and riding animals. Upon inquiring
14
.
we learned that a major was coming from Aleppo on his way to Baghdad with his wife
15
.
and two mule litters. And that another one, traveling alone, was on his way to Najaf.
16
.
Upon our arrival here we chose a site that seemed good for camp and we dismounted to await the caravan.
17
.
It arrived two hours later and we pitched the tents. Today's journey stage was thoroughly exhausting
18
.
because the heat bothered everyone and our campsite here is not nice like previous sites.
19
.
Our tents are twenty cubits away from the river because the ground is wet, salty, and soft.
20
.
There is only a military post here, like the one at al-Fahaymi with a few zaptiye. For
21
.
two days we observed that the riverbanks along the Euphrates are all cultivated with barley
22
.
and wheat, and the grasses have grown very well this year. However the owners
23
.
of the crops in this region are always frightened. They told us that

Page 022


01
.
the Bedouin attack when they harvest the crops and take all they have obtained from their toil.
02
April 27th
A sultry morning with an easterly wind and some clouds. The night
03
.
was hot and stuffy. Since yesterday we have hoped for
04
.
rain to surely follow this stuffiness. At 6:00 in the morning the wind turned to the west and the day improved.
05
.
At 7:15 we left al-Nahiyya heading to al-Qa'imal-Qa’im: [al-Ḳāʾim, al-Ḳāyim] Musil says that the zaptiye station stands on the high ground on the bank of a small wadi. “West of it, down by the highway a khan has been built; to the east stands a heap of ruins, above which project the remains of a tower.” He also notes that al-Qa’im was once a frontier town of the Persians and was known for its watchtower in ancient times. The name (al-Qa'im) refers to a "standing (qa'im) tower". [ME, 14-15]. We traveled toward the riverside amid camel thorn and tamarisk.
06
.
Afterwards we climbed mountains and then descended to the riverbank. Here the riverbank is very nice
07
.
because it resembles the outskirts of Baghdad's deserts, all green with tamarisk
08
al-Qa'im
and other vegetation. While walking by the river, I flushed some francolins.
09
.
It has been ten days since I have seen or heard francolins in these regions.
10
.
The Turanian pigeons and sand grouseSand grouse: [qaṭā, ḳaṭā] Musil runs into flocks of sand grouse in the vicinity of Abu Rayyat. He writes: "On a pool hard by ḳaṭa sand grouse were quenching their thirst. Flying in a long row they dropped down to the surface of the water and drank one after another from the same place without stopping in their flight; then they turned, came back and drank again. Not before they had had their fill did they fly away. There were thousands of them forming a great ellipse." He goes on to say, "In the fields…the peasants were beginning their harvest. The wheat was fully ripe but the grain small; moreover the peasants could not keep off the ḳaṭa birds which flew in swarms from field to field destroying the ears of grain." [ME, 32-33] are abundant here and the farther I go the more flocks of birds I see
11
.
ahead of me. They are very tame. Truthfully I very much regretted that I had not brought fowling pieces with me.
12
.
I would have been able to take a lot of game over the course of our journey. This is the first stopping place
13
.
that I find so pleasant. At 3:00 in the afternoon we arrived at the military post of
14
.
al-Qa'im. The military post resembles the one at al-Nahiyya and it came into view an hour's march away.
15
.
On arriving here we found a nice campsite on the river and we unloaded and pitched the tents.
16
.
Our place is truly nice and it resembles the outskirts of Ctesiphon or the land above
17
.
Gherara. In front of us on the other bank the kroud are running. We saw the last of the water wheels
18
.
four hours before arriving here and we saw no more of them, since no one
19
.
here makes their equal. After we settled in the west wind blew hard and hot. Thanks be to God,
20
.
we are near al-Dayr and only three stages remain. There was a stifling wind at sunset
21
.
and it became hot.
22
April 28th
A cold and serene morning with a nice westerly wind. But
23
.
it was an extremely accursed night with a still wind until after midnight. The gnats

Page 023


01
.
killed me all night long. I did not sleep for a minute nor did I close an eye until morning and I got up
02
.
very much in need of sleep. However, it became lovely at dawn and the morning was exceedingly fresh.
03
.
So far I have not seen such a day. After tea
04
.
I took the horse and rode with the zaptiye toward the next stopping place. It was 7:00
05
.
and I decided not to dismount until I reached the station. So on I went,
06
.
sometimes along the riverbank and at other times far away from it, amid tamarisk and greenery, with the soul-cheering cry
07
.
of the francolins and an extremely fresh wind blowing. We had never seen such a morning
08
.
since the day we left Baghdad, nor had we seen such a nice and cool road. Until 8:30
09
Abu Kemal
I could still see the military post of al-Qa'im behind us. At 9:15 we passed a fairly low lying land
10
.
where the authority of Baghdad ends and the jurisdiction of the governor of Aleppo begins.
11
.
The borders of Baghdad only come to here. Along this bank of the river and in front of us
12
.
on the other bank the hills give way to the beginning of a flat, even terrain, green with tamarisk and grass.
13
.
Thus our entire journey for today was on level terrain with only a slight incline.
14
.
At 11:00 we came to new buildings by the riverbank. They are very nicely built
15
.
and we understood that a new village is under construction here to replace the village of Abu KemalAbu Kemal: [Abū Kemāl, Abū Çemāl] Musil writes, “…we saw the new settlement of Abu Çemāl with its rather small mosque and slender minaret and a few larger buildings in the southwestern part. At Abu Çemāl the western upland merges into the cultivated flood plain.” The settlement Musil describes must be what Alexander calls “the new village.” [ME, 12], which is
16
.
our stopping place for today. At 11:45 we arrived at the military post of Abu Kemal. The village is extremely poor
17
.
with nothing but a few mud-wattle houses and some shops and 350 souls. In three or four years it will be far better than
18
.
Ramadi,
19
.
al-Hit, or 'Ana because it is constructed in the manner of modern buildings. Today
20
.
I saw lots of locusts in the thickets, as abundant as worms. They are all Najdi yellow like the kind
21
.
they eat at Basrah. From a distance one could mistake them for bits of straw that have been
22
.
strewn about! The caravan and the mule litter arrived one hour after I arrived here. We camped
23
.
on dry ground far away from the river. I discovered a caravan that had come from Damascus bound for

Page 024


01
.
Baghdad. I sent a letter with it addressed to our family telling them about our health. The heat became
02
.
stronger at noon and the wind changed bringing clouds. At sunset too the weather was unfortunate and dry.
03
April 29th
An extremely cold morning, colder than any other day with thick clouds
04
.
and an easterly wind blowing. The night was cursed with gnats until morning and the wind was still until sunrise.
05
.
Again, I did not sleep at all from night until morning and am waiting to see
06
.
how this coming night will be. We were up at 5:30, drank tea,
07
.
and at 7:00 left Abu Kemal to move on to our next stopping place. We continued to march amid greenery,
08
.
mulberry trees, and tamarisk, all high and tall until
09
al-Salihiyya
10:30. Then I got out of the mule litter and rode the horse. I rode towards some Arab tents
10
.
at the side of the road and asked them for some shininaShinina: [şinīna] a beverage made of yoghurt diluted with water..
11
.
A woman brought me some in a sheepskin. I drank as much as I could and returned the rest,
12
.
thanking her. The Arabs here are very friendly and amiable with strangers
13
.
as well as generous with guests. I returned from the Arabs' tents heading for the military post of al-Salihiyya,
14
.
our stopping place, and arrived there at 1:00 in the afternoon. Half an hour later
15
.
the caravan arrived and we made camp on the bank of the Euphrates River in front
16
.
of the military post, a very old building with few zaptiye. Today's site is
17
.
nice but the ground is extremely dusty and sandy. From Abu Kemal to al-Salhiyya
18
.
we never went up a hill or a mountain nor did we travel on rocky ground. The entire road was very nice
19
.
amid the shade of the tamarisk and the ground was even and flat. This was the first time we traveled such a road
20
.
which did not tire us at all. At five before (after)noon, my father and I went to a high mountain
21
.
only half an hour from the camp. We wanted to see what seemed, from
22
.
a distance, to be an old construction on the mountaintopAn old construction on the mountaintop: These are the extensive ruins of Dura Europos, known locally as Dura (fortress). Dura was founded by Seleucid Greeks in about 300 BCE and grew to become a major manufacturing center. When it was taken by the Romans in about 160 CE, it became an important military outpost. During the first half of the third century, the city fell to a Persian siege and remained a forgotten ruins until it was finally identified in the 1920s. Alexander visits the site well before it was definitively identified. In a private communication,the archaeologist Prof. Simon James pointed out that Alexander seems to exaggerate the height of the raised plateau on which Dura stand by a factor of ten and calls it "a mountain". The circumfrence of the ruins is also exaggerated.[Simon James at http://www.le.ac.uk/ar/stj/dura/index.htm#late]. We came to the foot of the mountain and

Page 025


01
.
climbed up. The mountain was high, about 200 meters in height, and when we came to its summit we saw very old ruins
02
.
and ancient buildings that, as some say, could be as old as 1500 years if not even older. Apparently,
03
.
this place was the outer wall of a city that was built here and the buildings are buried
04
.
in the sand. Fully round in shape, the circumference of all the ruins comes to nearly 50 thousand meters and the construction
05
.
is that of powerful people. The rocks are very carefully laid one on top of the other without plaster
06
.
or mud. Here we came across Colonel Mockler who had also come up to look at this old city.
07
.
We returned at sunset impressed by the ancient site.
08
April 30th
An extremely cold and clear morning with a fresh wind. The night was
09
.
cold too. However, I slept under the mosquito netting for fear of the tiresome gnats. Thanks be to God, I slept
10
.
delightfully until morning. At 7:00 Colonel Mockler said that he does not intend to make
11
.
the whole journey stage today and that he will travel only for about 6 hours. He wanted to go once more to the mountaintop
12
.
with the ruins we saw yesterday in order to tell his wife
13
.
about them. And so we all mounted and we went directly to the mountain, but not by the usual road
14
.
that goes to the left. The caravan with the mule litters went on
15
.
to the stopping place. Approaching the foot of the mountain I climbed up on horseback, and
16
[illegible]
together we toured around the ruins. I saw several more places than yesterday and I went into
17
.
a place that looks like a military fort, passing between arches built of small rocks. I noticed, written on one arch,
18
.
names of the tourists who visited these places.
19
.
Of these I recall two. One is V. Duvent 1890 and the other Frédéric
20
.
Korben 1887. I wrote my name too with the date and we toured the
21
.
whole place. Even the gate of the big wall is a nice thing. At 10:00 we left this place going out through
22
.
the gate to catch up with the caravan. We continued to march among rugged places, rocks, and stones
23
.
and then we came down into a big valley looking for the caravan. At last, we were able to catch sight of it

Page 026


01
.
at 1:30 in the afternoon. We rode to the stopping place of al-Showaytal-Showayt: [aş-Şowayṭ] To be completed. together. Upon arriving
02
.
we unloaded the baggage and pitched the tents at 2:00. A high cliff is across from us. The other bank is
03
.
very far away and the current of the river is not fast here. From here to 'Ana, we had much trouble
04
.
changing money. All the Arabs only take piastersPiaster: [ghrush, ġurūş] this is the Turkish piaster, 1/100 of a Turkish pound (lira). and do not know about
05
.
the majidi or the quarter-majidiMajidi: [or the quarter majidi] An Ottoman silver coin introduced by Sultan Abdul Mecid (Majid) in 1844. It was worth 20 gurush [kurūş].. Although they will accept the majidi as worth 72 piasters, it is impossible for anyone
06
.
to buy anything without piasters. The name of the piaster is also unknown to them.
07
al-Showayt
At 'Ana they call it metlikMetlik: Here Alexander writes a word that appears to be menlik but we cannot find reference to a coin by this name. Accordingly we are assuming that he intends metlik/metelik, a form of the Ottoman Turkish metālik which refers to a very low value coin made of copper sometimes adulterated with other metals., which is worth three Baghdadi piasters. Whereas between here and al-Qa'im, the metlik
08
.
is called ashariAshari: Apparently, in Mesopotamia the only Turkish coin that was generally recognized was the mecidi/majidi. Other names like ashari and qamari represented varying amounts of local (often Persian) coins depending on the region. So these terms do not necessarily refer to an actual coin but to a combination of coins actually in use. See "To Mesopotamia and Kurdistan in Disguise" byy Ely Banister Soane. and is worth one piaster. In short, it is very exasperating
09
.
to buy things here. The four piaster coin is not known as money here but as jewelry for their women to
10
.
hang on the forehead. From here to al-Nahiyya the Arab women all spoil
11
[NON-AUTOGRAPH]
their looks by tattooing their lower lips and they consider it shameful
12
[NON-AUTOGRAPH]
if a woman has not done so, but it is truly very ugly and spoils their looks. The people of these
13
[NON-AUTOGRAPH]
places are very poor and strive desperately for money. They are as dirty as could be. Yesterday
14
.
when we dismounted at al-Salhiyah, several Arab women came to us carrying sheepskins of
15
.
shinina that they sell very cheap, that is to say, for one piaster each or at most
16
.
two. From Baghdad to here, eggs are also cheap and we never bought less
17
.
than eight or nine for one qamariQamari: See the note on ashari above. The qamari is an imaginary coin representing a certain amount of local currency. but vegetables are not available at all and the bread, which is black and thick in these areas, is extremely miserable.

May


19
May 1st
It was a cold morning, colder than any other day,
20
.
and it seems that the higher we go the colder it becomes. The night was cold too, colder than yesterday.
21
.
At 7:15 we left al-Showayt and we marched on an even flat land resembling
22
.
Baghdad's lands, but always keeping the mountains on our left. Here the kroud grew more numerous
23
.
on the banks of the Euphrates and there are also many wide sandbanks in the river. At 12:15,

Page 027


01
al-Mayadin
we arrived at the village of al-Mayadinal-Mayadin: A town in eastern Syria built in 1868 on the right bank of the Euphrates River. It lies about 45 kilometers south of Dayr al-Zawr. The name means "field" in Arabic and it once a training ground for cavalry. al-Mayadi was a pricipal town in the Syrian desert and an important market for the exchange of goods with Bedouins., which came into view one hour and a half's march away.
02
.
We saw the village mulberry trees first. I found it a big town, bigger than all the others
03
.
we passed except al-'Ana. Some of the houses are built on high ground and are like those at al-Hit.
04
.
Mostly they are well built with baked bricks, plaster, and large doors made
05
.
in the usual manner. Everything is available here. Several kinds of food and clothing,
06
.
white bread, meat, and other things. At 1:00 in the afternoon we found a place to stop.
07
.
The caravan encamped on a high, dry bank facing an extremely wide, green riverbank.
08
.
From here we have maybe just eight hours left until al-Dayr, where we will ride tomorrow morning, God permitting.
09
.
The stifling heat grew worse in the afternoon, with
10
.
black rain-filled clouds. We had only just arrived at 2:30 when a downpour hit us
11
.
along with an extremely strong westerly wind, drenching us all.
12
.
The rain came into the tent and soaked the beds. It continued for nearly
13
.
15 minutes with flashes of lightening and loud claps of thunder. It stopped raining half an hour later and the wind lessened but
14
.
the desert became muddy and impossible to cross. This rain cloud did a lot of damage
15
.
since we are in such a place with absolutely no shelter. The wind was still blowing as before
16
.
but the weather has cleared a little and the sun came out. However, if the rain comes again,
17
.
we will be totally lost and we are worried about the night. Passing by al-Mayadin
18
.
we saw buildings on the mountaintop on our left that are extremely old and bigger than those we saw
19
.
yesterday. I wanted to go and look if it were not for this damned weather that prevented me. Some say that these places
20
.
built so long ago are called rahabah or rahabutal-Rahabah: [rahabah, rahabut] A town mentioned in the Old Testament spelled Rah bout that was most probably built by Ninroud Bin Koush in 2000 BCE. It was one of the Aramaic principalities destroyed by the Assyrians upon the rise of their Empire. Today, the site is known as the "Rahbi Citadel" or "Rahba Citadel" or "Qalaat al-Rahba," an Arab fortress built by Assad al-Din Shirgoh who was the uncle of Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi. It was rebuilt to ensure the protection of the Euphrates route and to withstand Tatar and Mongol invasions. as is written in the Old Testament.
21
.
They are about 2500 to 2800 years old and truly worth seeing.
22
.
Colonel Mockler, who had been to see them this morning, said that on some of the walls there are SyriacSyriac: Referring to the Syriac Christians, a community rooted in Near Eastern Christianity. The Syriac language developed out of Aramaic to become the literary language of the Aramaic Christians in the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire and further east in the Sassanian Empire. In the 5th century, the Nestorian schism and the Council of Chalcedon led to significant shifts in the Church. Ctesiphon became the capital in the East and Antioch in the West. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Syriac Christians formed distinct but not isolated communities in Syria, Iraq, and Jordan. ["Syriac" in Encyclopedia of Medieval Islamic Civilization] TO COMPLETE: REFERENCE IS TO SYRIAC LITERATURE engravings,
23
.
one depicts a lion with a human figure underneath and other things. I regret that I did not see these places.

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01
.
Arrival at Dayr al-Zawr

02
May 2
A COLD MORNING with a strong westerly wind blowing. The night was
03
.
extremely cold and wet. We were up at 5:30 and after drinking tea we gathered the ropes, tents, and everything else and
04
.
loaded them onto the animals. At 7:15 we rode toward Dayr al-Zawr leaving
05
.
al-Mayadin behind us in a half hour. We marched
06
.
on even, flat terrain, resembling the wilds around Baghdad, always keeping the chain of hills on our right.
07
.
We found the ground wet after yesterday's rainfall but after two hours' march the desert
08
.
appeared dry. The rain had only been in our vicinity. Thus we traveled on,
09
Dayr al-Zawr
sometimes through cultivated lands and sometimes over arid lands. At 9:30 we passed
10
.
through the region of the Khabur RiverKhabur: Name of a river in Syria; al-Khabur [Nahr al-Khabur (Ar.), Habur Nehri (Tr.)] was an important tributary of the Euphrates River. It rises in the mountains of southeastern Turkey near Diyarbakr and flows southeastward to al-Hasakah, Syria, where it receives its main tributary, the Jaghjagh. It then meanders south to join the Euphrates downstream from Dayr az-Zawr. The Khabur (“Source of Fertility") has a total length of about 200 miles (320 km). The climate of the drainage basin is warm and semiarid to arid. The river has long been important for irrigating the fertile al-Hasakah region of northeastern Syria., but we could not see it in the distance. At last,
11
.
at one in the afternoon, we came to a sandy region and here we were hit by a strong gust of wind mixed with sand and
12
.
dust that nearly blinded us. We passed through it in just half an hour. At 2:00 in the afternoon
13
.
the town of Dayr al-Zawr came into view in the distance. We continued to march between small hills
14
.
behind which the town would sometimes vanish and then reappear. Truly, I was overcome by joy
15
.
when we approached a half hour's distance because 17 days of travel through the desert, always among the nomads,
16
.
and never seeing any of our own kind had saddened my heart. Then, when we were
17
.
one quarter of an hour away, the town came into full view, resembling the entrance to Baghdad from Bab al-Mo'adhdhamBab al-Mo'adhdham: The gate at the northeastern entrance to Baghdad. Originally named "Bab al-Sultan" in honor of the Seljuk Sultan Tagur Bek (1055 CE), the gate was demolished in 1923. The name was subsequently changed as the gate then led to the big mosque of Imam al-Mo'adhdham..
18
.
In this moment I remembered my homeland and everything there. Because Colonel
19
.
Mockler was at the head of the caravan, he was received by the zaptiye battalion commandantBattalion commandant: [(Tr.)tabura-ghassi] Tabur is a Battalion of about 800 men and ghassi could be translated here as 'leader'.
20
.
and the chief of the municipality along with ten zaptiyeZaptiye: [zaptieh (Tr.), zabite (Ar.)] The 'policing' (zabita) in Ottoman times was usually carried out by companies of the janissaries and so was a military function. The Zaptiye was officially established by a 1869 Tanzimat Military Code which established a police force distinct from the army. However, because this police force was armed it came under the jurisdiction of the Military Commander in Chief’s Office and was organized on military lines with a company (bölük) of 200 men, battalion (tabur) of 800, and regiment (alay) of 3200, commanded by a Bölük Ağası, Tabur Ağası, and Alay Beyi. The individuals were called 'zaptiye'. The zaptiye were later called 'jandarma' (gendarmes). who led us to the edge of town.
21
.
A large crowd, a great number of men and boys, were at the town gate watching us.
22
.
I was very pleased to find a few Christians among the boys
23
.
I was able to speak to them in Arabic and asked about things in the town

Page 029


01
.
and other topics. Just then they told us that we would have to be inspected for the plague before entering and
02
.
the military physician must examine us. We all stopped and they sent the men and boys away.
03
.
The physician came and examined every one of us by feeling under
04
.
the armpit. A woman came also to examine the women. A few minutes later we entered the town
05
.
and people were still coming to look at us. Truthfully, the way they had examined us
06
.
is quite ridiculous because it was done with some kind of mockery. Both physicians did nothing more than lay
07
.
their hands on us and say, "Go, you have nothing." That is also some kind of Turkish business.
08
Dayr al-Zawr
In the end, as my eyes passed over the group of people looking from one person to the next,
09
.
Razouk Dinha whom I know very well from his time in Baghdad and Basrah appeared right in front of me!
10
.
I was so pleased as we greeted each other, remembering my time in Baghdad,
11
.
I talked to him all the while I walked. I learned that Colonel Mockler decided to camp in the municipality orchard,
12
.
at the invitation of the chief of the municipality. He was unable to decline. At last we entered through the market,
13
.
roofed over like an orchard trellis. We arrived at a very long and wide road,
14
.
nearly 20 cubits in width and paved in European order. It is a thousand times better than the roads of
15
.
Baghdad. Here there is never any mud on the roads.
16
.
Next to the wall is a marble irrigation canal which they use to sprinkle the long road and nearby few small
17
.
mulberry trees are planted. It appears that this road will be extremely pleasant in due time.
18
.
Coming to the orchard gate we saw that the road had been sprinkled with water
19
.
and military people were waiting for us. The chief of the municipality received us very cordially. We entered
20
.
a well-designed and furnished office. When the caravan arrived
21
.
we put up the tents in a pleasant place in the orchard. The orchard has many
22
.
pomegranate trees and other greenery, like bean plants and ...[illegible]“...”: Illegible word.. Among the people here, I also recognized Thomas
23
.
OssanyThomas Ossany: Ossany moved to the village of Amara in 1873 with his wife and six children where he was appointed a member of the Mejlis of Tamayyiz. In 1875, he was replaced by Fathalla Sayegh. [JMS-MM12:94; MM15:15] who came from Baghdad 11 months ago with Razouk Dinha.

Page 030


01
.
He asked me many things about Baghdad. After we settled in I wanted to go to church because
02
.
they told me there are two of them here. It is also the month of Holy Devotions to MaryHoly Month of Mary: [(Ar.)al-shahr al-maryiami]The annual month of devotions to the Virgin Mary in May.
03
.
and I wanted to hear them. So I took mother and Razouk with me to the Armenian Catholic ChurchArmenian Catholic Church: The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic Church. Historically it represents a schism from the Armenian Apostolic Church. It is in full compliance with and subject to the authority of the pope in Rome. The Catholic Armenians have dioceses in many countries of the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. In 1928, the Armenian Catholic Church in Lebanon was administratively, academically, culturally reorganized. The congregation includes approximately thirty thousand people, served by about thirty priests and monks, spread over eight parishes. Despite a broad diaspora, the Armenian people maintain a sense of their national, cultural, and religious identity..
04
.
I found it very pleasing, decorated, and rather small, holding no more than 50 to 70 people.
05
.
All the pictures and statues inside are lovely and I very much liked it. After hearing the prayers of the month of Holy Devotions to
06
.
Mary we returned to the tents. After dinner at sunset Razouk came to spend the evening with us.
07
.
He invited us for lunch at his house tomorrow and we promised to come.
08
.
It became cold and damp at sunset.
09
May 3
Today we got up as usual and drank tea. The night was stuffy
10
.
and the morning likewise. At 8:30 I went with Colonel Mockler to visit
11
.
the church I saw yesterday and we met the priest, named Father
12
Dayr al-Zawr
Narciss. We also met the Syriac Parson Yaqoub who heads the Syriac sect here.
13
.
As we were leaving the priests expressed their desire to visit us.
14
.
Colonel Mockler said he would be available in one hour. So we returned to the camp.
15
.
Half an hour later, Razouk and Tommy Ossany came to visit us followed by the priests with Sa'id EffendiSa’id Effendi: Archbishop Ignatius’ brother.,
16
.
brother of Archbishop IgnatiusArchbishop Ignatius: [Khoury Ignatius] The Assyrian priest traveled from Basrah to Baghdad on board Lynch Bros. Steamship. In March 1891, he gave Joseph Mathias two letters of introduction for his travels in Europe. [JMS-MM33:171, 172; MM44:5; MM35:195] in Baghdad. They received two letters
17
.
about us. Half an hour later they left and went to visit Colonel Mockler. I wanted to bathe,
18
.
shave, and get a haircut. I seized the opportunity, took my clothes,
19
.
and went to the bath run by Antone, the son of Batti al-Baghdadi.
20
.
I went to a barber for a haircut and a shave. I went to bathe afterwards
21
.
and I found it pleasant, hot, and paved with marble.
22
.
Returning to our place an hour later I found Touza, Jarjous's wife and the sister
23
.
of our friend Archbishop BasilArchbishop Basil: In September 1889, Basil wroted to Joseph Matthias informing him of the arrival of his neice Alice and her husband Captain Clements. [JMS-NA59:133], who was in Baghdad seven years ago.

Page 031


01
.
They came to visit us with the wife of the municipal physician. They are very nice people and speak
02
.
softly with extreme politeness. It turned 12:30 and they were still with us.
03
.
At last they left and we set out at once for Razouk's where we also found the Armenian priest who joined us for lunch.
04
.
They served lamb and kubba mosulKubba Mosul: (Ar.) A kind of meatball made of bulgur, onions, minced meat and spices.. We returned at 2:30 when
05
Dayr
I took the opportunity to write these lines. Afterwards I went to see the town. On my way back I went to
06
.
the place of Anton Baghdibaghdassar with whom I was able to strike up a
07
.
friendship when I arrived here yesterday. He is a nice man from Damascus, about 27 years old. He owns
08
Dayr al-Zawr
a big shop where he sells everything. He offered me a sherbet and I bought some apricot jam from him.
09
.
Later, I went with Colonel Mockler to tour the town and returned at sunset. I went to bed
10
.
after dinner.
11
May 4th
Unlike before, this morning was moderately cold and it became somewhat hot. The night was
12
.
not as cold as yesterday. We awoke and drank tea and decided to visit the guests
13
.
who had called on us yesterday. I left the orchard with my mother and father and we went to visit
14
al-Zawr
the Armenian Father Narciss. His sister-in-law, the wife of Jarjis Dikran, came also. After
15
.
a long talk we left and went to visit Archbishop Basil's sister. She received us very nicely
16
.
and offered us citronBitter orange: [(Ar.)turunj] Citrus fruit mostly found in hot tropical countries. The scientific name Citrus Medica Risso, also known as the Seville Orange. jam followed by coffee and sherbet. We stayed for one hour and then went to visit
17
.
the wife of Monsieur Salim, the municipality physician. And again, welcoming us graciously they showed us
18
.
to the guest area and offered us several kinds of jam and sweets
19
.
followed by coffee. Then she brought in two dishes of sugared and plain nuts that she divided and placed
20
.
in our pockets, as is the custom. Truthfully we found that only the notables of Dayr
21
.
are urbane and receive guests with a cordial welcome. We left at 11:00 Western time and I
22
.
went with Razouk Dinha to tour the markets and other places. I went to all
23
.
the streets and also went to the palacePalace: [(Tr.) saray] Ganj Yousif Pasha built this palace during his governorship over Damascus (1807-1810). where I saw all the rooms.

Page 032


01
.
I was astonished to see that Dayr is built like this. I returned
02
.
one hour later. Several women of Dayr came to visit us after breakfast, as did the wife of Sa'id Effendi,
03
.
Archbishop Ignatius's brother, with some of her relatives. The dress of some of Dayr's women is quite
04
.
hideous. They put a thing like a golden bowl made over their heads with pieces of cloth the size
05
.
of a hand covered with pearls which dangle over their ears. Most of them also wear a white veil.
06
.
There are no more than 70 or 80 Christian households here. In the afternoon, the people of the municipality and the military officials wanted
07
.
Colonel Mockler to show them his bicycle. He ordered
08
.
Tom Dexter to ride it in the street. People came and gathered around to such an extent that
09
.
no room was left for the bicycle to go. Then seeing the bicycle, they were all utterly astonished and amazed,
10
.
having heard of it only few days before our arrival here, and all were shouting,
11
.
"The iron horse, the iron horse!" At 3:00 in the afternoon I went to Razouk's place and while talking to Doctor Salim
12
.
I learned that Parson Yaqoub has an organ at the church. I was so very pleased
13
.
and I wanted to play, remembering my own organ and my days in Baghdad. So we left
14
.
Razouk at 5:00 and went, Doctor Salim and I, to Parson Yaqoub's place. He received us
15
.
very warmly and I found the organ. I played the tunes I knew and, at that moment,
16
.
I remembered Baghdad and the times when I used to sit in our big room and play my organ.
17
.
I left the Parson's at sunset and returned to the tents. After dinner and sunset at 8:30
18
.
Doctor Salim and his wife came to spend the evening with us, leaving three hours
19
.
later.
20
May 5

21
.
THIS MORNING is like yesterday's and so was the night. There are lots of flies here and our tent is filled with thousands of them. At 7:30,
22
.
we made a visit to the family of Sa'id Effendi, Archbishop Ignatius' brother.
23
.
They honored us as the others had done. Returning afterwards I went with my mother to visit

Page 033


01
.
Parson Yaqoub and see the Syriac Church. On our way we met Touza Jarjous
02
.
and she went with us to visit the Parson. We found the church nice and small but not
03
.
decorated like the Armenian Church. When we returned, we understood that Colonel Mockler
04
.
decided to travel today. So we prepared our baggage for traveling to Damascus. We hired three
05
.
camels to carry water for the Consul and for us because no fresh water is available on the road to Damascus.
06
Departure from Dayr al-Zawr
Then all the people we met here came to bid us goodbye and they were very sad at our parting.
07
.
They showed us the true meaning of friendship and wished us the very best journey.
08
.
At 2:00 in the afternoon we packed the tents and our things. Then we strapped the trunks shut.
09
.
The mules came an hour later and as we loaded them I felt as though
10
.
I were on my way out of Baghdad. At 3:30 the caravan was prepared to move. I draped my
11
.
kaffiyah over my head, left the orchard, and said goodbye to everyone I know.
12
.
The MutasarrifMutasarrif: (Ar.) Turkish administrative officer in Arab countries. of this place sent twelve fully armed zaptiye to escort
13
.
Colonel Mockler.
14
.

15
.
Departure from Dayr al-Zawr and the Journey to Damascus

16
.


17
.
I mounted the horse and the caravan went ahead with all the travelers,
18
.
the Zhair family, and the Director of Palmyra. When I neared the end of town
19
.
heading toward the barren desertal-A'qfir: Probably an old name for the Syrian desert derived from the Arabic word qaf'r, meaning 'wilderness'. We do not know whether this is a description or the name of the desert. It either means "barren" or "barren desert". where we will surely spend some 12 to 15 days.
20
.
Because this is the last moment I will be on the banks of the dear Euphrates, and
21
.
especially as I will be gone for some time, I wanted very much to drink its water
22
.
one last time. So I went to a house and asked them for some water. I drank a little,
23
.
turned towards the Euphrates, and said, "I commend you to God's protection, O

Page 034


01
.
Euphrates. When will we meet again, will it be soon or later?"
02
.
Since both Razouk Dinha and Tony Ossany had accompanied us, I bade them goodbye outside
03
.
the town. We marched on, distancing ourselves little by little until Dayr was out of sight.
04
al-Malhah
We decided to travel three hours today and go to a place
05
.
called al-Malhahal-Malhah: To be completed.. Finally we arrived at 6:00, just before sunset. We unpacked the tents
06
.
and set up camp in a barren desert. A spring with flowing water is next to us on the right but
07
.
it is fouled by the animals coming to drink.
08
May 6
Today we were up at 4:00 in the morning because Colonel Mockler said yesterday that we would have
09
.
to march in the early hours. But saying this is useless, because he likes to sleep in and does not wake up
10
.
until sunrise. Finally at 6:15 we moved out of al-Malhah and headed toward a dry and barren
11
.
land without a single green plant. We marched steadily with
12
.
nothing to be seen but earth and sky. It is true what they say that "There is no land but the land of Damascus."
13
al-Qebaqeb
Because if one travels without fresh water one will undoubtedly perish. At last
14
.
at 2:15 in the afternoon we came to the military post of al-Qebaqebal-Qebaqeb: Musil mentioned that 'Kebakeb' was one of the military stations on the road between Tudmor and al-Rahaba. [Palmyrena, 252], a small fort built in
15
.
the middle of the desert with a well nearby that is six fathoms deep. But what water!
16
.
First all the animals such as sheep, camels, and mules drink from it. Secondly it
17
.
has a bitter and foul taste that is barely tolerable. So we camped opposite the fort.
18
.
We greatly miss the sight of the Euphrates and the taste of its fresh water. Dismounting and settling in, we wanted
19
.
to open one of the waterskins we brought on the camels but we found that the sheepskin was newly tanned
20
.
and the water inside had become green and is wasted. Truthfully we very much regretted this incident and we are also
21
.
afraid that the amount of water may not be sufficient for us because tomorrow's stationStation: [konag (Tr.)] is quite distant
22
.
according to some, nearly 18 hours away. We are obliged to stay here until noon tomorrow and then we will travel in stages.
23
.
The wind changed and clouds came.

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01
May 7
A pleasant but cloudy morning. We woke at 6:15 and awaited
02
.
our departure. After tea I used spare moments
03
.
to write several letters to our family and friends in Baghdad which I would send at the first
04
.
opportunity. Finally we woolgathered until 11:00, and then we
05
.
ate breakfast hastily, and started to tie on the loads. At 12:00 noon we picked up
06
.
and rode. We marched steadily for about two hours under a scorching sun but afterwards it grew cloudy
07
.
with a westerly wind and became cool and chilly. After marching for four hours over
08
Muhayfir
gravelly ground in a dry and barren desert without a single bird to be seen, but always
09
.
with distant hills to our right, the caravan in front halted and they said that
10
.
signs of raiders were seen at a distance coming in our direction to plunder us. All the soldiers, the zaptiye,
11
.
and the travelers, some 25 persons gathered and we sent out one armed man to gather information about those coming
12
.
toward us. We arranged the entire caravan and the mule litters in a tight group and continued to march.
13
.
Half an hour later the messenger returned and told us that nearly 50 bedouinsBedouin: Derived from badawi (Ar.), also spelled Bedouin, is a generic name for a desert-dweller, and a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups. The Bedouins constitute only a small part of the total population of the Middle East but inhabit or utilize a large part of the land area throughout most of the desert belt. Most of them are pastoralists who migrate into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back toward the cultivated land in the dry summer months. Following World War I the Bedouin tribes had to submit to the control of the governments of the countries in control of their pasture lands. Many of them became sedentary as a result of political and economic developments, especially after the second World War. Among the Arabic-speaking tribes, the head of the family, as well as of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure, is called sheikh; the sheikh is assisted by an informal tribal council of male elders. were fleeing,
14
.
thinking that we, being the larger group, were raiders coming in pursuit of them. Thus we put our trust in God and rode on
15
.
until the sun had set and darkness spread. At 7:00 we passed MuhayfirMuhayfir: A military station on the road between Qebaqeb and Riqa. which consists of a site
16
.
where a well was dug without reaching water. The government of the Ottomans spent 400 pounds to this end.
17
.
As no water was found, it was abandoned. We unloaded the baggage at 8:15. It was intensely dark.
18
.
Then we pitched our tent temporarily and after a hasty meal went to sleep
19
.
fully dressed because we will rise early tomorrow.
20
May 8
A cold and a damp twilight. We awoke at 3:30 after midnight
21
.
to get ready to march. It was an unfortunate night, with dark clouds and rain for about an hour at midnight.
22
.
The desert became cold and the air was damp. We readied ourselves to march
23
.
and then at 5:00 we mounted and left our camp traveling to al-Safnaal-Safnah: Also spelled al-Sahne, another stopping point on the road to Riqa. where water is potable.

Page 036


01
.
Our march was very nice and pleasant with a spring breeze that always cheers the heart. We journeyed for a long time
02
.
through deserts like those we crossed yesterday. Then the weather cleared
03
.
and the wind changed to the west. Because we brought camels with us to carry the water, I wanted to ride
04
.
one. So I immediately made one camel kneel down and mounted its back. Tom Dexter did likewise, and then
05
.
we went out amid the caravan with everybody laughing at us. I rode for about two hours and afterwards Mrs. Mockler,
06
al-Sukhna
Mr. Mockler, and papa all rode it, each in turn. I found its gait pleasant
07
.
but jerks the rider back when it gets to its feet. We continued to march. Sometimes I rode and at other times I went on foot
08
.
until exactly 12:00 noon when we came to a small village called
09
.
Sukhna which consists of no more than a few houses built of mud, resembling those at al-Kerradaal-Kerrada: Part of the city of Baghdad to the South and on the East bank of the Tigris River (also called Karrada Sharqiya, or Eastern Kerrada). During Ottoman rule until the British occupation in 1917, this area was a village made up of farmlands with mud houses and separated from Baghdad province by many expansive orchards with no buildings except a few sarays owned by a handful of wealthy individuals. The farmers and other inhabitants of the village used to draw water from the River Tigris as was necessary to irrigate their farms and plantations, using a primitive hoisting device called kerd, hence the name: al-Kerrada'., with a nearby dwelling
10
.
for the soldiers who protect the inhabitants. Before arriving here we passed mountains on our right,
11
.
high and pleasant to view and white as if gypsum were flowing down from them.
12
.
Here we also found, near to the village, small rain-fed fields. We set up camp opposite three
13
.
orchards with pomegranate and willow trees but they were quite bare. We saw many springs
14
.
around us too, some big and others small, but all are sulphur springs with drinkable water though some are
15
.
warm and others are hot. The weather became hot with a strong sun.
16
May 9
A cold morning with a high, damp wind. We got up at 4:00 and changed our clothes.
17
.
The night was good and not very cold but since midnight the wind blew hard.
18
.
Though Colonel Mockler had said that today we would march at sunrise we moved out much
19
Riqa'
later, and right at 6:00 we left al-Sukhna heading towards the next stopping place. So we rode with the caravan
20
.
and marched steadily, sometimes over even and flat lands and at other times through deserts with bad footing,
21
.
full of stones and extremely difficult to walk on, with hills and mountains surrounding us.
22
.
There is nothing worth mentioning along our way except for arid land like before.
23
.
Then at 10:00 we came across a few Arabs on their way to al-Sukhna. It became hotter and the sun

Page 037


01
.
burned harshly. However we marched steadily on although troubled by the torments of this road
02
.
which is truly tiring and exasperating. At 1:30 in the afternoon
03
.
the station of Riqa'Riqa': In 1908, Musil also stopped here, mentioning that it was another military station, under the protection of the Qumsha clan of the 'Sba'a tribe'. [Palmyrena, 84-85] , our stopping place, came into view in the distance. In the area we saw nearly 100 large tents made of felt
04
.
belonging to the ShammarShammar: A Bedouin tribe mainly in Saudi Arabia, central, and western Iraq. It is the second largest Bedouin tribe of the Arabian Peninsula. They are part of the Ta'ee tribe, originally from Yemen. For centuries, they lived a sedentary lifestyle until they became camel herders and horse breeders in Northern Najd and expanded north into Iraq during the seventeenth century. By 1908, Musil notes that the station was controlled by the Kumsha clan from the Sba'a tribal confederation. [See above note; Musil, 84-85] Arabs. Their camels, numerous as worms, are teeming in these dry lands
05
.
where only gazelles, which never get thirsty, can live. These Arabs came here this morning
06
.
and they intend to go on to other lands. Their Sheikh is Fahad ibn Adghaym ibn HaddalFahad bin Adghaym bin Haddal: Sheikh of the Shammar tribe. To be completed
07
.
whose home is beyond Palmyra, some 12 hours away from here. Approaching
08
Riqa'
the Arabs we passed among them looking for somewhere to stop the caravan and dismount. We found
09
.
a nice place, high on a hilltop overlooking all the lands below, with the zaptiye station next to us.
10
.
There are many water springs here, far better than those at al-Sukhna
11
.
where the water is nauseating like the water of the wells in Baghdad houses which
12
.
I could never drink without torment. Thus we found the water better here, cleaner and more
13
.
palatable. However it does not resemble the fine water of the Euphrates whose equal, I think,
14
.
is found nowhere else in all the world and its freshness is unforgettable. What a pity it is to be far from the Euphrates.
15
.
Here I saw a water spring flowing wondrously beneath the rocks
16
.
in a cave deep inside a high mountain. Its water is extremely clear but with a taste of sulfurous gas.
17
.
A very beautiful sight. At the Arabs' camp I saw the howdajHowdaj: (Ar.) A camel litter usually used by women on long journeys.,
18
.
which is a long seat placed on the camel's back and ridden in by their women.
19
.
One hour before sunset I wanted to tour the area and the Arabs' camp. At first
20
.
I went down to watch the harvesters reaping excellent barley. Then I saw a spring of clear water
21
.
flowing from the depths of the mountain, an extremely beautiful sight. We went to observe the Arabs.
22
.
Climbing up a mountain I caught sight of the mountain of PalmyraPalmyra: [(Ar.) Tadmor, Tadmur] An important city in the ancient times, located in the Syrian desert, 145 km/90 miles east of Hims. It was known as the bride of the desert. The name 'Palmyra', an original Greek translation for the Aramaic name Tadmor, means 'palm tree'. From the first until the 12th century C.E., Palmyra flourished as a caravan station and the city grew steadily in importance because of its location on the Silk Road. It is most famous for Queen Zenobia, who was captured, imprisoned, and executed by the Roman Emperor Aurelian in 272 after a brief attempt at independence which threatened to deprive the empire of lucrative trade tariffs. Palmyra became a tourist destination in the 18th century after British travelers included the ruins in a popular travel diary and even more so because of the Iraqi Petroleum Company's oil pipeline that ran through the city between Kirkuk and Tripoli, Lebanon in the 20th century. [Encyclopedia of Islam, "Tadmor"] where we will go
23
.
tomorrow. I returned at sunset and the weather became cold and damp. We decided to set off
24
.
in the morning and travel to the famous city of Palmyra.

Page 038


01
May 10
A cold morning with a west wind blowing. The night was pleasant and damp. We were up at 4:00,
02
.
packed the tents at 5:30, and rode toward Palmyra. We marched steadily, at first traveling
03
.
for about one hour between hills and mountains and then on regular, level land where the desert was hard
04
.
and dry. At 7:00 the town of Palmyra came into view in the distance. First we caught sight
05
.
of glittering rock pillars whose story will come later. On the way
06
.
we passed many Arabs from the AnizaAniza: ['Iniza] Bedouin tribe that lives in northern Saudi Arabia, western Iraq and the Syrian steppe. The Royal families of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain are traced to this tribe. The Sheikh General lives in Western Iraq. This is one of the largest Arab Bedouin tribes with clans in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. Gulf countries, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey and Egypt.. They are going with their cattle to Riqa' to make offerings and celebrate the
07
.
Muslim Feast of SacrificesThe Islamic Feast of Sacrifices: Eid al-Adha (Ar.) falls on the tenth day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah. Eid al-Adha is celebrated by Muslims in commemoration of the Prophet Ibrahim's (Abraham's) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for God. with their Sheikh. We marched on steadily
08
Tadmur Palmyra
always in view of Palmyra which took only until 11:30 Western time. We then reached
09
.
these amazingly ancient and wondrous sites. The first thing we saw were
10
.
the oddly shaped pillars and we passed between them looking for a place to halt and dismount. In the end we camped
11
.
near a big arch with two smaller arches at the sides and about 20 pillars standing in a row
12
.
to the left of the arch's entryway. Some say the construction of these ancient temples is
13
.
as much as 3600 years old, while others say it is much older. The site of the temples and other structures
14
.
is as large as Baghdad and is bound on the right by very high mountains,
15
.
higher than all others we have seen. Four columns, about 30 or 40 cubits in height,
16
.
each made of one block of fine porphyry, stand in front of the big arch. It boggles the mind how
17
.
they could have cut this stone and made it stand upright. It is a thing impossible for anyone to explain without seeing it.
18
.
In the afternoon I left to go around and look at one part of the ruins. First I went
19
.
to the structures nearest us and came upon a temple that is rather small but amazingly built.
20
.
The size of every dressed block of stone used in its construction is no less than five cubits long and two cubits wide
21
.
and each stone is placed one on top of the other. Four big columns with small protruding ledges attached stand
22
.
at the entrance of this place. On one of the ledges I was able to see an inscription
23
.
in Greek and very difficult to read, like

Page 039


01
.
these letters that I copied literally from the stone:ΜΑΛΗΤΟΠΔΕΧΤ.
02
.
A different inscription that Colonel Mockler said to be Palmyrene script
03
.
is engraved at the right edge of the ledge and written like this: .
04
.
Then we left and went to another place. We came to a big gate at least 30 or 40
05
.
cubits long and 20 or 25 wide and built like this: , that is to say with only three blocks of marble stone.
06
.
From top to bottom it is decorated and carved entirely in the patterns of the ancients, a thing
07
.
that one may not notice unless one sees it himself. Several columns like this:
08
Tadmur Palmyra
stand to the sides of this wondrous gate, with blocks of stone set on top, each no less than
09
.
seven or ten cubits long and only a single stone block is laid between every two columns.
10
.
The columns' capitals are all carved in relief with flowers and other patterns, but these carvings will weather and be damaged
11
.
with time. There are ever so many walls in this site, ruined and fallen to the ground with the stones covering the whole area.
12
.
Also many columns had fallen and were left on the ground because no one could lift them due to their size.
13
.
Speaking of the columns, most are 25 to 30 cubits high with shafts made of three blocks of stone
14
.
placed one on top of the other and the circumference of each column, each no less than 7 or 8 cubits, can barely be encircled by four men.
15
.
Here the ground is sandy littered with large and small rocks, ruined walls, and columns that have fallen to the ground.
16
.
Opposite the ruins of Palmyra and to the right, lies a very high hill or
17
.
mountain with a big and frightening castleCastle: Situated on a mountaintop to the West of Palmyra, the Arab fort known as Palmyra Castle (Qalat Tadmor, or Qalat ibn Ma'an) was originally built during the Ayubid era (12-13th century) and then reconstructed and extended by the Lebanese Emir Fakhr Al-Din ibn Ma'ani in the 17th century to prevent Ottoman encroachment. His plans were unsuccessful and he was captured and executed by the Ottomans in 1635. The castle was surrounded by a moat and only accessible by drawbridge. built on top, so tall that it seems to tower into the sky.
18
.
We decided to climb it tomorrow and see what we might find up there. We also agreed to stay
19
.
here for two or three days in order to see everything. We returned at sunset and as I see it
20
.
we have not yet finished with one percent. The wind blew stronger here with heavy rain falling until
21
.
10:00.
22
May 11
A nice and a cold morning. We were up at 6:30 and we decided that after drinking
23
.
tea, we would tour the rest of the ruins. Colonel Mockler is distracted
24
.
with taking photographs and he is constantly going from one place to another taking pictures.

Page 040


01
.
At 7:30 we mounted the animals to tour these ancient buildings since
02
.
it is not possible to tour them on foot. One would soon be exhausted. First we headed toward
03
.
another small temple not as nice as the others but built with massive and imposing blocks of stone. Afterward
04
.
we rode toward the high mountain with the huge castle on top. Coming to the foot of the mountain we began to climb it
05
.
step by step amid small rocks, gravel, stones, and the like, on which
06
.
one could slip. Up the mountain we went, traversing from right to left and left to right.
07
.
15 minutes later we reached to the top. Truly I have never climbed up such a high and difficult mountain
08
Tadmur Palmyra
and may it be known that I was on foot and not riding. Reaching the mountaintop
09
.
we saw the castle built on its peak with a kind of moat around it, deep, broad
10
.
and quite intimidating. I walked around the castle but I did not find an entrance. Perhaps
11
.
the ancients used to lower a drawbridge from the castle door to the mountain in order to enter or exit.
12
.
In case an enemy came they would remove the bridge and the castle would remain secure and inaccessible.
13
.
It also appeared that the castle had two doors, one at the head of the passageway and another,
14
.
taller than the first, twenty cubits behind it. A well is in the ditch and so impossible for one
15
.
to reach in order to look inside. It is quite an amazing thing. How were they able to dig this well
16
.
and raise water out of it from such a depth? The mountain is no less than 400 meters high to the moat
17
.
encircling the castle. And a final wonder is how they could have laid each stone on the castle
18
.
at such a height (no less than 200 meters). In addition the entire castle is built with large blocks of stone
19
.
although they are smaller than those on the columns. Truly this castle and the well leave one quite dumbfounded,
20
.
an extremely wondrous thing that one could not believe without seeing it with his own eyes. The present
21
.
Sheikh of PalmyraSheikh of Palmyra, Mohammed bin Abdullah., Mohammed bin Abdullah, who is no more than 32 years old, said that this castle
22
.
was built by order of Ma'ana bin Za'ida after the destruction of Palmyra and the imprisonment of ZenobiaZenobia: To be completed., the Sultana
23
.
of these places. After being sufficiently astonished we descended the mountain and headed toward other places.

Page 041


01
.
So we continued to trek onward, always among boulders, until we approached a long, large chamber resembling
02
.
a tower. From a distance it appeared insignificant. Strangely enough, upon entering the chamber through the east door,
03
.
we saw something of such wonderful artifice and stone construction that one would be stunned.
04
.
Undoubtedly this chamber must have been the burial place of the ancients. It is perhaps 60 or 70 cubits in length
05
.
and equally as tall. To the north and south the chamber is partitioned into 12 compartments, resembling places for graves
06
.
or biers with a spiral stairway to the left in order to place them one on top of the other when the lower compartments
07
.
are full. A marble slab is above the door and engraved with inscriptions in both Greek
08
Tadmur Palmyra
and Palmyrene. Using binocularsBinoculars: (Pr.) Derbin is durbin (with و and ي) which is a Persian compound (dur meaning 'far' and bin meaning 'to see') used in Ottoman Turkish for 'binoculars'. This word is still commonly used in Iraq. because of their height, I have copied them in my notebook.
09
.
The outer construction of the chamber is nothing to make one suppose that such decoration will be found within.
10
.
Inside and facing the door human figures are carved, each with an extremely curious
11
.
script underneath. The ceiling is frescoed, engraved in color, and solidly constructed.
12
.
Inside are four stories: one underground, one at ground level, a third above it, and a fourth only used as a
13
.
mezzanine. This is a guess as to how it was. I could see a number
14
.
of visitors' names here and, by chance, in a corner on the left near to the door, written
15
.
with a light pencil and very difficult to read, the name Napoleon Bonaparte
16
.
written like this: Napoleon Bonaparte 1792. This date, that is 1792, is quite
17
.
ancient and deserving of amazement. How in all this time, 105 years, did it neither wear off
18
.
nor did the pencil writing fade? I also noticed the names of some people
19
.
we know: Faust Lorion and Coloman who was in Baghdad, Joseph Khoury
20
.
was engaged to Josephine the daughter of Aunt Medula, and so on and so forth. I too
21
.
wrote my name in many places. This inscription is found inside facing the door,
22
.
done by a Frenchman who came two years ago to study the ruins of Palmyra
23
.
and stayed for four months. He engraved this inscription on a stone in French:

Page 042


01
.
"Ici en 1895 la mission Bretone accompagnée
02
.
de Vizzavir Mourain et Bei[...]ard, passé le
03
.
printemps l'été emmurer à étudier les ruines de
04
.
Palmyre."

05
Tadmur Palmyra
and the names, F. Kinloche 1842, J.Ricot
06
.
Juillet-1895 Inspecteur de la dette publique,
07
.
and many others that I failed to copy in my notebook. When we left this place
08
.
I noticed that it was already 10:30. So I mounted the horse and rode back to the tents because
09
.
the weather had become extremely hot with a burning sun. On my way back I passed
10
.
a sulphur spring. At the upper end there was something like a hammam for washing and a number of women were bathing
11
.
inside. Its water is very clear and hot but not drinkable. The water of Palmyra is not
12
.
so good and it has a salty taste like well water. The heat became worse in the afternoon
13
.
with a strong simoom blowing. Because all the land here is sandy, the weather always turns
14
.
hot. I wished to bathe in the spring that is only a short distance from our place.
15
.
So I took my clothes and went. I found the water moderately hot and the bathing
16
.
place was warm and steamy. At sunset the wind blew much harder and it continued
17
.
like this until nightfall.
18
May 12th
A cold morning with a high wind blowing all night long.
19
.
The night was also cold like yesterday. We decided to
20
.
leave Palmyra today and continue our journey to Damascus. We will depart in the afternoon.
21
.
However, since we have not yet seen the other parts of Palmyra, with its huge temples
22
.
made with massive blocks of stone larger than the others, after tea at 7:30
23
.
we went toward the city and its environs to see these buildings. We arrived next to a great wall.
24
.
Its height towers to no more than 100 cubits and its foundation is 20 cubits in width.

Page 043


01
.
It is built entirely with stones that are much larger than any we had seen before. Next to the wall
02
.
columns larger than the others are erected and as tall as the wall. Here, amid the ruins,
03
.
the Arabs made themselves mud-wattle houses where they live. Finally we went towards a large gate
04
.
that must probably have been the city gate. What a sight. A person standing beneath it seems to be
05
.
the size of a sparrow. It is built like this: . Its height from the ground to the top is possibly 70 or 80 cubits
06
Tadmur Palmyra
and its width from one side to the other is no less than twenty cubits. It is entirely engraved and decorated
07
.
with impressive designs. How could a person be capable of carving such things on a single block of stone?
08
.
And the thing that amazed me more than anything else is the single stone, perhaps 25 or 30 cubits long, laid over
09
.
the top of the gate, extending from one column to the other. How could they have lifted this stone to place it
10
.
on top and so high? The construction of the walls is entirely of extremely massive stones.
11
.
I stepped off one of them on foot and found it 35 paces long and 11 wide. Then we went into
12
.
the heart of a temple, which they have now turned into a mosque for prayers, I mean only half of it. I found it magnificent.
13
.
It is built like a church. At its center there is a large inner temple roofed over with one single square marble stone
14
.
measuring no less than 30 steps on a side and completely engraved and carved. An indescribable thing.
15
.
Built in this way: this place was probably used for praying. Here one part
16
.
of the temple is roofed over with rock and has a stairway leading upwards. I climbed up and saw something
17
.
that boggled my mind. The stones with which this temple was roofed were, each one, no less than 20 cubits
18
.
in length and three in width. We continued wandering around these sites, regretting such a hasty
19
.
departure because one can never get enough of the view of Palmyra and exploring its ruins. Then we returned after
20
.
a thorough look around to our tents. The marketplaces are amid the ruins and one also finds here
21
.
about 1000 houses. Among the people of the town all the women ruin their looks with tattoos which
22
.
encircle their faces and on their chests. In Palmyra one also finds 10 or 12 orchards, most of them
23
.
cultivating olive trees and to a lesser extent apricot and apple trees. There are

Page 044


01
.
only about 20 or 30 date palms. All the plantings are irrigated from the existing
02
.
springs without which no one would have settled in these parts.
03
Tadmur Palmyra
Finally at 3:30 in the afternoon we prepared to set out. We mounted and left Palmyra heading
04
.
toward Damascus. After traveling three hours, at 6:30, we stopped because Colonel
05
.
Mockler did not wish to go any farther. Here the wind blew very hard and the weather
06
.
became extremely cold. This was the first time in our journey that we found it so cold. We pitched the tent
07
.
temporarily because we will be up tomorrow morning and finish today's journey stage. Today half an hour after
08
.
leaving Palmyra four zaptiye came to meet us. They were sent from al-Qaryataynal-Qaryatayn: According to Musil, 'al-Zerjitejn', was a large Christian and Muslim settlement protected by the Rwala tribe until 1903. The settlement lay on the western slope of the Kehle mountain and the al-Nusrani ridge, with ample pastureland and agriculture irrigated by the Umm al-Qalajid spring. [Palmyrene, 98-101], which lies
09
.
20 hours from here in search of Colonel Mockler. The Consul in DamascusThe Consul in Damascus: The diarist meant the British Consul at Damascus.
10
.
sent instructions to the Governor of al-QaryataynThe Governor of al-Qaryatayn: In 1908, this was Ahmad bin Fajjaz Agha. [Palmyrene, 101] that he should tell the zaptiye to go and welcome Colonel Mockler.
11
.
So they have come here inquiring after us. From Palmyra to here there were never ending towering mountains
12
.
on the right and left, higher than all the others we have passed. At sunset
13
.
the cold worsened but the wind dropped somewhat and I slept in the mule litter since there was
14
.
no use unloading the baggage.
15
May 13
A bitterly cold morning, as cold as could ever be, like the coldest days of winter,
16
.
with a strong wind blowing out of the west. We were up at 5:30, tied on the baggage, and then set out
17
.
from our stopping place heading for the zaptiye post of al-Baydhaal-Bayda: A military station on the road between Tadmor and al-Qaryatayn.. We marched steadily among even, flat lands without
18
.
any rise or fall of the ground, but the cold weather that always killed us. I had even put on thick
19
.
woolen cloaks over my coat and riding outfit, but I was still dying from the cold. I was thinking that
20
al-Bayda
in Baghdad now they must be suffering from the heat and sleeping on the rooftops.
21
.
At 8:15 we came to the zaptiye post of al-Baydha and we dismounted briefly to breakfast and rest but without the tents.
22
.
Then in the afternoon we will resume our ride because our stopping place is very far and we will likely have to march all night.
23
.
al-Baydha is a barren desert with nothing around but a post that is the zaptiye's fort.

Page 045


01
.
No water is available here except for the water of a very deep well that is not potable except for the animals. At
02
.
1:15 in the afternoon we tied the baggage on again and prepared the caravan to travel
03
.
until we are unable to continue because our journey stage is very long. Thus we rode on under a burning sun and
04
.
severe heat crossing barren deserts and dry lands until 7:00,
05
.
that is to say, at sunset. Colonel Mockler wanted to stop here and sleep for a few hours.
06
al-Iqsayr
Afterwards we would wake at midnight and continue this stage of the journey. So we halted the caravan temporarily and pitched the tents
07
.
but we did not unload the baggage. Here the weather was somewhat better
08
.
than yesterday evening and not as bitterly cold. However the wind was always blowing
09
.
and it was cloudy with a moon that seemed 14 days old. Afterwards we hurriedly ate everything to be found whether hot
10
.
or cold and went to sleep at 9:00. This place is called al-Iqsayral-Iqsayr: A small village slightly south of al-Baydhah..
11
May 14
We woke up early, that is, at 12:00 midnight and then having
12
.
done everything in a hurry, we loaded the baggage onto the animals and set off at 1:15
13
.
to finish our journey. The morning was very cold and dry with a light westerly wind blowing. It was a spring night.
14
.
Truthfully we are growing very weary of our travels. We have had no rest from yesterday morning until now.
15
.
Moreover my health is much changed. I have a toothache that is very painful and it
16
al-Qaryatayn
became worse with the cold. We continued to march through the night sometimes going among tiny rocks and at other times
17
.
over flat barren land until the town of al-Qaryatayn came into view some three hours away.
18
.
Because of the low elevation it would vanish and then come into view again. At 9:30 we arrived and entered the town.
19
.
At its outskirts there are many nice orchards, most of them planted with grapevines, pomegranate trees,
20
.
and castor oil plants. Afterwards we came to lanes resembling the lanes of Basrah. We heard that
21
.
the Sheikh of al-Qaryatayn, named Fayadh, had invited Colonel Mockler to stay with him at his house.
22
.
Finally, approaching his house, Colonel Mockler asked us to stay with him. We entered
23
.
through the door. The house looked lovely, built with stone and white plaster.
24
.
We were ushered into the vestibule and we drank the sherbet they offered us. I found his house quite pleasant

Page 046


01
.
and well built. In such a small town one does not expect to find a house of this sort, with Vienna chairsVienna seats: Seats manufactured by the Thonet Brothers Company, established in Vienna-Austria in 1849, for the manufacture of bentwood furniture. They received a patent in 1856 for creating furniture by bending steamed wood. Their designs were considered forerunners of the 'Art Nouveau' movement.,
02
.
benches, and bedsBeds: [charpaye (Pr.)] A form of charpa [char meaning 'four', and pa meaning 'foot'] which means, among other things, "bedstead". that have mosquito netting, and a perfectly appointed salon.
03
.
It also has 6 fine rooms and we settled into one of them. At noon they prepared a breakfast for us
04
.
which we ate with Colonel Mockler. The town is not unpleasant.
05
.
It has about 100 Christian houses. Their Syriac priest is coming to see us today to invite
06
.
us to stay with him. Everything is available here, from food to drink, but as today
07
.
is the continuation of the Muslims' feast all the shops are closed. After breakfast I napped for about two and a half hours
08
.
as I was desperate for a rest. God willing, little more is left for us
09
.
and we will be in Damascus the day after tomorrow. Thus we will be done with this accursed whirlwind
10
al-Qaryatayn
that lacks the least comfort and confounds our lives. In the afternoon we heard that Colonel
11
.
Mockler intends to take a different road to Damascus and not the common road which will prolong
12
.
the journey by one or two days altogether. In order to travel less each day. Truthfully we were quite paralyzed by
13
.
these upheavals and do not know when we will be done with this whirl. The Zhair family decided
14
.
to travel early tomorrow by the road that goes directly to Damascus doubtless arriving
15
.
the next day. In the afternoon we were pleased to visit the Syriac priest Ibrahim. We found his son
16
.
at the house. He is a married man with three children. Here all the people of the town wear the 'akkal
17
.
and the kaffiyah, even the Christians and the priest's son too, who looks like a Muslim. So we accompanied him to their home and walked
18
.
through lanes that resemble the pathways of the buffalo in Baghdad. At last we arrived at the priest's house
19
.
which looks like a stable. A room is in it resembling a drawing room furnished with seats and some pillows.
20
.
PistolsPistols: [warawer (Ar.)] In the Arabic diary, plural of warwar, a colloquial word that means 'a revolver'. and weapons hang on the walls with other quite laughable things. The priest, himself an old man,
21
.
is very poor and he looks like an Arab with both hands covered in tattoos. Finally when we rose to leave we asked him to show us his church. He took us
22
.
and we walked together from one house to the other until he came to a door like that of an old house.
23
.
Then he opened the church door and we entered. We found that it resembles the Chaldean school in
24
.
Baghdad. It is even the same size, with about six or seven pictures inside, some of which are torn, and a very crooked throne

Page 047


01
.
with four candles. But how strange. In all the church there was neither seat nor mat, nothing
02
.
whatsoever to sit on. When we asked the priest, he replied saying that those who wanted to hear mass would stand
03
.
and some would sit. However he is not to blame for this black poverty because the town is not even worth
04
.
seeing, though it has nice orchards. I found lots of grapevines here, filling all the
05
.
orchard fields, and poplar trees as well. After wandering the pitiful lanes we
06
.
went back to the best house to be found here. Qaryatayn
07
.
is small with about 2000 souls. At sunset today my molar hurt me badly
08
.
and I suffered intensely.
09
May 15
A spring morning and not very cold. This was the first night that we slept in a room built of stone.
10
.
From Baghdad to here we have always slept in tents.
11
.
We got up at 5:00 and waited for the Colonel's order to march. At last we tied on the baggage at 6:00,
12
.
left Sheikh Fayadh's house, and left the village heading
13
.
north, while the Zhair family took the direct route and went on to Damascus. We continued to
14
.
march among hills and mountains, over rough and stony terrain. We came
15
Maheen
across many Arabs from the 'Aniza tribe or Bedouins traveling from one place to another looking for
16
.
pasture land. They are abundant as worms in these places. Sheikh Fayadh too
17
.
rode with us to DamascusThe Government of Damascus: The Ottoman authorities in Damascus. Yesterday he wrote a letter to the government of Damascus
18
.
informing them of Colonel Mockler's arrival and departure. We too took the opportunity and sent a letter with the messenger
19
.
to our dear friend Archbishop Basil in Damascus, requesting him, if possible, to find a house for us near his
20
.
where we might stay, as it would be better than going to a hotel. We continued to march on an unpleasant
21
.
road. The mountains to our left were growing much higher and at a distance ahead of us we even caught sight of a
22
.
mountaintop covered with snow. This is the Lebanon Mountain Range.
23
.
At 10:15 we arrived at MaheenMaheen: According to Musil, the village 'Mhin' was to the northwest of al-Qaryatayn on the road to al-Qastal., a very small village. At the end of the village we met
24
.
Colonel Mockler and his escort who had decided to take breakfast before moving on.

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01
.
So we continued to march not knowing where we were going. We took the road leading to HajraHajra: A small village between Maheen and al-Qastal., another
02
.
small village like Maheen. Then half an hour later one of the zaptiye who had accompanied us caught
03
.
up with us and said that we should take the north road to go to HafayyirHafayyir: A small village between Maheen and al-Qastal. and then
04
Hafayyir
to Hajra. So we returned once more. Having lost half an hour here we finally continued to march until
05
.
2:10, when we arrived at Hafayyir. We passed many orchards like those at Qaryatayn,
06
.
full of grapevines more than anything else. We then set up camp near a small river that flows
07
.
from a far-off spring, finding ourselves surrounded by high mountains. In the afternoon
08
.
I want to go and see the streets and the church since all the people
09
.
of this village are Jacobite ChristiansJacobite Christians: In the 19th Century the Syrian Orthodox Church was quite marginal in the midst of a Muslim majority. However, they had strong ties to European philosophies and institutions. European ideas were translated by the Jacobites, putting even more pressure on the already decaying Ottoman Institutions. with few Syriacs and no Muslims or Jews to be found.
10
.
A priest named Salman oversees them. Hafayyir has only 1,000 inhabitants.
11
.
Its alleys are like those of al-Qaryatayn but their women dress differently. From Palmyra to here
12
.
the clothing changes entirely. They are dressed much like the TelkeyifiTelkeyif: A village in Nineveh province (capital Mossul) of northern Iraq, it is surrounded by farming lands where residents grow wheat and vegetables and maintain livestock. Several Telkeipian families have emigrated to the United States. They are also well known for their traditional dress. and all the men wear the 'akkal.
13
May 16th
A cold morning with a strong wind. At night we were hit by the powerful blast
14
.
of an easterly wind so strong that it pulled up the pegs of our tent and it collapsed on us.
15
.
The wind continued for two hours. This happened because we are between mountains
16
.
and the wind has no other way to go. Finally we got up at 5:00 and prepared ourselves to travel to the next station.
17
Dayr Setaam
After we tied on the baggage we rode west at 6:00. So on we marched
18
.
amid hills and lands, over rough terrain full of stones and gravel. An hour
19
.
and a half later we passed a very small, deserted village without one bird in it. This is Hajra. Its inhabitants,
20
.
which number no more than 300 or 400 souls, had fled fearing the Bedouin. We continued to
21
.
march until at 9:15 we came to a village called Dayr Setam. It is larger than Hafayyir with many orchards planted with nut and
22
.
almond trees as well as grapevines. Cutting through the village from one end to the other on horseback, I truthfully
23
.
very much liked its appearance with the springs of pure water, limpid as egg-whites"As clear as albumen": A local expression. and sweet as sugar,

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01
4000 souls in al-Nabk
flowing through its alleys with the poplar trees all green and casting a pleasant shade. Half an hour later
02
.
we left Dayr SetamDayr Setaam: A village just north of Nabk, which Musil recorded as Dayr 'Attiyye in 1912. [Palmyrene, 223]. Here too all its inhabitants are Jacobite and Syriac Christians.
03
.
The town of al-Nabkal-Nabk: [Nebk] A large village on the road to Damascus. Nabk was on the nothern edge of the She'eb al-Loz mountain range and was reportedly surrounded by orchards and a large spring. [Palmyrena, 223], to which we intend to travel, became visible from here with its orchards extending out to an hour's distance. Holding
04
.
to our path, at 12:30 we came to the orchards of al-Nabk. Truly the prospect of it
05
.
from afar is pleasant as though it were some European construct. Afterwards we set up camp 15 minutes from the village near a stream of spring water.
06
.
The taste of the water here is quite fresh and sweet and much better than Baghdad's river water.
07
.
In al-Nabk a quarter of the inhabitants are Jacobite and Syriac Christians and
08
.
there are two Syriac priests in this place. One of them is the brother of Father Ibrahim, the priest at al-Qaryatayn. His name is
09
.
Parson Butros. He is a tall man with a gloomy face. The other is Father Hanna, the nephew of
10
.
Farida al-Nakasha in Baghdad. But what a priest!
11
.
He makes one die from laughter. He looks like a Telkeyifi and is extremely humble. They both came to visit us in the evening.
12
.
There is also an English Protestant priest named Mr. Stewart,
13
.
Irichman Mr. Stewart. He has been in al-Nabk for two years
14
.
and has opened a school where he teaches English. There is a location here for telegraphs
15
.
to Baghdad, Aleppo, and other places. We noticed that the middle part of the road
16
.
was leveled so that carriages coming from Damascus going to Aleppo and Baghdad could cross. We saw
17
al-Nabk
three or four of them coming and going. Extremely high mountains surround us here.
18
.
At sunset we were hit by a high dusty wind that tormented us and the weather became cold.
19
May 17
An extremely cold morning, colder than all the previous mornings.
20
.
The night was severely cold too. We were up at 5:00 and prepared ourselves to march. At
21
.
6:00 we rode toward the last stopping place of our journey. We will reach Damascus tomorrow afternoon, God willing,
22
.
and we will be done with the road and journeys in the deserts. We marched
23
.
steadily between mountains but on the carriageway especially built to level the road.
24
.
At 8:15 we passed on our left a small village with about 500 or 600 souls

Page 050


01
.
and a few trees. It is called al-Qastalal-Qastal: A village one day's march south of al-Nabk and on the western edge of al-Qabbaas, part of the She'eb al-Loz mountain range. [Palmyrena, 224]. Here the mountains are much higher and more numerous.
02
.
The land is very different from Iraq. At last we reached
03
.
the village of QatifQutayyif: A village south of al-Qastal on the road to Damascus. at 1:45 in the afternoon after an extremely exhausting march. About 12
04
.
zaptiye came to meet us when we were one hour away. They were sent by the Wali of DamascusWali of Damascus: Wali Husayn Nadhoom was the governor (wali) of Damascus in 1897. to greet Colonel Mockler. We approached the town and
05
.
entered an old khan which is about 300 years old but still solid. We pitched the tents in
06
al-Qutayfa
the courtyard. A mineral bath is near our stopping place. I decided to bathe there in
07
.
the evening. I also wanted to tour the orchards so I took one of the khan's people with me and
08
.
wandered around. I found the orchards very nice and planted with all kinds of fruit trees: plum, fig,
09
.
apricot, grape, peach, almond, and nut, but with only one olive tree. I returned at sunset.
10
.
We inquired one more time about the bath near our place and they said that it is no more than ordinary water that is heated. So I
11
.
did not go to bathe there.
12
May 18
A pleasant morning with absolutely no cold and the weather was warm. Like yesterday,
13
.
we were up at 5:30 and we prepared to march to our last stopping place, which is Damascus. God be praised, we have finished
14
.
with all the troubles of the road. We moved out with the caravan at 6:00, always traveling on the carriageway
15
Damascus
until we entered a large valley that took two hours to cross, called BoughazBoughaaz: Boughaz is a Turkish word meaning 'straights' or 'throat' and most likely was the name of a valley..
16
.
When we emerged from the Boughaz, Damascus and its extensive orchards came into view in the distance. What
17
.
a pleasant sight! We continued to march always in view of Damascus, which grew nearer and nearer. At 9:30 we entered
18
.
the first of its orchards four hours from the town.
19
.
Arrival at Damascus

20
.
THIS PLACE IS CALLED al-Qusayral-Qusayr: A village with ample pastureland and an inn (khan) north of Damascus., it is a lovely sight resembling a long covered walkway with green poplar trees
21
.
but mostly with large olive trees on both sides shading one from the sun.
22
.
There are several hamlets here and the grass is extremely verdant and better than anything
23
.
we have seen before. We continued to march for about two hours and then arrived at a shaded path

Page 051


01
.
they call DumaDuma: [Dooma, Dumar] A large town on the outskirts of Damascus noted for extensive orchards.. The people of the town, farmers and workers, are continuously bustling
02
.
about and carriages came and went every few minutes. Truthfully I loved
03
.
the entrance to Damascus very much because it is very joyful and cheers the heart. In the end we continued to travel until
04
.
1:30 in the afternoon when we caught sight of the first building in Damascus, the military hospital. But oh, what
05
.
a pleasant and joyful place! The Military BarracksKishla: A Turkish word meaning 'military barracks' in Syria and 'hospital' in Egypt. building is constructed in the European style. This is the first time I have seen
06
.
such style and workmanship. We then arrived at the town gate called ToumaTooma: One of eight extant gates to the old city of Damascus, Thomas' Gate (Bab Tooma, or Bab Touma) is on the north-east corner of the old of the city of Damascus. and to a garden
07
.
called Dar al-Darb. The people of Damascus come here with their women, their daughters, and others to enjoy themselves and
08
Damascus Damas
to eat and drink. I liked the orchard very much. Afterwards they said that Colonel Mockler decided
09
.
to camp here. We dismounted and entered the orchard to rest. Afterward we would take a carriage and go into town
10
.
to find a place to stay. From here we sent news of our arrival to Archbishop Basil and continued to wait
11
.
in the garden which is full of flowers especially large, fresh roses of all kinds.
12
.
There are many benches to rest on in the garden so we took a bench and continued to await
13
.
the arrival of our caravan. In no time a messenger priest named Salman Tabouni came from his Grace
14
.
Archbishop Basil, together with the Archbishop's guard and carriage, requesting us to come to his home. We got into the carriage
15
.
and it carried us along the passages and the roads of Damascus. I was truly astonished to find the town
16
.
built and arranged as such. Fifteen minutes later we came to the door of the Patriarchate and entered a large, spacious house
17
.
with fountains and marble structures. Archbishop Basil,
18
.
whom we had not seen for seven years, came to greet us and he seemed truly pleased to see us. It was clear that his heart was full of happiness when we entered
19
.
the diwan of his house. First we asked if he
20
.
knew of a place where we could stay. He replied saying: "This is impossible! You are invited to stay at my house and the baggage
21
.
will be brought here." We vigorously protested but he refused. In the end we were obliged to stay there. Then he
22
.
took us upstairs and showed us a room already prepared for us. As he had not yet had breakfast we went downstairs
23
.
and ate with him. He did us a great honor and was very generous. Later, we were very pleased to learn that
24
.
he had a number of letters for us from Baghdad. We longed for news from there.

Page 052


01
.
He also gave us a telegram he received nine days earlier from our family reassuring us of their health. We opened
02
.
the letters from Baghdad and read them with tears in our eyes. They had received our letters from Falluja
03
.
and al-Ramadi, as well as the telegram from al-Ramadi. My heart was filled with joy for the sorrow they expressed. At our parting
04
.
I also received letters from Louisa, Artin, Jamil Abdul-Karim, Antoine Guilietti, and others. I was
05
.
extremely delighted to hear news from Baghdad. At once we prepared a telegram to Baghdad saying: "Arrived Tuesday noontime.
06
.
All in good health. Missing you. Staying at Mr. Basil's house." We dispatched it without delay to the telegraph office since
07
.
our family must, without doubt, be very worried about us and the telegram will make them happy. Later we went down to the Syriac church attached
08
.
to this Patriarchate. We found it perfect. It is a very fine church, adorned with wonderful images and abundant decorations.
09
.
We listened to the prayers of the Holy Devotion to Mary. A large number of people from Damascus, both men and women, were also attending and they all
10
.
welcomed us strangers. At sunset we returned to our place through the door that leads
11
.
to the house. Our room is very fine. Across from it the Roman ChurchRoman Church: To be completed. with its dome and bell are visible. They say
12
.
this church is nice. Without doubt we must go and see it. We dined at 8:00 and slept comfortably afterwards being done with
13
.
the hardships of traveling.
14
.
I was up in the morning at 6:00 and thanks be to God, not preparing to set out
15
May 19
with the caravan and therefore extremely relaxed. After dressing I sent for a barber who arrived and cut my hair.
16
.
I changed one more time into the clothes I call formal dress. I wrote a postcard
17
.
to my dear friend Antoine Hubert in Beirut informing him of my arrival here
18
.
and my desire to see him which would be on Monday or the day after. I then sent it with the Patriarchate guard to the
19
.
post office hoping it would be dispatched after sunset today by the railway.
20
.
It runs regularly, twice every day, to Beirut and takes eight to nine hours to arrive.
21
.
That is a lumbering pace but the roadbed is still not prepared for a swift run. Afterwards
22
.
at 9:30 I took a person from here, I befriended, and went to tour the streets and the shops
23
.
of Damascus. I took a carriage and rode in the direction of a street called al-Hamidiyyaal-Hamidiyya: Famous market in Syria that still bears the same name., built in the European style, with perfect shops.
24
.
I went to some photographers' shops to see if they have

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01
.
photographs of Palmyra and Damascus. I found that they were well prepared and have all kinds of such things. In the end
02
.
I bought myself a cane and returned to our place at 11:00. At 1:00 in the afternoon, after breaking our fast,
03
.
we went to visit the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop Basil ordered his guard to escort us
04
.
every time we go out to the streets. They opened the church door for us and I found it
05
.
magnificent with decorations engraved in porphyry. I was astonished by such a fine church.
06
.
A wide mezzanine is above, as wide as 10 cubits, and it surrounds the entire church.
07
.
The church door is made entirely of bronze. I paced it and found that the church came to 80 steps in length and 44 steps in width. We finally left
08
.
in a hired carriage to tour around. So we rode around Damascus and passed hotels,
09
.
gardens. Near the end of town we saw the best hotel called
10
.
Hotel BasraoniHotel Basraoni: To be completed.. It is perfect and a very pleasant sight. Later we went
11
.
to the Station de chemin de fer. It was time for its arrival from Beirut
12
.
so we waited to see it arrive at the station. At 4:00 we caught sight of it coming. This was the first time
13
.
in my life that I had seen it and I found it very lovely. We then returned to the Hamidiyya market
14
.
and went to a house in the Jewish quarter with a perfect salon. It is called the Sham'aya houseShama’aya's house: The historian Naoman al-Qasatli speaks of the Jews' palaces that were built between 1865 and 1872 in Damascus of which the house of Shamaya among many other houses saying that not less than 20 thousands liras were expended for each.
15
.
Entering the house we paid the fee of three quarters of a majidi and they opened the salon for us.
16
.
We looked inside and found it the most magnificent thing ever, outshining the Roman Church building.
17
.
The salon is entirely fashioned from porphyry and it has a ceiling that one would
18
.
find astonishing. The owner of this place, Sham'aya, spent 10,000 liras, ten thousand for this room alone,
19
.
and I would say it is worth much more than that. We left the house
20
.
impressed by its perfect construction and returned to our lodgings. Yesterday afternoon
21
.
the military physician, Doctor Majid came to visit us. We know him well and he was pleased to see us. Today I
22
.
saw Ali al-Kurdi al-Baghdadi at the market. He arrived 7 months ago.
23
.
It became dark with thick clouds and we feared that it would rain. At 6:00 and near sunset,
24
.
we left in the company of Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani, his wife, and daughter, and went out of the town past

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01
.
gardens that cheer the heart. We went to the loveliest of all the gardens in this place, called
02
.
al-Soufaniyaal-Safanya: No reference is found.. Goodness. What an orchard! Inside we found it teeming with people, women too,
03
.
all seated beneath the trees with two streams running to the right and to the left. The women
04
.
stay here until 10:00 or 11:00 in the evening. I truly loved this orchard very much because
05
.
it cheers the soul. There is a lot of freedom in Damascus. Oh, how pitiful life is in Baghdad and the lack
06
.
of freedom there. At last we returned after a one hour walk and after sunset we made an evening of it at the home
07
.
of Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani. They received us with all possible kindness. He is a pleasant person as is his wife
08
.
and the rest of their household. We returned to our place at 11:00 and went to sleep.
09
May 20
A cloudy and rainy morning. After hearing mass
10
.
Khowaja Qarawani's family accompanied us on another tour of the town. We took a carriage
11
.
and rode through the quarter and among the markets. Afterwards we came to a neighborhood called al-Midan. At the end of it
12
.
there is another railway station and it is worth seeing. It is ornamented
13
.
as in Europe. We also went to a workshop where parts for the trains are made. We were astonished to see such works.
14
.
We then returned to al-Hamidiyya market to buy ourselves a few things and we entered a shop called
15
.
Christopher which truly warrants amazement. Inside one finds everything that one could ask for. I bought
16
.
myself a pair of yellow shoes, a shirt, and a straw hat, all for 5 majidis. We got out of the carriage
17
.
and continued on foot to have a better look at the shops. We went around from one place to the next
18
.
never ceasing to be amazed. In one shop I saw a Monsieur ...[illegible] who is married to Bao's daughter. He
19
.
recognized me and asked me much about Baghdad. We also saw Abdullah al-Zalqa who knows us quite well.
20
.
He knows Habib al-GhanoujiHabib al-Ghanounji: No reference is available.. He had been in Basrah and said he intended to go to Baghdad
21
.
in 30 days time. He asked me about Baghdad and Basrah. We passed through several markets from the jewelers' to the tailors'.
22
.
At the tailors' market we entered a bath worth seeing called al-Ashanial-Ashani: No reference is available..
23
.
Inside we found an indescribable vase and the bath floor is made entirely of marble

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01
.
as are the walls and ceilings. After tiring of walking we returned to our place and there,
02
.
before our breakfast, Monsieur Elia arrived, the interpreter for the Austrian Consul. He returned our papers and passport.
03
.
Yesterday my father had been to see the Austrian Consul, Monsieur Rontopoulo. He is
04
.
the brother of Madam Kuwaydan, wife of our friend, who is the commissioner of the quarantine in Baghdad. In the afternoon
05
.
the wife of Khowaja Mikha'il came to see us and she took me and my mother to her brother-in-law's house. We sat with them
06
.
and then went to see a very pleasant house called the House of Lady Rosa the DamasceneHouse of Lady Rosa the Damascene: (bayt Al-Sit Rosa Al-Shamiyah)in the Arabic text, no reference is available..
07
.
We arrived, rang the bell, and they opened the door for us. We entered one small house and went from there to
08
.
another. What we saw next was stunning. All the fascinating decoration and Mosaique
09
.
work inside and ceilings are wondrous and amazing. It is said that this house had cost 20,000
10
.
liras. We left the house and went to visit the Church of the LazaritesLazarists: A nickname given to the members of the congregation of the Mission that was established in 1625 by Saint Vincent de Paul because they lived at the priory of Saint-Lazare.. It was
11
.
very fine church with porphyry and indescribably refined workmanship. We left
12
.
and went back to our house. At sunset the Austrian Consul returned our visit and after
13
.
dinner we spent the evening at the house of one of the Damascene notables, known as the House of Abu Ahmed.
14
.
About 20 EuropeanEuropean: In the Arabic text, the word 'Franjiyat' (feminine, plural), has for meaning, the Franks or Europeans. From the Latin ' Francus'. ladies and young girls were there too, but some of them were Jews.
15
.
Then it rained for nearly 4 to 5 hours so we had to return in the rain. The weather has been unsettled and gloomy
16
.
from the day we arrived until this moment.
17
.
I was up at 7:00 because I was awake all last night. A sultry morning
18
May 21
and the clouds are still dark. After I changed my clothes we went with his Grace the Archbishop
19
.
to visit some families. We visited the house of the priest of the Patriarchate, Parson BoutrosParson Boutros: No reference is available., and then
20
.
the house of Khowaja Mikha'il's brother. We also went to a place where they do
21
.
mother-of-pearl work on chairs and other objects, an extremely fine thing, and there were girls working too.
22
.
After that we went to Doctor Majid's house but we did not find him so we left our card.
23
.
Next we went to a house that contains a site, now a church, which they say is the place

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.
Saint AnaniasSaint Ananias: Ananias: (Saint) a Christian disciple who lived in Damascus at the time of Saul of Tarsus. The Saint was born and lived in Damascus among an existing community of Jews in the city that was mainly occupied by an Arab merchant people at the time, called 'Nabateans'. A community of Christian disciples had thus grown up in the city and Saint Ananias was, as known, born in Damascus, where he also lived and was evangelized. He received a vision of Jesus in which he was ordered to find a man from Tarsus named Saul who persecuted the Christians, and cure him of his blindness, at the house of Judas, situated in a street called 'Straight' and this is where, in the cellar of this house, he laid his hands on Saul and thus restored his eyesight,and he also baptized the man who was later known Apostle Paul. The cellar at the house of Judas is the place where Saint Paul hid and worshipped. It is located at the Christian Quarter, at the end of Bab Sharqi Street, and is made now as a chapel. Apostle Ananias was one of 70 disciples sent by Christ to spread his Gospel. And it was Apostle Ananias who later saved Saint Paul and helped him flee from Damascus where his life was threatened, by putting him in a basket that was lowered over the city wall. But the refusal of Apostle Ananias to offer sacrifices to idols would later result in his martyrdom. (Memorial Day: 25 January). Wikipedia. to whom our Lord Jesus sent
02
.
Saint Paul to be healed when his eyes were hurting. Saint Paul went into his place and was cured. We went into the house and then into
03
.
a kind of cellar which is now like a small chapel and we saw Saint Ananias's
04
.
place. After that we left and went to the Monastery of the LatinsMonastery of the Latins: The Latin church is the church of the West. and entered their church.
05
.
I honestly found this church the finest of all with large pillars and built in the style
06
.
of the churches in Europe. It also has an Orgue on the mezzanine which is as big as an average room. It is said that
07
.
it cost 1000 liras, but it is perfect. Later we visited the head of the friarsFriar: The word 'Padrieh' is written in the Arabic text, a colloquial form for the French word'peres'or Italian word 'padre'. All of them
08
.
are CapuchinsCapuchins: A religious man or woman forming part of the order of Saint-Fran?ois. and they have a school here. In the church I saw a marble slab
09
.
on the wall inscribed with the following: ``this is the shrine of the relics of Father TomaFather Toma: In the Arabic text, the phrase 'Padre Toma' is used and 'padre' is transcribed into Arabic. No reference is available. whom
10
.
the Jews killed in Damascus.'' I had read a lot about him. Together with the remains of the Father
11
.
are the remains of the boy named Abu al-NoorAbd al-Noor: No reference is available. who they killed at the same time
12
.
in 1840 to use their blood for the unleavened bread. After this tour we went to see another house
13
.
they described to us as the most beautiful in Damascus. We went to the house with Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani. It is called
14
.
the House of Khowaja Mikha'il Sabagh. Entering the house we were truly amazed by
15
.
the construction, the decorations, the fountains, and the gardens. Both Khowaja Mikha'il SabaghKhwaja Mikha’ill Sabagh: No reference is available. and
16
.
his wife came and sat with us and treated us affectionately. Afterwards we left and returned to our house. Here in Damascus every
17
.
house has one or two fountains with flowing water. Every floor is paved
18
.
with polished marble and one never finds bricks. According to custom even the poorest of poor houses
19
.
should have flowers. For that reason all the houses are filled with different kinds of blossoms.
20
.
When I returned to the house I received a postcard from my friend Antoine Jule in Beirut
21
.
replying to my note. He said he was very happy to get my letter and would be very pleased to see me. He will also send
22
.
Razouk BahoshiRazouk Bahoshi: No reference is available. to meet me at the station on Monday. After breakfast we hired a carriage
23
.
and intended to visit Colonel Mockler, fearing that we might leave without seeing him. We rode to

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01
.
the Grand Hotel d'OrientGrand Hotel of the Orient: . because we understood he was staying there.
02
.
We asked if he was to be found and they said that he was invited to the home of the English priestEnglish priest: No reference is available. and that he had not yet returned.
03
.
We decided to go to a place called al-Salhiyaal-Salhiyah: No reference is available., an extremely beautiful area. We rode
04
.
past lovely green trees continuously climbing little by little. Then we arrived
05
.
at al-Salhiya on the mountainside. From here we could see the entire town of Damascus with the hotels
06
.
and buildings. A very pleasant sight. Afterwards we turned toward a place called DumarSituated along the Barada valley and in the northwest, "Dumar" is one of the main areas in Damascus that the city planners developed in the later twentieth century and where newer suburbs were created. on a
07
.
long, straight wooded road. We then returned again to the place where Colonel Mockler is staying
08
.
but we did not find him this time either. So we left our cards and went back. By then it was 6:00. At sunset
09
.
his Grace the Archbishop fell ill and was in distress. He remains in bed.
10
May 22
The morning is pleasant and sunny. I was up at 7:00. We asked after the Archbishop
11
.
and they said that he is better and that they had sent for the physician. So we went to see him. Afterward FrancisFrancis Shiha: No reference is available.
12
.
Shiha visited, he is the brother of Khowaja Habib ShihaHabib Shiha: No reference is available.See note number 27, page number 005, line number 24. in Baghdad. Khowaja Francis had been in Beirut
13
.
just a few days ago. We gave him a letter of recommendation from his brother and he stood by us in everything. An hour
14
.
later my father and I went to a bathhouse for a wash. We arrived at a bathhouse called al-Miskal-Misk: Name of a bath. No reference is available. at 9:00.
15
.
It was a small, pleasant bathhouse. Around here all the bathhouses are very elegant
16
.
and there are 57 of them in Damascus but they have the awful custom of paving
17
.
all the bathhouse floors with shiny marble on which a person would surely slip.
18
.
Even my father slipped and fell when he entered, a fall that could have killed him, and blood gushed from him.
19
.
I slipped too but managed to stay on my feet. Then we both washed and returned to our house an hour later.
20
.
A Collectionneur de Timbres-postestamps: In the Arabic text, the word 'Pul' is used that is a Turkish usage of a Persian word which seems to have meant ' a small coin '. It has for meaning 'stamp, either postage or revenue, also 'fish scale'.stamp collector: in the Arabic text, the French phrase (Collectioneur de timbres-poste) is written. who is very keen on collecting stamps[CONTENT] came to see me
21
.
and find whether I had any stamps to trade. I brought him some and we continued talking. He said that he would
22
.
return in the afternoon and take me to his house to talk some more. At that moment they informed us that
23
.
both Mrs. Mockler and Mrs. Tanner, together with Consul Mockler, will visit us.

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.
Five minutes later they arrived and were pleased to see us. It was as if we were on our overland journey. Afterwards they went in
02
.
to visit the Syriac Church next to the Patriarchate. As they were leaving they invited us for
03
.
breakfast the next morning and we promised to come. After breakfast, that is at 1:00,
04
.
the stamp collector came to see me and took me with him to his house. We traded some stamps and I returned at 3:00.
05
.
I wrote a postcard to my friend Antoine Jule in Beirut and put it in the post.
06
.
I told him that I will set out from here not on Monday but on Tuesday and that he should by all
07
.
means send Razouk Bahoshi to the station so that I might see him. I likewise asked him to tell me if he had any letters
08
.
addressed to me. I sent the postcard to Baghdad by post as I did all the letters
09
.
I had prepared. I also wrote letters to our family, Johnny, Jamil Abdul-Karim, a short letter
10
.
to my brothers in Basrah, and others, and postcards to Antoine Guilietti,
11
.
and Tal'at NassouriTalat Nassouri: No refernce is found.. I paid 10 standard piastersStandard Piasters : in the Arabic text 'Sagh' is used to mean ' proper, standard, in order, right ' in addition that it means ' a rank in the army and police '. for them. Today we stayed indoors all afternoon and did not
12
.
go out. His Grace the Archbishop is feeling much better than yesterday.
13
.
A very nice morning with clear weather and a fresh wind. I got up at 6:30
14
May 23
and dressed. As today is Sunday we went down at 7:30 and heard mass
15
.
at the church. Afterwards we returned. Monsieur Francis Shiha came to visit us because an hour ago
16
.
we had gone to him and had not found him at home. So now he has come and asked us us to go with him but there is
17
.
little time left since we have to go for breakfast with Colonel Mockler. At 11:30 we took a carriage
18
.
and drove to the Grand Hotel d'Orient, Colonel Mockler's lodgings, but they were not there. However half an hour later
19
.
they returned from the Protestant Church. We ate breakfast and returned at 2:00 in the afternoon after bidding them
20
.
farewell since we might not see them again. Mrs. Tanner asked us to
21
.
come see her in London and Colonel Mockler did the same. We promised that we would come and see them and felt
22
.
truly sad to be parting after such a long time together. We returned and afterwards
23
.
went to visit Monsieur Francis Shiha where we saw a number of handicrafts such as

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.
antiques, carpets, and other things. He is very keen on old objects. We returned
02
.
an hour and a half later and heard that Archbishop Basil's brother, Archbishop AntoineArchbishop Antoine: No reference is available.,
03
.
will honor Damascus with a visit tomorrow. So today they were preparing a room for him. Truly
04
Damascus
we felt embarrassed at staying here and having meals at his place. At 5:00 we went with Khowaja
05
.
Mikha'il Qarawani and his family for a stroll. So we went out through the East Gate and we passed through the gardens of
06
.
al-SafaniyaAl-Safaniyya: No reference is available. and al-Hadi AshariyyaAl-Hadi Ashariyya: No reference is available. and others. The people here were as numerous as wormslike worms: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897.. Thousands
07
.
of men, women, and children, bustle about enjoying themselves. And all of them are Christians
08
.
or most of them are Christians. It was so congested that that there was not even room left for the carriages to pass.
09
.
We finally entered a garden called al-BaghdadiAl-Baghdadi: No reference is available. and stayed there for about an hour.
10
.
Each of us paid two piasters. We returned at sunset and the number of people in the crowd was as many as grains of sandlike sand: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897.,
11
.
all coming and going. After dinner we spent the evening in Parson Boutros's room.
12
.
A very pleasant morning with clear, bright weather. We were up at 6:30 and after
13
May 24
dressing we went to Mikha'il's place. From there we went to a few other houses where there were all kinds of flowers
14
.
and other things. Because today is our last in Damascus we must prepare our things
15
.
for travel. After we returned at 10:00 we found his Grace the Archbishop in a muddle
16
.
making arrangements and preparations for his brother Archbishop Antoine who will honor us by his presence here this afternoon.
17
.
Today we did not leave or go anywhere. In the afternoon I sent a postcard
18
Damascus
to my friend, Antoine in Beirut, telling him that our travel plans had changed
19
.
and that we will arrive in Beirut on Wednesday afternoon because we want to visit Ba'albekBa'albek: Situated east of the Litani River, Ba'albek that is named for the lord Baal of the Beqaa valley where it lies, is an ancient Phoenician city known as Heliopolis. It became a Roman colony in the first century A.D. and since that time continuous constructions were undertaken by the consecutive Roman Emperors to build and modify the sumptuous and monumental temples for their deities as it was a place of an oracle and divination from earliest times. Famous for three great temples of which the most important is the temple sacred to Jupiter Baal that is identified with the sun hence known in tradition as the Temple of the Sun, the other two temples are for the worship of the deities Venus and Bacchus. In the fifties of the third century, Heliopolis was known as one of the largest two sanctuaries in the Western world besides Praeneste in Italy. With the spread of Christianity, the Emperor Constantine and others succeeding him built basilicas using parts of the temples and their vast stone blocks. The Emperor Justinian ordered to have eight columns disassembled and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia. During the early Islamic period, the old city was a cause of argument especially between the caliphs of Damascus and then of Egypt. The Crusaders raided the city and it was three times shaken by earthquakes, however it revived in 1282 owing its fine architecture reflected in its mosque and fortress to Sultan Qalawun. In the fifteenth century, the city was pillaged by Timur. In 1517, the city was controlled by the Ottomans as the rest of Syria, though the Ottomans' authority was only nominal. It was once more destroyed by earthquakes in 1759. In 1840, the Ottomans were granted full authority in Ba'albek with the treaty of London. The digs started in Ba'albek in 1898 by order of the German Emperor Wilhelm II who while traveling to Jerusalem, passed by Ba'albek and was very impressed by the monumentality and beauty of the ruins though earlier in the 18th century interested archeologists had made engravings and documentation of the ruins. which is famous
20
.
for its ancient buildings and that we will set out tomorrow morning. Also we received
21
.
a telegram from Shukrullah 'AboudShukrullah 'Aboud: No reference is available. in Beirut, saying, "Awaiting your arrival at the station."
22
.
We wrote him a letter two days ago asking him to let us know of
23
.
a suitable hotel where we could stay. So we wired him right away saying, "We will be

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01
.
with you on Wednesday evening. Thank you." We also sent a letter telling him about our travel
02
.
to Ba'albek and Beirut. At 4:30 in the afternoon Archbishop
03
.
Basil went to greet his brother with the priests. A few minutes later they returned and ushered him in with a great procession
04
.
accompanied by many people. Archbishop Antoine is an old man, seventy years old
05
.
possibly. After church, that is at 6:30, Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani took me to al-Hadi Ashariyya garden
06
.
which lies between two rivers and boasts a pleasant view.
07
.
At sunset we returned. This was the last time I would walk in Damascus because
08
.
we will take the train to Zahla tomorrow morning. Truly it is a pity
09
.
to leave Damascus. We loved it very much.
10
.
The Journey from Damascus to Beirut

11
.


12
.
WE GOT UP early and began to prepare. We packed our things to travel on
13
May 25
the Train leaving in an hour and a half.
14
.
We changed our clothes and removed everything in our room. We were ready to leave Damascus,
15
.
which I had truly loved very much. Oh, if only one lived here. Since the day of our arrival
16
.
until now all the people have been pleasant with smiling faces. After
17
.
hearing mass for the last time I left and we brought our things down
18
.
from the room and put them into a carriage. All of the priests were present, the two Archbishops,
19
.
and also Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani and his wife. We bade them all farewell and felt quite sad at parting with them
20
.
because they had all become like family to us. After we thanked them for their kindness
21
.
the carriage drove us to the railway station at al-Baramikaal-Baramika: The Damascus railway station that traveled between Damascus and Beirut..
22
.
We arrived at the station at 7:30 and bought a second-class Billet to ZahlaZahla: [Zahlé] A city in central Lebanon, noted for its orchards, vineyards, and arak. only.

Page 061


01
.
We also paid our fare, that is no more than 7 and a quarter majidis total for three people.
02
.
From Zahla we would take a carriage to Ba'albek. Then at five minutes to eight
03
.
the train gave a whistle and we immediately boarded. We were accompanied by our servants Mansour
04
.
and the water carrier Mohammad who had come with us from Baghdad. We bade them farewell here. Truly
05
.
we found it very difficult because they were the last who had been with us from our hometown Baghdad.
06
.
All of us were in tears and poor Mansour was crying like a little boy. In the end we said goodbye
07
.
and the train set off from al-Baramika. We traveled continuously at maximum
08
.
speed. This is the first time I ever traveled in a train. We passed through
09
.
orchards, trees, and springs that make a truly pleasant view. I believe
10
Traveling from Damascus
their like is not to be found in Europe. Sometimes we ascended and at other times descended because we must
11
.
climb the mountains of the Lebanon. The mountains here are very high and the snow lies on them
12
.
and the clouds rise like white steam over them. The time from morning until now
13
.
was quite miserable with thick clouds and damp like the worst and darkest days of winter. The train
14
.
left al-Baramika at 7:55 and we passed the following stations on the way:
15
.
Baramika 7:55 / Dumar 8:10 / Hama 8:20, departing at 8:25 /
16
.
Jadayda 8:33, departing at 8:35 / Ayn FijaAyn Fija: A town in Syria, about ten miles northwest of Damascus. 8:45, departing at 8:57 / Dayr QanunDayr Qanun: A village in southern Lebanon. 9:05 /
17
.
Souk Wadi BaradaSouk Wadi Barada: The small village of Souk Wadi Barada (28 km) stands on the site of the ancient Hellenistic town of Abila. 9:20, departing at 9:22 / un-named 9:30, departing at 9:35 / ZabdaniZabdani: A city in southwestern Syria, close to the Lebanese border. It is in the center of a green valley and surrounded by mountains. The scenic view and mild climate have made it a popular tourist destination. 9:55, departing at
18
.
10:03 / SergayahSargayah: A town in Lebanon along the railway between Damascus and Beirut. 10:25, departing at 10:28 / YahfufahYahfufah: A town in Lebanon along the railway between Damascus and Beirut. 10:43, departing at 10:47 / RiyaqRiyaq: A town in Lebanon, near the city of Zahla. There is still an old train station on the former line between Beirut and Damascus. 11:07, departing at
19
.
11:12. We arrived at Zahla at 11:30. It is also called Mu'allaqahMu'allaqah: Another name for the town of Zahla, located in Beqqa, Lebanon.. Since we arrived
20
.
close to noon we thought it preferable if we have lunch
21
.
here because the Buffet de Gare is just opposite. The people from the Buffet met us
22
.
and took our things to the eating place. We ate hastily and then hired a carriage
23
.
to Ba'albek and back for one Ottoman lira. We entered
24
.
and at 12:05 drove in the direction of Ba'albek. However the weather was extremely unfortunate. The rain never ceased to worsen, the clouds

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01
.
were heavy, and it was quite damp with a westerly wind. Here as we understood it, in all seasons
02
.
of the year the weather is like this. It is because the mountains of the Lebanon surround it on all sides.
03
.
The carriage continued on and we passed very pleasant scenery in the distance, such as a few
04
.
hamlets at the foot of the mountain amidst greenery and meadows. An extremely happy and blissful life. The climate
05
Ba'albek
here one finds nowhere else and I suppose that no one ever falls ill. When we were having lunch at the station
06
.
a train from Beirut arrived, departing at noon for Damascus. We saw it from the carriage
07
.
in the distance swiftly passing like wind. What a lovely sight. Sitting in a train is extremely
08
.
comfortable and one does not feel either shaking or annoyances but sometimes, because of the speed of travel,
09
.
one's vision is blurred and so cannot see the land. However the carriage we rode in is very
10
.
annoying because the road is made of small stones. We came to a place they call
11
.
AblahaAblaha: A town about 30 km northeast of Ba'albek, Lebanon. at 1:00, then to Bayt ShimaBayt Shima: A town in Lebanon. at 2:05. Finally we arrived in Ba'albek
12
.
at 4:30. The ancient temples became visible from a distance resembling the pictures we have
13
.
in Baghdad. First there were the eight pillars that the Arabs had made some years ago
14
.
and the massive stone which the ancients did not bring to the site. It is quite a huge thing, possibly 15 meters long.
15
.
Hotel owners met us at the town gate and each claimed, "My hotel
16
.
is the best." In the end we chose one across from the ruins named Hotel VictoriaHotel Victoria: A hotel located near the ancient Roman ruins at Ba'albek in Lebanon. This large and well-preserved ancient temple complex was once known as the Heliopolis..
17
.
We left our bags and drank a bowl of tea because we were very cold from the road
18
.
and shivering. Then we took a man from the hotel with us and left to tour Ba'albek, the ancient ruins
19
.
that resemble Palmyra. We paid the 3 majidis admission fee and entered. Then we saw something
20
.
we had never seen before. One's mind is amazed by what the hands of the ancients have wrought. As for the building,
21
.
it is made of great, huge blocks of stone. I saw a wall constructed in three segments, each one
22
.
possibly 20 meters long and the pillars, also amazing, are each possibly 50 meters
23
.
high and are all just in three segments of stone. I mean, like this: I measured the circumference of one and it came to

Page 063


01
.
13 feet. I mean, like this: Oh my, what a huge thing, such that a person's mind cannot grasp it. And there are other
02
.
amazing things. Near the door there is a stairway leading upwards.
03
.
I climbed it and counted 22 steps made from just one rock. Here I saw neither
04
.
hundreds, nor thousands, but millions of the names of people who had visited Ba'albek.
05
.
Some of these are of the nobility and some had come bringing with them tools to inscribe their names.
06
.
One sees all the walls strewn with names. We entered
07
.
Temple de Jupiter first and
08
.
Temple du Soleil second. In truth Ba'albek is worth remembering for the refinement of its construction,
09
.
its loftiness, and vastness. I was truly amazed by what I saw in this place. It certainly
10
.
is far superior to Palmyra or any other place. I wish to see more of it but tomorrow morning we intend to return to
11
.
Zahla and then by train to Beirut. The hotel
12
.
where we are staying is quiet and small. It is also across from the ruins of Ba'albek.
13
.
We decided that tomorrow morning we will return by carriage to Zahla in order to take the train back to
14
.
Beirut. A dark and rainy sunset.
15
.
I got up in the morning at 6:00. It was very cold.
16
May 26
It had rained all night long with hail and wind but then it cleared at dawn. After
17
.
we had tea we asked the hotel owner to present the bill and he said,
18
.
"Ten francs." So we paid him and left. We boarded a carriage heading
19
.
toward Zahla. We traveled continuously amid mountains. The weather was severely cold and the mountains of
20
.
the Lebanon which surrounded us were draped in snow, an extremely pleasant sight as were
21
.
the greenery and houses among the valleys. Here the climate is very
22
.
good. Finally at 9:45 we arrived at a small house called Bayt Shima.
23
.
We stopped there, went to the house, and saw them working with silkworms. We also saw

Page 064


01
.
that they have about 500 huge round trays filled with worms. Afterwards we got back in the carriage
02
.
and arrived at a place called KarakKarak: A city in Jordan, famous for its large 12th century crusader castle. an hour later. They say that it is
03
.
Noah's place, that is to say, his tomb. We finally arrived at Zahla at 11:00 and found
04
.
that the train had not yet arrived from Damascus. So we went to have breakfast at the Buffet.
05
.
Afterwards we would get coach tickets. At 11:30 the Damascus train arrived.
06
.
How wonderful! Colonel Mockler, his wife, and Mrs. Tanner, came out of the train.
07
.
What a marvelous coincidence. So they too ate with us and as it was 11:45 we bade them goodbye
08
.
and rushed to board the train. Colonel Mockler said that he would be going from here to
09
.
Ba'albek and would be in Beirut tomorrow. At 12:00 sharp the train
10
.
moved off rapidly. At 12:15 we arrived at Sayed NayelSayed Nayil: A town in central Lebanon., then came to JadithaJaditha: A town in central Lebanon, near Zahla.,
11
.
AshtoraAshtora: A town in central Lebanon. at 12:30, departing at 12:33, to RijatRijat: A town in central Lebanon. at 12:52, departing at 12:55. At
12
.
1:25 the train entered a hole in the mountain, that is to say, the mountain which is pierced through at its foot. We went in and it was
13
.
as dark as a pitch-black night. We stayed in the Tunnel for about three minutes.
14
.
At 1:32 we stopped and put the Locomotive at the rear because it would be all downhill.
15
.
From Zahla to here we were always climbing until we reached a height of 1500 meters and all the houses
16
.
and trees appeared to be growing smaller. We were seeing the orchards that looked like bouquets of flowers
17
.
and the people like flies. Likewise the clouds were far below us. Here the clouds
18
.
cover us as if we were in a sea. What a beautiful view there is from here high up in the mountains of Lebanon.
19
.
I do not think there is anywhere in the entire world with a view so pleasant. At 1:35 it departed
20
.
going backwards down the track. In truth when I realized it was going to descend
21
.
from such a height my head was spinning. 1:56 Ayn Safr, departing at
22
.
2:03 / 2:15 BahamdunBahamdun: A town in Lebanon, historically linked to Beirut by railway. Today this resort town is a popular tourist destination.., departing 2:17 / 2:37 AlayAlay: [Aley] A town in Mount Lebanon meaning 'high place' in Aramaic; historically connected to both Damascus and Beirut by railway., departing at 2:45 /
23
.
3:00 ArayaAraya: A town in the Baabda District of Lebanon., departing at 3:07 / 3:22 JumhurJumhur: A town in Lebanon., departing at 3:27 / 3:40 BabadeBabade: [Baabda] A town in Mount Lebanon., departing at 3:45.

Page 065


01
.
From here the town of Beirut became visible in the distance and the sea too, but it was quite
02
.
far away. 3:57 HadathHadath: This is a town near the Taurus Mountains in southeastern Turkey; the historic center of the Syriac Orthodox Church., departing at 4:00. This is the last station before Beirut.
03
.
So I kept looking out the window until the train whistled and at
04
.
4:15 and pulled into the Beirut railway station. Then what a joyful sight it was when I saw behind the railing my dear
05
Beirut Beirut
friends Antoine Jule and Razouk Bahoshi, with Bahjat Nassoury between them. They called out
06
.
to me and I responded to them with greetings. No sooner had the train stopped than I got off, went
07
.
to the railing, and embraced them. I was truly very happy to see them and I remembered when I was
08
.
in Baghdad among my dear ones. Then we immediately got in a carriage. We also saw
09
.
Khowaja Shukrullah 'Aboud here at the station awaiting our arrival. So both my mother and my father got into
10
.
a carriage with him and I with my friends. We all rode together toward a hotel where we would spend our days in
11
.
Beirut. We came upon a hotel called Hotel D'Amérique. We took
12
.
two rooms for a few days, one for me and the other for my parents. This hotel is across from
13
.
my friends' place so I was very happy with this good luck. We rented the rooms for 18 francs a day
14
.
for the three of us. After I brought my friends to my room we talked at length about Baghdad.
15
.
Antoine gave me three letters that arrived from Baghdad, one from Antoine Guilietti,
16
.
one from Johnny Kasperkhan, and the last from Jamil Abdulkarim. I opened and read them and was pleased
17
.
to hear news from our homeland. My letters from al-'Ana had all reached them
18
.
and there was no recent news. At 6:00 they left my place and promised me that after dinner
19
.
they would come and spend the evening with me. I was quite astonished by Beirut and by
20
.
its layout, which is many times more beautiful than Damascus, with its buildings like Europe.
21
.
The carriages are as abundant as worms. It is said that there are 1500 and in Damascus
22
.
there are no more than 250. The streets are wide, paved, and clean. Here for the first
23
.
time, I saw the sea and what a pleasant sight. There were a few ships in the harbor,

Page 066


01
.
one of them a French warship which is always anchored here on guard. After
02
.
dinner my friends came to see me and I spent some hours with them. Our hotel
03
.
is lovely and the view from it is quite pleasant opening out onto a large open square. This place is called
04
.
Sahat al-Burj (Tower Square). Nonetheless, I have not yet seen anything of Beirut and for that one would need
05
.
lots of time.
06
.
I got up in the morning and saw that the weather was very good, spring-like with lovely clear skies.
07
May 27
After I changed my clothes I went to mass with my mother at
08
.
the nearby Church of the LazaristsChurch of the Lazarists: The Congregation of the Mission (called CM by the Catholic Church) is an order of priests. They are popularly known as the Lazarists or Vincentians because they claim St. Vincent de Paul as their founder or patron. because today is Ascension Day. I found
09
.
the church very nice and full of people, that is, with only about 10 percent men and the rest
10
.
women and girls. It was so full of people that there was no place to sit.
11
.
The women sat on the ground floor and the men above in the balcony, and the youth had come to take their first Holy Communion.
12
.
They were about 200 boys and girls who came to take communion. The mass was administered by the Vicar Apostolic, who was present there. His name was
13
.
Monseigneur Duval, the one who a few years ago was the head priest at Mosul.
14
.
The crew on shore-leave from the French warship were also hearing mass. An hour and a half later
15
.
we left and returned to the hotel. Khowaja Shukrullah 'Aboud came
16
.
and took us to tour the markets since my father wanted to buy a few things for himself. I was truly amazed
17
.
by the markets, far better than those I saw in Damascus. They are all enclosed in crystal glass
18
.
and are clean and in good order. We bought a few things and returned close to noon.
19
.
At 1:00 my friends came and took me to their place. Amid the chatting we decided
20
.
to go to a photographer and have pictures taken of the four of us in European dress and hats, and send them to Baghdad.
21
.
So we went immediately to an excellent photographer and followed through with our plan but I was disappointed when the photographer said
22
.
that they would not be ready before next week. Next week I have to be
23
.
in Cairo. So he said that he would send them to me there and I agreed to this. We left

Page 067


01
.
the photographer's and together returned to our hotel. We sat and talked for about two hours. Afterwards my friends went
02
.
for a walk. At 5:30 Khowaja Shukrullah came and took us in a carriage to see the Port,
03
.
the ship anchorage on the sea, meaning the harbor. So we went there and what a beautiful sight!
04
.
Hundreds of women and men going to and fro and the ships at anchor. There was the French
05
Beirut Beirut
warship, the Frigate named the ForbinThe Forbin: A frigate is a type of warship common in the late 18th and early 19th centuries., on which they were playing music
06
.
and all the people were bustling about. Truly this place is pleasant from end to end and a beautiful promenade.
07
.
Here we saw someone from the Sursuq family riding in a carriage pulled by a horse, the like of which
08
.
I have never seen. Its color was half milk-white and the other half blue!
09
.
And they call this a horse! When it moves one is terrified by its power and gait.
10
.
We kept touring around Beirut taking pleasure from gazing at beautiful buildings along
11
.
the shore. After sunset we returned to the hotel. My friends came
12
.
over and spent the evening with me after dinner.
13
May 28
The morning is pleasant and the wind from the west. I got up in the morning at 6:30 and after
14
.
we changed we went to Khowaja Shukrullah's store. We took him with us
15
.
to the markets to buy some necessities. Afterwards we went with my father to a photographer's shop
16
.
to buy some pictures, but this fellow asked a very high price, so we decided to go to someone else.
17
.
We returned to our place at 11:00 and I went to my friends' house after breakfast. I got
18
.
Antoine and Razouk and we went in a carriage touring Beirut. We passed several
19
.
places I had not seen before and returned at 4:00. At 5:00 we all left
20
.
and picked up Khowaja Shukrullah. We hired a carriage to take us to a place called
21
.
al-Harash for a walk. It has truly beautiful scenery and abundant pine trees casting shade
22
.
over all the ground. Then we sat in a small garden called Janaynat al-Lubnan (The Garden of Lebanon).
23
.
We returned to our place at sunset. My friends came again to see me

Page 068


01
.
and as we chatted they said that there is a place here where they listen to violin playing or the
02
.
Orchestra. Then they said that it would be best to go and listen to the music. So we went at
03
.
9:00 and joined a gathering full of Europeans and other sorts. We listened to the music
04
.
which was very melodious. The players were five men and some eight girls, 18 to 20
05
.
years old and all skillful musicians. We stayed for about three hours and then returned to
06
.
our place. Today in the morning Khowaja Nicholas Mosulli, Razouk Angourly's partner in Basrah, visited us and invited us to breakfast on Sunday.
07
.
The morning is sultry and cloudy and the wind is unpleasant. After we changed we left,
08
May 29
my father and I, and went to a photographer's shop to buy pictures of Ba'albek and Palmyra.
09
.
We bought about 12 or more and by chance as we were sitting at the photographer's,
10
.
Colonel Mockler appeared at the shop door. We were truly surprised at these amazing
11
.
chance encounters with him everywhere we go. He arrived yesterday having stayed two days in Ba'albek,
12
.
and he will be traveling tomorrow to Port Sa'id on board of one
13
.
of the Lloyd ships. After we left the shop we went to the shop of
14
.
the Messageries Maritimes to buy ourselves tickets for the trip from here
15
.
on their ship that will depart at sunset after tomorrow. However they told us that it would not be possible now
16
.
but would be tomorrow. So we returned to the hotel and found Colonel Mockler at our place sitting with mother. A quarter hour later
17
.
he left. He bade us farewell at the end and said, "I believe this is really the last time." I took it upon myself
18
.
to hurry and write my letters for Baghdad because the post will go out today in the
19
.
afternoon, that is, on Saturday. So I wrote to Louisa, to Jamil Abdulkarim, to Nassoury
20
.
Bahoshi, to Antoine Guilietti, and to M'nashi and Nassim. I sent them by post in care of
21
.
Razouk Bahoshi. My friends had promised me that they would come after breakfast
22
.
get us and go to visit the College of Mar Yousif, or Université St. Joseph,
23
.
which is located here and is quite excellent. At 2:00 we all went with my parents to the college

Page 069


01
.
and received the headmaster's permission to enter. The Headmaster himself came and greeted us and then sent
02
.
a priest to show us the whole place. The priest came and took us around. What an amazing
03
.
school. There are three floors and I counted 120 steps to the third level.
04
.
Here we saw everything: the section for those students who are boarding, their sleeping and changing rooms,
05
Beirut Beirut
where they dress and sleep, their uniforms and likewise the school, the place where they study. We went down to
06
.
the printing house and the bookstore. I was truly amazed by the printing house because of the crafts
07
.
therein. There are about 100 persons working each at one thing. The entire
08
.
printing house runs on fire, steam, and electricity. They showed us everything
09
.
and then we went into the bookstore. I was astonished by the books I saw, possibly
10
.
...[illegible] of all kinds in stacks. Afterwards we saw their church which has three
11
.
floors, each level with a number of thrones for mass. The final was quite elegant.
12
.
I learned from the students that tomorrow afternoon there would be a substantial play
13
.
performed here to celebrate the Monastery Headmaster's Day. So I asked Father Shikho whom we know
14
.
very well and who was in Baghdad sometime ago, to ask permission for me to attend the
15
.
Tragedie and he promised to do so. We left at 6:00 having spent all this time
16
.
going around looking at this very large college. Around sunset
17
.
Father Yousif, who had been in Mosul, arrived, as did Khowaja Shukrullah and my friends.
18
.
After dinner we went to the Orchestra.
19
.
The morning was pleasant with a westerly wind. Since it is Sunday
20
May 30
we had arranged to hear mass at the Vicarage with Khowaja Shukrullah at the
21
.
chapel there. At 7:15 we hired a carriage and went to the Vicarage
22
.
to hear mass. Then we went inside with Khowaja Shukrullah to visit the Vicar Apostolic.
23
.
Since he was engaged he sent one of the priests who had been in Mosul for some 12 years.
24
.
Later on the Vicar Apostolic, Monseigneur Duval came

Page 070


01
.
and seemed pleased by our visit. However he is a very dull person and has no sense of humor so we said goodbye and left to visit
02
.
the home of Khowaja Habib Sakazan in return for his coming to us the day before yesterday
03
.
with his wife. They were at church but returned afterwards. Many guests were visiting them.
04
.
At 11:15 we went to the home of Khowaja Nicholas Mosulli for breakfast
05
.
there because he had invited us the day before yesterday. His house was large
06
.
with two floors. After breakfast I returned immediately to the hotel to find out if
07
Beirut Beirut
the admission ticket had come to me so that I might attend the Jesuits' play and I came across
08
.
the Carte d'Entrée all ready, brought to me by Razouk Bahoshi.
09
.
So I rushed off to the Université. I presented the card, entered,
10
.
and found about 1000 persons attending, together with the French Consul, Monsieur
11
.
Souhart, and the Captain of the frigate Forbin. At 3:00 sharp
12
.
the curtain was raised and the play began. It was entitled
13
.
La guerre de cent ans. However I found that they performed with an extreme religiosity
14
.
so I listened for two acts, then it turned 4:00 and I returned to the hotel
15
.
because I had promised to come back so that we might go in a carriage with Khowaja Shukrullah
16
.
and his family to the gardens outside Beirut. At 5:30
17
.
Khowaja Shukrullah came with his family and we went by carriage toward al-Harash and then turned left to an excellent
18
.
garden on a small river. Its name is Janaynat al-Pasha (Pasha's Gardens) but it is extremely pleasant.
19
.
Inside in the center, the Lebanese soldiers were playing music with quite lovely melodies
20
.
and the orchard was full of women and men, all dressed in European fashion.
21
.
There were many people from among the wealthy, that is, like the Sursuq family and other people
22
.
numbering about 30 or 40 persons all of whom possess millions. By chance just when
23
.
we entered the garden we saw Monsieur Monastersky who was

Page 071


01
.
commissioner at the Regie three years ago in Baghdad. He told us that he was going
02
.
to Istanbul. I saw that he was greatly changed and thin. After sunset
03
.
we returned to our place.
04
.
The morning is pleasant with scattered clouds. Today is the day we travel from
05
May 31
here to Port Sa'id. After we prepared our baggage people came to visit, such as the brother of Khowaja Habib Shiha,
06
.
Khowaja Ibrahim whom we had known very well when he was in Baghdad four years ago,
07
.
and also the Chaldean priest, Yousif Taweel. We learned from him that here in the Convent of the Lazarists one could find
08
.
a nun, the girl Theresa Maria, who is our relative from the Sayegh family.
09
.
Then mother wished very much to see her so the priest took her to where she was living and I stayed by myself
10
.
in the hotel. On her return my mother said that she had seen the nun who is named
11
.
Sœur AngéliqueSoeur Angelique: To be completed. and she had showed her all around her place. She was astonished by the
12
Leaving Beirut
handicrafts of the orphans. In the afternoon my friends came to visit me. They stayed
13
.
for a long time. Sœur Angélique came to visit us and brought along a number of photographs
14
.
and pictures to show us and we too did the same. I went with my friends
15
.
to the photographer who had taken our picture but found that he had not finished anything at all yet.
16
.
So I gave him my address in Marseilles so he could send them there. At 5:30 we ate
17
.
our dinner here and paid hotel charges of 92 francs. Half an hour later we left with
18
.
Khowaja Shukrullah 'Aboud, Antoine, Razouk, and Bahjat to customs so that we could board
19
.
the ship from there. They inspected our trunks, looked at the passport, and gave us permission to leave.
20
.
In short dealing with the Ottomans is all torment and lacks any civility. So I had
21
.
to say goodbye to my friends here. Truly I found this parting quite difficult because
22
.
for all this time in Beirut we were like brothers and of one heart. So my eyes were
23
.
filled tears at our separation. Then we boarded the boat and crossed to the ship. I did not stop
24
.
waving goodbye to them with my hat. Before we boarded the ship they asked for our passport again

Page 072


01
.
and did not allow Shukrullah to come up with us fearing that he might flee the country.
02
.
They are not allowing the people of Syria to travel to America nowadays because all the villages are deserted.
03
The Journey from Beirut
So before boarding the ship we bade Shukrullah goodbye and went up into the ship. And what a
04
.
huge ship it is, like a mountain. Its name is the OrénoqueOrenoque: Name of a French Frigate,built in 1848, that served primarily in the Mediterranean Sea. and the Captain's name is
05
.
SellierSellier: The name of the Captain who sailed the ‘Orénoque’.. The stewards greeted us and escorted us to a cabin because we had taken
06
.
first class and paid 175,50 francs, meals included. I too had a cabin for myself,
07
.
all at this price. After we placed our things in the cabins we came up
08
.
on deck, that is, to third-class and I was amazed by this marvelous ship.
09
.
It has three sails and a salon containing 25 dining tables. At each table
10
.
12 persons can dine and there is a large piano in the front. The deck is 70 paces long
11
.
and I very much loved it.
12
.

13
.
The Journey from Beirut to Cairo, Egypt

14
.


15
.
AT 8:00 SHARP the ship Orénoque departed from the port of Beirut
16
.
and headed for the open sea. The town still glittered at us. As we left, slowly distancing ourselves,
17
.
the ship began to rock a little and I was afraid I might become seasick. I managed to get myself up on deck
18
.
until 9:00 and then noticed that my stomach was turning. The rocking of this ship is inevitable
19
.
because it is empty and not carrying much cargo. I went below and thought it best to sleep so I went to
20
.
my cabin and slept.

June


20
.
An ordinary morning with little wind. I got up at 6:30
21
June 1st
and had slept very well all night long. The ship had sailed through the night
22
.
until morning. At 7:05 the town of Jaffa came into view. Then half

Page 073


01
Jaffa Jaffa
an hour out boats came out from the shore to the ship to take on some more passengers. Likewise,
02
.
lighters came to get the cargo and we heard that we would have to stay here all day.
03
.
The town of Jaffa lies by the sea and has elegant buildings like the houses of Beirut
04
.
but it is an abominable anchorage because the sea here is rough and our boat is flopping about like
05
.
a fish. We were never able to keep ourselves from throwing up and so too
06
.
all the passengers. Our heads were all spinning and our stomachs were quite upset.
07
.
The coast of Jaffa is well-known around here for its rough seas. Many vendors came from the city
08
.
with goods such as rings and rosaries and other curios made in Jerusalem and Jaffa.
09
.
We bought some things as mementos. At
10
.
11:00 they rang the breakfast bell and we went to eat at a private table in the salon.
11
.
The ship never ceased rocking and we were much troubled. My morale was low and I grew weak.
12
.
It came to mind how much better it is traveling by land than by sea. The ship
13
.
is quite large but light and has only a little cargo in it, yet it holds 3600 tons.
14
.
It is very long and narrow with about 100 cabins that are very nicely appointed.
15
.
In them are electric lights and bells, also electric, as well as other things.
16
.
Here I made friends with a man of American citizenship originally from Beirut
17
.
but he had emigrated from Beirut long ago. His name is George Saba
18
.
and he lives in New York. He is a very pleasant man. He was staying
19
.
with us at the hotel but neither of us dared speak to the other until now.
20
.
We were quite distressed by the rocking of the ship. Finally at 6:00 it whistled and set off from Jaffa,
21
.
this accursed place. However we encountered high winds and the ship rolled
22
.
even more. At 7:00 the dinner bell rang. I immediately went and ate
23
.
hastily with an upset stomach and then rushed off to sleep.

Page 074


01
June 2nd
A nice morning with a westerly wind. I got up at 5:00 but I did not
02
.
sleep all night because I was indisposed on account of the sea. I heard the ship
03
.
slow down and knew immediately that we were arriving at Port Sa'id. I put my head
04
.
out the window and saw the seaport, which came into view a half an hour out. The ships there were as abundant as
05
.
worms. I hurried to change my clothes and went up on deck. Then the ship entered the harbor. It was 5:20.
06
.
I saw a number of big ships in a line. Then after the ship stopped moving,
07
.
we hired a boat, one of the CookCook: A reference to Thomas Cook and Sons, an international travel company that started as a rail travel company in Britain, it expanded to give tours in Egypt by 1869. By the time Alexander had arrived in Cairo, the company offered worldwide tours and transit options within and beyond the Middle East. In addition to providing rail options and a fleet of luxury steamers within Egypt. The company also offered travel options to many other locations around the world. boats. We stowed our things and then went ashore
08
.
to the customs office. Here they searched us in case we had with us the slightest prohibited thing and they found nothing.
09
.
We had decided that we would visit our friend Monsieur Joseph KhouryJoseph Khoury: Formerly engaged to Josephine, the daughter of Alexander Richard Svoboda's older half sister. The two never married because Josephine passed away before the marriage. who, 10 years ago, was
10
.
the interpreter for the French Consul in Baghdad. He was engaged to JosephineJosephine: The daughter of Medula Sayegh Tessy. Medula was Alexander Richard Svoboda's half sister from this mother's (Eliza Marine) first marriage., Aunt Medula's daughter, who
11
.
passed away before her marriage. So we asked about his house and they showed us where it was. We sent up our card fearing that
12
.
this might be a different Khoury. They then showed us up and none other than Joseph's mother herself came.
13
.
Then he arrived and received us with much joy and kissed us. We were truly amazed at how fate had allowed us to see him after
14
.
so long. Our idea was that we would go from here directly to Cairo, that is, on the train that
15
.
departs at 9:00. But Monsieur Khoury very much wanted us to stay here for the day so we agreed to this.
16
.
I left to tour Port Sa'id and found it a very beautiful and clean town. Its markets and buildings are entirely
17
.
like Europe. That is to say, all the buildings are four or five stories high and there is a large building, 9 stories high, made of iron.
18
.
It is across from the house of Monsieur Khoury. I can honestly say that the arrangement of Port Sa'id is better than
19
.
Beirut although it is small and extremely expensive. A person cannot live there on less than 15 francs
20
.
a day. All the shops and department stores are in the French style and nearly all the inhabitants of the town dress
21
Port Sa'id Port Sa'id
in the French manner. The Egyptian police patrol every street, dressed very neatly and were on the lookout
22
.
for anyone who plays rough. My health up until now has been quite disrupted. My head is spinning
23
.
and I am incapable of doing anything. In the afternoon we had breakfast at Monsieur Khoury's

Page 075


01
.
and asked him to show us some of the hotels so we could find a place to spend the night. He took us to
02
.
a hotel where we rented two rooms. They asked 15 francs of us for dinner and bed. The bicycle is
03
.
abundant here and there are many, both men and women, who ride it in the streets.
04
.
After dinner Monsieur Khoury came to visit us and stayed for about two hours.
05
.
Today the morning is a little hot with a westerly wind. The weather
06
June 3rd
here is much different than in Damascus and Beirut. It is like days in Baghdad during this month.
07
.
That is to say, dry and hot. We drank tea at 7:30, got our things together, and went to
08
.
Monsieur Khoury's house to say goodbye and go to the railway to board the train
09
.
to Cairo. So we stayed just until 8:30. Then we bade his mother goodbye
10
.
and he generously offered to accompany us to the station. We went and got ourselves seats. We saw that this train
11
.
was much nicer than the one that goes from Damascus to Beirut. And by chance we came upon
12
.
an empty Wagon for us only and we were very pleased. At 9:00 sharp
13
.
the whistle blew and the bell rang for the departure. So we exchanged goodbyes with Monsieur Yousif Khoury
14
.
and the train left Port Sa'id taking the shore of the
15
.
Canal de Suez, always traveling along its banks. At 9:35
16
.
it halted. It was 14 kilometers from Port Sa'id to here. At 9:45 a ship in the canal,
17
.
named Abdul QaderAbdul Qader: The name of a ship., passed us with pilgrims on board, one that had certainly come from Basrah
18
.
going to the Hajj. At 10:00 the train stopped and started again 3 minutes later. 10:50 al-Qantara Station, we departed at
19
.
11:00 / 11:45, al-Ferdan, we departed at 11:47. We arrived in al-Isma'iliyya
20
Suez Canal, al-Isma'iliyya
at 12:15 and got off the train. We had to wait for the train coming from
21
.
al-Suez to take us to Cairo. At 1:10 it arrived and we transferred.
22
.
We took another Wagon but not the same kind as the first and older.
23
.
Isma'iliyya is a small and rebuilt town. At 1:23 we set out
24
.
returning to al-Suez so that the train can take the Cairo track. This one

Page 076


01
.
was going fast, much swifter than the one we came on, to al-Isma'iliyah.
02
.
1:55, Mahassana, we departed at 1:58 / 2:08, Qassasin, we departed at 2:10 / 2:25, Tel al-Kabir,
03
.
we departed at 2:30 / 2:45, Abu Hamad, we departed at 2:48 / 3:00, Abu Ahdhar, we departed at 3:01.
04
.
Here there is a large and well-designed cemeteryCemetary: In Abu Ahdhar, a cemetary commemorating the soldiers who died int he 1882 Battle of Tel el-Kebir in Egypt. with the graves of English and Egyptian soldiers
05
.
who were killed in the battle between England and EgyptBattle of Tel el-Kebir: An important battle in 1882 between the British military and the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi near Tel el-Kebir, about 110 km northeast of Cairo. The British succeeded in maintaining control of the Suez Canal and other regional interests. and its allies. 3:10, Zaqaziq.
06
to Cairo
This town is quite large and resembles Baghdad in size. Here many passengers came
07
.
and 7 of them even entered the reserved Wagon. They were quite lacking in manners
08
.
and made jokes amongst themselves thinking we were Westerners. The lands here are very fertile and there are many
09
.
date palms and crops such as barley, wheat, cotton, rice and other things.
10
.
For the first time since Baghdad I saw water buffalos in this place. But
11
.
the entire area from Port Sa'id to here is very sandy with dust clouds and the train
12
.
is full of dust. The railway was swift and we traveled quite well.
13
.
I counted 15 telegraph poles passing in a single minute. We departed from
14
.
Zaqaziq at 3:25, with a large number of passengers from there. Zinkaloon, 3:35, we departed at 3:36
15
.
/ Joudida, 3:48, we departed at 3:50 / Minat al-Qamh, 3:55 we departed at 4:00 / Mayt Yazid,
16
.
4:05, we departed at 4:07. At 4:15 the train stopped and they said we must
17
.
move to another one because the track here is being leveled and the railway cannot pass directly.
18
.
So we had to carry our things and race to the second railway, jostled
19
.
left and right by the passengers. At last we reached the other train but with great difficulty and settled into
20
.
a compartment that holds 8 persons. We were obliged to wait for the transfer of the cargo from one
21
.
to the other. Finally at 5:10 the train departed. We arrived in Shablena at 5:20
22
.
and departed at 5:28 / 5:45, Benha, we departed at 6:00. The train was extremely swift,
23
.
traveling this speedily with us for the first time. It was making a full 21 poles per minute.
24
.
After a 15 minute run Cairo came into view. So it reduced its speed and began

Page 077


01
.
to travel slower.
Arrival in Cairo, Egypt

02
.

03
.


04
.
AT 6:35 WE ARRIVED at the Cairo station and caught sight of the towering buildings
05
.
and lovely edifices that eclipse both Beirut and Damascus. Here hotel owners gathered
06
.
about us abundant as worms and we sought out the best one, that is, the Hotel Metropole.
07
Cairo
We hired a carriage and rode through pleasant
08
.
markets and beautiful streets that cheer the heart. As we continued on our way people
09
.
swarmed in the streets and the carriages teemed like fish. The policemen in the streets
10
.
are as neatly dressed as the English soldiers. We do not have time
11
.
just now to look at everything. So we came to the hotel entrance and bargained with them to pay one
12
.
English pound each day for the three of us. We entered and took two rooms. Everything is
13
.
unbearably expensive. In Port Sa'id it is much worse. There a porter will not carry anything
14
.
a distance of only three minutes without one franc and everyone else is the same. At the hotel we met
15
.
Madame Fara, that is, Regina, the daughter of Khowaja Habib ShihaKhwaja Habib Shiha: The brother of Francis Shiha; he fathered a girl named Regina. and her son Victor.
16
.
She was very pleased to see us when we reached her room. She could not believe that
17
.
we had really come and was quite astonished to see me. She asked about Baghdad, about her sister
18
.
Takohi among other things. We dined at 8:00 and then went up to sleep in our rooms
19
.
because we were truly devastated by exhaustion and the journey.
20
.
I got up at 6:30 in the morning. It was hot all night long
21
June 4th
and the windows were open in the room. I slept very well this night
22
.
because I was so tired. After we drank tea I went with my
23
.
father to tour the markets. But what markets they are, like palaces!

Page 078


01
.
All the stores are made bright with gilded signs and glass on the main doors, and
02
.
with passages like beautifully designed brides. First we went to Messrs.
03
.
Thos. Cook & Son to purchase tickets from one of them right then to Brindisi
04
.
and Napoli, as well as railway tickets from here to Alexandria.
05
.
So we came to the office which looked as if it was a city gate. The architecture was amazing and
06
.
the building seemed like a castle. We entered and inquired about the tickets. He immediately showed us the plan
07
.
of the ship that will sail from Alexandria on the 11th of this month to Brindisi.
08
.
It is called Sutleg. It holds nearly 5000 tons and is an extremely large ship.
09
.
He issued three second-class tickets for us to Brindisi for 16 and a quarter English
10
.
pounds and railway tickets from Brindisi to Napoli for about 6 pounds,
11
.
and also tickets from here to Alexandria for one and a half pounds for all, that is, all three of us.
12
.
He said that if we returned in an hour the tickets would be ready. So we left
13
.
and went to the bank, that is, the Banque Impl. Ottomane, to collect
14
.
a total of 60 pounds. This bank is also large with admirable architecture and
15
.
a fair number of clerks. They handed us the money and we left returning to Cook's
16
.
and found all the tickets ready. We took them and went to the Austrian Consulate
17
.
to ask if there were any letters from Baghdad addressed to us. We gave them
18
.
gave our cards and they looked but found nothing. Then it was necessary for us to return to the hotel because
19
.
it had turned 11:30. In Regina's room I ran across Monsieur
20
.
Auguste Tonietti, whom I had quite forgotten. When he left Baghdad
21
.
I was about 9 years old. He did not recognize me either. We were very pleased
22
.
to find someone who could help us here and so we arranged to meet him
23
.
in the afternoon, that is, at 4:00, and tour the town together. In the course of conversation
24
.
he told us that EffieEffie: Effie Svoboda was the daughter of Alexander Sandor Svoboda and wife of Ernest Boucherot. Born in Baghdad in 1852, she left the city in 1860, eventually settling in Cairo. She gave birth to many children, including a girl named Evelyn and sons Paul Louis and Alphonse., my late Uncle Alexander's daughter is here but is

Page 079


01
.
out of town and that her husband has an Optician's shop in the city.
02
.
I prepared a few letters to Baghdad and Basrah after breakfast. Then Monsieur Auguste came at 4:00 and took us with him to
03
.
see Monsieur Boucherot, Effie's husband. He had no news of this
04
.
whatsoever and when my father surprised him the poor man was so amazed
05
.
that he cried out in a loud voice and hugged him as if in disbelief
06
Azbeqiyya, Cairo Cairo el Izbakieh
and appeared very happy to see us. He is a pleasant man and he has a store where he sells
07
.
binoculars, engineering tools, and other things. After a half an hour we left
08
.
his place. He said that Effie would return tomorrow and that he would bring her to our hotel.
09
.
He also invited us to spend the day with him outside the city on Sunday. From there we went into
10
.
a wooded garden called al-Azbakiyahal-Azbeqiyya: To be completed. in the center of the district.
11
.
What a pleasant and agreeable garden it is, with every kind of tree in
12
.
the world purchased for exorbitant sums in order to bring them here. Beneath
13
.
the trees there are plenty of seats and benches and people are going to and fro.
14
.
In the middle there is a very large pond, I mean 200 meters long, with geese,
15
.
but a different kind of goose we had never seen before. It has a long neck and a beak
16
.
with a black appendage and is quite large. There is a raised circle next to the pool
17
.
where they play music, pleasant Western songs. In short this place
18
.
is the best of all the wooded gardens we have seen. In front of this garden,
19
.
in the passage, there is a large statue of Ibrahim Pasha riding his horse, made entirely
20
.
of bronze. We stayed until 7:30 and then returned. The streets
21
.
swarmed with people, Westerners with their women, as abundant as worms. It was a thousand times more
22
.
crowded than in the morning because everyone had just now finished work. The streets are lit
23
.
by electric lights, natural gas, and petrol. Streetcars go to and
24
.
fro and so too the bicycles. Here for the first time we saw the

Page 080


01
.
Tramway. It runs on electricity and they call it the Automobile.
02
.
This thing is truly astonishing. It moves by itself without being pulled by horses or having
03
.
fire in it. Returning to the hotel we said goodbye to Auguste and agreed that
04
.
tomorrow he would come to us so that we could go and see other places.
05
.
I got up in the morning and the weather was very hot. The night had been
06
June 5th
very stuffy. After I had washed and changed Monsieur Auguste
07
.
arrived and we decided to visit a mosque well known for its architecture. They call it
08
.
al-Muqattam Mosque. So we set out from the hotel and boarded the Tramway Electric
09
.
to journey to the outskirts of the city in order to go up and see this mosque which is built tall
10
.
and on top of a mountain. We arrived and there were many barhama (acacia) trees in the streets.
11
.
Then we climbed up little by little and went all around this very large mosque.
12
al-Muqattam Mosque
The building is like the work of a mighty people. From here we see the whole town below us
13
.
and so too the pyramids become visible to us from here. Afterwards we wanted to enter the
14
.
mosque, that is to say, the prayer hall, so we were obliged to wear their slippers.
15
.
We wore them and entered into the prayer hall. We were astonished by its size and by what there was inside
16
.
of refined marble-work. Its width is 80 steps and its length is many times
17
.
that. It also has four domes on top, each one higher than the other, and all
18
.
have encircling balconies. A chandelier hangs in the middle suspended
19
.
on a boat chain because of its size, the kind they use to pull up anchors. They can light
20
.
1000 lamps on this chandelier and its circumference is possibly 10 meters. Then we exited
21
.
and gave them a few piasters as a tip. We then came to a very deep hole
22
.
called the Well of JosephThe Well of Joseph: According to Burckhardt (1812), the Well of Joseph (Ar. Jubb Yousif) was on the road between Damascus and Akka. Alexander must have visited a second well, known by the same name, a short distance from Cairo., that is to say, where Joseph the Beautiful was thrown into the
23
.
well. Here too we gave them a few piasters and they opened the door for us. We went down into it

Page 081


01
.
because it is in the depths of the middle of this mountain. It is dark
02
.
so they brought us candles. I went down half-way with Auguste and we saw
03
.
a tomb in the wall and something like wheels for drawing water. We were at a depth of 200 meters and it was but
04
.
another 100 meters to the water. But we came back up because we were dying from exhaustion
05
Cairo
and the heat that had killed us all day long. The sun was blazing hot like the days of the summer
06
.
in Baghdad. So we left this place quite amazed by its workmanship
07
.
and went back on the tramway to the hotel. It was 12:00 and we were
08
.
expecting Effie, daughter of the late Uncle Alexander, because her husband had told us that she
09
.
would come to our place at noon. Just when we sat down at the table for breakfast they told us that
10
.
guests had arrived to see us and we knew that it was Effie. She came right in and
11
.
continuously embraced us most affectionately. She was surprised at how she had encountered us and was extremely happy to see us.
12
.
So we had her sit down at the table with us and ordered a meal for her. Afterwards we went up with her to
13
.
our room and remained talking at length about Baghdad. She said that it has been 37 years since
14
.
she left Baghdad. Yet she recalled everything up to this very moment, even
15
.
the old songs. But the poor thing is very old and the hair on her head is growing
16
.
white. She was much taken by my mother and I showed her many photographs of Baghdad and especially
17
.
photographs of our family. She was overcome by wonder when she saw such changes as had happened
18
.
in the family. At 4:00 we took her with us and went to the market to buy a few
19
.
things. Then we went to her husband's shop and found her youngest son there. He is named
20
.
Paul and is 10 years old. Her elder daughter is married and has a
21
.
boy. We kept walking after leaving the store until we came to the railway station.
22
.
Then we said our goodbyes and she insisted that tomorrow we come and spend the day
23
.
at their house, in a place called al-Matariyahal-Matariyah: A small historical site located on the outskirts of Cairo of seeming importance to Christians. The site is home to a prominent obelisk, an ancient tree named after the Virgin Mary, and a Fresco of the Holy Family located in a local chapel(date unknown), and a small body of water colloquially called the “Jesus Well.” , outside of town at a distance of
24
.
a half hour's walk and 10 minutes by railway. We returned to the hotel at sunset.

Page 082


01
June 6th
A stuffy and hot morning. I got up at 6:30 and changed my clothes.
02
.
Because today is Sunday we had arranged yesterday with Monsieur Auguste
03
.
that he would come to us at 8:00 and take us with him to church to hear mass.
04
.
From there we would go to the station and to Effie's house. Auguste came right at the set
05
.
time. We took him and went to a small church. We saw that all
06
Cairo
the masses had finished and that another one would be held at 10:00. But that was very
07
.
late and the weather was getting hot. So we decided that it would be better to go to
08
.
the railway and get ourselves tickets to al-Matariyah. We hired a carriage and went to
09
.
the station. It was 9:15 and we got return tickets for 12 standard piasters
10
.
for the four of us. At 9:30 we boarded the train and it set out. We journeyed along, stopping every
11
.
10 minutes at a station, until we arrived at 10:00 in al-Matariyah. We got off
12
.
and went to Effie's place. The weather was getting hotter and hotter and the ground
13
.
was boiling hot because it is dry sand. We entered and they were happy
14
.
to welcome us. Auguste had gone to be with some of his friends. We went into a room
15
.
and shut all the doors and windows because the blazing heat was extremely
16
.
powerful. At noon it got to 112º Fahrenheit and I can say
17
.
that in Baghdad there is no heat like this. So an hour after noon we sat down
18
.
to breakfast at which time Effie's son Alphonse came, the one who works
19
.
at the railway. He is a youth of 21 years. The poor fellow was sick
20
.
from the heat. Finally at 4:15 we said our goodbyes and left to catch the train
21
.
that leaves at 4:30. The sun here was very hot and the weather
22
.
was dry, saam-like, and scorching. They used to say that Africa
23
.
is hot and yet we did not believe it. At 4:30 the train came and we boarded it.

Page 083


01
.
There was not a single person on board because of the intensity of the heat. Auguste came as well. We arrived
02
.
in Cairo at 5:00 and decided to visit Yousif Serpos who arrived today from
03
.
Alexandria. When we were in Port Sa'id we wrote him a letter informing him of
04
.
our arrival here and they sent the letter there for him. Yesterday at sunset a telegram came from him telling us that tomorrow
05
.
he would be in Cairo. So we went with Auguste
06
.
to his residence and entered and went up to the third floor where we saw him. He was happy to see us and
07
.
his wife came too, who is quite young, perhaps
08
.
22 years old. He has two little boys aged two years and under. We left
09
.
their place after an hour. He invited us for dinner at his place tomorrow and we accepted. We had intended
10
.
to go and view the best place in Cairo which is al-Gizeh,
11
.
a large district on the other side of the Nile River. So we hired a carriage for 3 francs
12
Giza Guizeh
and rode with Auguste over leveled roads bordered by plantings
13
.
of barhama, where people in carriages and on horseback and bicycles were abundant as worms,
14
.
swarming. Then we came upon the Nile River Bridge which is made of iron and stands
15
.
about 50 meters above the river. At its entrance there are two bridgeheads
16
.
with two lions, sculpted in steel, very large, and a truly
17
.
terrifying sight. We then crossed the bridge over the Nile and came to al-Gizeh, an extremely pleasant
18
.
place. It resembles a covered passage with barhama trees on both sides which
19
.
shade the center and carriages in abundance on two lanes, one lane going out
20
.
and the other coming back. And between them there are police on the lookout for anything the least bit
21
.
inappropriate. Here there is the best hotel to be found in Cairo. It is called
22
.
the Gazereh Palace HotelGazereh Palace Hotel: This was a luxury hotel located in central Zamalek. Jointly managed by the French Gezirah Land Company and the Egyptian Hotels Company, the building was converted to a hotel during the late 19th century (only a few years before Alexander’s visit); it had previously been a palace of Khedive Ismail. The hotel was famed for its luxury, and it was a popular location with European tourists. and it is truly a sight to see.
23
.
People who have seen it say that its like is not to be found in Europe because it is as large
24
.
as the largest palace. In it are more than 300 rooms, an electricity

Page 084


01
.
generating facility, and huge theatres. In front the ground is planted with all
02
.
kinds of flowers. Every 10 cubits there are statues and electric lights
03
.
fill it inside and out. In short it is very elegant. Then we returned from this
04
.
place which is also used in the winter for betting on the horses
05
.
at 7:30.
06
June 7th
I awoke at 6:30 in the morning. The weather was still stuffy.
07
.
It seems that these are the hottest days here. After drinking tea Monsieur Auguste came to take us
08
.
and we hired a carriage and went to see the sisters of Yousif SerposYousif Saryos: A resident of Alexandria who had two children and two sisters, Mariam and Touza, who had recently lost her husband., that is,
09
.
Mariam and Touza, whose residence is a half an hour from here. On our way we went into
10
.
the place of a dressmaker who is sewing a coat for my mother. Here I saw something worth
11
.
mentioning, something wondrous and rare. This dressmaker has a son some 35 years old.
12
.
I saw with my own eyes that he was blind, since the age of twenty, and yet he has learned to play
13
.
the piano. This poor fellow was inspired by Allah and so long as he has been blind he has been giving piano lessons
14
.
to many people. Beyond that he composes music and writes the notes down in
15
.
notebooks and teaches them to students despite being blind to the ultimate degree. This is something
16
.
that amazed me and will never happen again. We arrived at the house of the
17
.
Serpos daughters and went up to their place. They greeted us dressed in black for both
18
.
their sister and Touza's husband, Iskander Nassour. Parson Boutros Abed came here too, the one who
19
.
was the director of the Chaldean school in Baghdad six years ago. The poor fellow has lost much
20
.
weight and is now in charge of the church that was sponsored by Antony's wife
21
.
who lives at the same building with Yousif Serpos
22
.
but on the floor below. Then after leaving Mariam and Touza's home,
23
.
Parson Boutros went with us to have a look at the church that

Page 085


01
.
belongs to Antoine Abdul-Mesih's wife. We entered and found it pleasant. It was not
02
.
very large and as yet unfinished. They are still painting but the interior is lovely and
03
.
holds only about 500 people. Up to now she has spent 7000 pounds on it.
04
.
We returned to the hotel at 12:00 and had breakfast. Afterwards at 5:00 Auguste came
05
.
and took us to visit Antony's wife Helene. She received us
06
.
in the diwan. She is old and deaf, about 65 years of age. Since we had decided that
07
.
we would dine at Yousif's place we said our goodbyes and went up to the floor above. There
08
.
we were seated in the diwan and Yousif and his wife entered later. Yousif entertained
09
.
us to the best of his ability. Then we decided that after dinner we would go and take the air in
10
.
the surroundings of Cairo. Yousif's wife is young, 20 years old, and she plays the piano quite well.
11
.
She played a number of pieces for us, especially some melodies that I used to hear in
12
.
Baghdad. Then I thought of the homeland and wished I were there. We sat down to dine at 9:30 and
13
.
the table was quite lovely. We finished at 11:00 and then took two carriages
14
.
to the bridge district that they call kopriKopri district: Possibly a reference to the area around Gezira Bridge. Constructed in 1872, the bridge linked the East Nile and the island of Zamalek. The bridge has since been demolished, and today the Qasr-e-Nile bridge serves the purpose that the Gezira Bridge once served.. But how pleasant the view is there
15
.
on the roads with trees on both sides and electric and gas lights
16
.
on both lanes. There is something especially beautiful at the bridgehead where the rays of light cast
17
.
a charming and even glow. We returned at 12:00 to the hotel and said farewell to
18
.
Yousif and his wife. We arranged with them that tomorrow we would go to the Palace of AntiquitiesPalace of Antiquities: Cairo’s Museum of Antiquities, which held most relics from Egypt’s ancient past. It was moved to Giza in 1891 following a flood that damaged the previous location. Soon after Alexander’s visit, the goods in the museum were moved once more.,
19
.
that is to say, the Musée. Today I sent a number of letters to Baghdad, that is, to Johnny
20
.
Kasperkhan, Nassoury, Jamil, and to Rapha'il. I also sent Johnny the regulations
21
.
I obtained from the president of the university in Beirut.
22
June 8th
I got up in the morning and changed my clothes. The weather was still
23
.
very stuffy. After we drank tea at 8:00 the Khowajas,
24
.
Auguste, and Yousif, came to take us to the exhibit of Egyptian antiquities.

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01
.
So at 8:30 we hired a carriage and rode toward the bridge. We crossed and took a street called
02
.
al-Giza. It is completely shaded by barhama trees on both sides, which cast a shadow
03
.
over the middle. Here the breeze was blowing pleasantly and the zephyr was cheering to the heart.
04
.
Half an hour later we arrived at the Palace of Antiquities in Giza, which they call Le Musée.
05
The Palace of Antiquities in Giza
It consists of a huge orchard with a
06
.
very large saray in the middle which was previously the residence of the former khedive
07
.
Isma'il Pasha. Now it has been made into an exhibit which houses all the Egyptian finds
08
.
discovered in these lands. Because today is Tuesday admission is free to all visitors.
09
.
Then we reached the gate and the palace came into view. It is a most excellent thing for its sublime architecture
10
.
and decorative workmanship. We entered and they asked us for the canes and umbrellas
11
.
because they feared that something inside might be broken. We entered the first room and saw
12
.
the embalmed bodies that are the Momies d'Egypte. They are desiccated but
13
.
in the state in which they died, except for being desiccated and black. All their jewelry and clothes
14
.
are here as are the shrouds. They are very ancient, no less
15
Le Musée
than 3000 years old. Finally we went into room after room in this
16
.
huge, pleasant palace, all decorated and dazzling and far better
17
.
than the finest houses of Damascus, which astonished us. So here we saw
18
.
all that they had discovered of this ancient people. Their clothes, idols, rings
19
.
and gold work, coffins, furniture, tools, mirrors, books, jewelry,
20
.
articles of war, beads and their inscriptions on linen or tree leaves, and so on, and
21
.
other artifacts that bewilder the mind and confound one's wits.
22
.
This palace contains nearly 90 rooms all filled
23
.
with such artifacts which are a sight to see and which open one's eyes
24
.
to ancient things. Here all these objects are stored in covered boxes

Page 087


01
.
of glass and crystal to prevent their being touched. We also saw their ships, boats, oars,
02
.
and so on. Actually we kept on touring until 11:00 and had still not finished. We were extremely tired
03
.
from being on our feet and so we went downstairs after we had looked at everything, got into the carriage, and returned to our place
04
.
quite thoughtful and impressed by this pleasant visit. In the afternoon
05
.
Khowaja Yousif and his wife came to visit us. At sunset we went to enjoy the fresh air
06
.
in the Azbakiyah Garden.
07
June 9th
Today I woke up in the morning, that is to say, at 5:00 because we had decided to go and see
08
.
the extraordinary pyramids. The morning was pleasant and not too hot. Monsieur Auguste
09
.
came to us and at 10 minutes past 6 we got into a carriage and rode toward
10
The Pyramids Pyramides
the bridge in order to take the road which will lead us to the pyramids. So we crossed and went between
11
.
the barhama trees on both sides and among long, straight roadways.
12
.
The sun was casting shadows and a very nice morning breeze blew. At last we arrived at
13
.
7:45 at the pyramids which are truly one of the wonders of the world.
14
.
A hotel called Mena's HouseMena House Hotel: A hotel near Cairo and the Giza Pyramids. The site was converted into a hotel after its 1885 acquisition by an English family. The hotel began to stay open year-round around 1890; this marked a shift from other hotels, which typically closed during the summer. The hotel was incredibly luxurious, as it included tennis courts, high-end chefs, and the first hotel swimming pool in Cairo. is nearby
15
.
which is extremely pleasant and well-decorated. But before we arrived at the pyramids
16
.
a crowd of people wanting to act as our guides gathered around us. They were rushing toward the carriage and quarreling
17
.
amongst themselves. We rebuffed them and did not want any of them but they did not make way
18
.
and were truly quite annoying. We told them that we wanted none of them at all yet they did not give up
19
.
but, this time, went and brought their camels and riding animals. So we left them behind, like dogs, and went
20
.
toward the first of the pyramids which from afar appeared a small thing to us. These
21
.
pyramids are built of great blocks of marble laid one on top of the other and
22
.
are a sight to see. The height of these pyramids is 470 feet.
23
.
They suppose that the kings of the ancients when they ascended to the throne
24
.
had deep tombs made for them at a depth of 400 feet. Above them they constructed

Page 088


01
.
these huge mountains, that are the pyramids, because they believed that their souls
02
.
after death would return on the Day of the Last Judgment to take on their bodies and live deathless
03
.
for all eternity. Before dying one must direct that after he dies
04
.
they lay up his body in the tightest possible place so that it receive no breath of wind
05
.
or air and for that reason too they embalmed them. This could possibly be true.
06
.
After viewing the first pyramid we went toward the Sphinx,
07
.
which here they call Abul-Hawl. We were amazed by its size and massive workmanship.
08
.
We observed as much as our strength allowed because the heat was very strong and the ground
09
.
was not easy to walk on because it was sandy, hot, and rose and fell.
10
.
So we descended and took to the carriage. It was 9:30 and we went back to where
11
.
we had come from. Thus we arrived at the hotel at 10:50 and paid the carriage fare of 35 standard
12
.
piasters. After breakfast Effie and her son, Alphonse, arrived
13
.
and stayed until 6:00. Then they left the hotel giving us their word that they would return
14
.
tomorrow afternoon to say our goodbyes. At sunset we took Auguste and went to
15
.
al-Azbakiyah to listen to the music for an hour. Then we returned to our place.
16
June 10th
I got up at 7:00. The morning was like yesterday. After
17
.
we drank tea we went all together to the bath which is 10
18
.
minutes from here in order to bathe. We paid 6 standard piasters each. Truly
19
.
this bath was very pleasing. It is made in the European style and women and men can
20
.
go there because it is entirely divided into rooms and pools in the European style.
21
.
We returned after an hour. This is our last day here in Cairo and tomorrow
22
.
we will take the train to Alexandria. So today we have nothing
23
.
to do. We breakfasted and asked the hotel owner to present
24
.
us with the bill. I really loved Cairo very much

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01
.
and am sad to leave it. I will certainly see no better. In the afternoon
02
.
Monsieur Auguste visited. We took him and went about bidding farewell to Egypt.
03
.
When we returned at sunset we found Effie's daughter Eveline at our place
04
.
with her husband and son. Her husband's name is Georges Kahil and truly
05
.
both of them are young, the girl probably 18 years old and the husband possibly
06
.
only 20. We were quite happy to see them and they us. They left after a half an hour
07
.
and we said our goodbyes. They told us that Effie directed them to give us her greetings since
08
.
she did not have time to come into town.
09
.
The Journey from Cairo to Rome via Brindisi and Napoli

10
.

11
.


12
June 11th
I GOT UP IN THE morning at 6:00 because we have to prepare our things to travel by
13
.
the train that leaves at 9:30. So after drinking tea we arranged all our things.
14
.
At 8:00 Auguste arrived and Regina Madame Fara came down from
15
.
upstairs. A half an hour later we hired two carriages and bade goodbye to
16
.
Regina. We paid the hotel charges, which amounted to nearly 8 English
17
.
pounds, boarded the carriages, and rode to the railway station.
18
.
As soon as we arrived we got our tickets and took a place
19
.
in second class. They charge for the trunks here also. When, like this, we
20
.
came from Port Sa'id they took 10 francs for the two trunks. Then
21
.
Yousif Serpos, his wife and children, and Parson Boutros came
22
.
to bid us goodbye. At 9:30 the train whistled and we bade everyone goodbye,

Page 090


01
.
and especially Auguste was very upset by our parting, as were we.
02
.
He was our companion in Egypt, with us the whole time, and he never stinted in doing anything for us.
03
.
So we left Egypt behind. The train pulled out of the Station heading
04
.
toward Alexandria. I was truly quite sad to leave Cairo
05
Alexandria
for it is a city worth remembering and seeing and it is superior to all the places that
06
.
we have seen before. We departed at 9:30 / at 10:10 Benha, departed at 10:15 /
07
.
at 10:52 Tanta, departed at 11:05 / at 11:15 Kafr el-Zayyat, departed at 11:16 /
08
.
at 11:55 Damanhour, departed at 12:00 / at 12:40 Sidi-Gaber, departed at 12:45.
09
.
At 1:00 in the afternoon we arrived in Alexandria. Since I have
10
.
a friend here with whom I have kept up a correspondence for three years on the subject of stamps,
11
.
I had written him a letter from Cairo some days ago. I told him that I had arrived
12
.
here and would see him soon. He replied saying that he was quite pleased and would wait for me
13
.
at the station on the day of my arrival. When the train arrived at the station here I met
14
.
my friend. His name is S. E. Couddésu and he was very happy to see me. So immediately
15
.
we hired a carriage and loaded our trunks. We made up our minds before anything else to go and take
16
.
the cabin on the ship SutlejSutleg [Thomas and Cook ship], which is one of the T. & C ships.
17
.
Then we rode through the streets of Alexandria and I was impressed by this construction
18
.
which is far superior to Cairo. We boarded the ship and took the cabin.
19
.
Couddésu was with us. After we left our trunks we returned by carriage
20
.
to have a better look at the town. So we toured its markets and locales. I saw
21
.
that it resembles Cairo to some extent. Although there are neither trees by the roads
22
.
nor big gardens its streets are paved with marble. Then we went to the post office to inquire if
23
.
there are letters for us from Baghdad. We did not find a thing and wondered
24
.
how it is that our family has not written anything to us by now. The last letter we received was in

Page 091


01
.
Beirut. It has been a long time and we have had no news at all from them. We returned to the ship at 3:00
02
.
because it will sail at 4:00. Then I gave my friend the stamps, a few
03
.
foreign stamps and others numbering about 50. He bade me goodbye and left. I also gave him a letter Antoine
04
.
Guilietti wrote to his Aunt here as a kind of recommendation and I begged of him to tell
05
.
Messieurs Bavastro et Sakakini that I deeply regretted not having seen them
06
.
in person. At 4:00 sharp the ship sailed from the Port
07
.
where there are about 100 ships, among them the ship Turkistan that came
08
.
from Basrah and will also sail immediately to Marseille. Truly
09
.
the port of Alexandria is excellent, pleasant and very large.
10
.
So we left the port and are now at sea. Our ship is extremely large and can transport nearly
11
.
5000 tons. Thank God it has a cargo and does not rock like the one we came on
12
.
from Beirut to Port Sa'id. It travels quite pleasantly
13
.
and does not upset us in the slightest. Here we made friends with a French man
14
.
named Monsieur Chartraine and his wife. He works at the railroad
15
.
in Cairo and is a good person. There are only 30 passengers with us, in both first and second
16
.
class. One thing is not good here and that is the food. It is quite insufficient. They serve
17
That was only at sunset but in the daytime they serve food about 4 times, but only a simple meal at sunset.
no more than two simple dishes. After supper which was at sunset 6:30,
18
.
I went up onto the deck of the ship. The moon was in its tenth day and cast
19
.
a lovely light onto this vast and violent sea. The weather was very cold here
20
.
and there was a great difference between here and Cairo. The clouds resembled winter days.
21
June 12
This morning the sea is fearsome and upsetting but not
22
.
so much and there are signs of its getting worse. I am quite afraid of it because
23
.
it pains me. The ship is very big and there is not much cargo.
24
.
We approached the shores of Greece just after noon. The wind blew

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01
.
hard and the ship tossed and turned more. I began to toss and turn inside also
02
.
and my health changed. In the afternoon we passed islands, the Ionian Islands, in the distance.
03
.
The ship never ceased rocking more and more, and I likewise, until sunset when I came to sit
04
.
at the table. My stomach turned and I went down to the cabin without eating
05
.
a morsel. I was feeling much worse and my insides turned all the more. I threw myself
06
.
on the bed and began to vomit unceasingly.
07
June 13
That night turned out to be the hardest night of my entire life.
08
.
Until now I had never suffered such agony which I continue to suffer
09
.
to this very moment. Left like a fish on the bed, from the tossing
10
.
of the accursed ship, I threw up nearly 15 times during the night and have been throwing up
11
.
like that until now. The sea is quite agitated and I feel my head
12
.
is being uprooted. They advised me that I should go up on deck but
13
.
it was even more miserable and until sunset I suffered the torments of martyrs.
14
.
This is the first time I have felt anything of this sort. May God help anyone in whose head
15
.
such a thing happens. I was in the same state until night, growing extremely weak and without
16
.
enough power in me to walk. I feared that this night would be like the previous one
17
.
so we sent for the physician and he gave me a sleeping draught. However, God be praised, the sea
18
.
became less agitated.
19
June 14th
Tonight I slept well though reeling from fatigue
20
.
and lack of food. From the day before yesterday until now I have eaten nothing
21
.
at all. Since we will arrive today in Brindisi I had to prepare my things for leaving
22
.
the ship and the accursed sea which I had begun to hate like the devil.
23
.
I longed for travel by land which is a thousand times better. After I drank

Page 093


01
.
a little tea I changed my clothes and arranged my things. I was devastated
02
.
by utter weakness and did not have the strength to take a step. At 7:00
03
.
the accursed ship began to toss and turn again and the sea grew more agitated. There is no power
04
.
and no strength save in God the Sublime and Mighty! Then I, in all my weakness, started
05
Brindisi
to get sick again. Truly if it were not that Brindisi is two hours from here
06
.
I would inevitably have died! Then I sat down at table and the ship
07
.
tossed and turned and finally went back and forth. This was because we had neared
08
.
the shores of Italy, that is to say, Brindisi. At 8:30 the ship entered the port
09
.
and settled somewhat. Then at 9:10 it proceeded to the shore or the Quai.
10
.
They lowered the gangway and we disembarked from the ship. I am happy at being separated from
11
.
the sea but distressed because of my utterly low spirits. What good health
12
.
I had gathered along the way I lost in a single day and night. Brindisi
13
.
resembles Port Sa'id a bit but all its people are Italians.
14
.
The town is not large but arranged like in Europe. We had hoped that
15
.
after our arrival we would leave here immediately but when we asked about the train
16
.
that goes to Naples they said that it had left 5 minutes ago.
17
.
There is another to Foggia, or half way to Naples,
18
.
which is due to leave at 1:10 in the afternoon. So we had to wait until
19
.
then. At 1:00 the train appeared so we took our things and went
20
.
to reserve a place in second class. Here in Italy there is a charge
21
.
by weight for travelers' trunks. They took 17 francs for our two trunks
22
.
as the fee direct to Naples. At 1:15 we traveled from Brindisi
23
.
by rail, then to stay overnight at a small town called Foggia

Page 094


01
.
because the direct road to Naples from here is very long and takes more than 15 hours.
02
.
Thus we arrived at 1:33 in S. Vito D'Otranto, left at 1:35 = 2:05 Carovigno, left 2:08 =
03
.
2:27 Ostouni, left 2:40 = 2:55 Cisternino, left 3:00 = 3:15 Fazano,
04
.
left 3:25 = 3:42 Monopoli, left 3:50 = 4:07 Polignanio, left 4:10 =
05
.
4:30 Mola, left 4:33 = 4:45 Noicattaro, left 4:57 = 5:15 Bori,
06
.
left 5:30. These three latter stations are very large & their
07
.
towns are also big. 5:50 New station, left 6:05 = 6:11 Molfetta,
08
.
left 6:15 = 6:30 Biceglia, left 6:33 = 6:42 , left 7:.. =
09
.
7:20 Barletta, left 7:28 = 7:44 Ofantino, left 7:46 = From
10
.
Brindisi to here, we were going alongside the sea but
11
.
now tooked the desert. = 8:15 Cirgnola, left 8:20 = 8:45 Ortonova,
12
.
left 8:47 = arrived @ 9:10 Foggia
.
13
.
We arrived here after sunset, darkness had set in but there is electric
14
.
and gas light in the streets. We got off the train, took a carriage, and went with someone
15
.
to a place where we could sleep. So we arrived there and the place did not look good. Yet we took a room
16
.
and ordered food. I have not stopped being weak and am not feeling well. After we had dinner
17
.
we went to bed. This place is called Albergo di Villa di Napoli.
18
June 15th
We got up in the morning at 5:00 because the train leaves
19
.
for Naples at 6:15. We rushed to prepare ourselves and paid
20
Foggia
the 7 francs that we owed. After we drank some milk
21
.
we went to the station and boarded the train that goes directly to Naples
22
.
without all the stops. Its name is Expresse.
23
.
From Foggia at 6:15 = 6:52. Bovino left 7:20 =

Page 095


01
.
7:37 Savignano left 7:40 =7:50 Pianerottola L 7:57 =
02
.
Passed a long tunnel for 6 minutes = 8:00 Ariano L 8:03 =
03
.
8:20 Montegalvo, left 8:23 = 8:40 Apice-Argengelo L 8:42 =
04
.
8:49 Ponte-Valentino L 8:50 = 8:55 Benevento L 9:05 =
05
.
9:23 Casalduni Ponte L 9:25 = 9:35 Solopaga L 9:37 =
06
.
9:42 Terese Cereto L 9:45 = 9:56 Frasso-Dugenta L 9:58 =
07
.
Here, we passed under a bridge of 3 stages.
08
Naples
= 10:13 Madoloni L 10:15 = 10:25 Caserta L 10:35 =
09
.
10:52 Aversa L 10:55 = 11:00 Fratemajoregroma L 11:03 =
10
.
11:08 Afragola L 11:10 = Arrived Naples 11:15.

11
.
Thus, we neared the famous Naples little by little. From Foggia to
12
.
here we were traveling through pleasant green mountains with extremely beautiful scenery.
13
.
After we arrived at the station we hired a carriage, took our belongings, and went
14
.
to rent ourselves a room in a hotel called the Pension Suisse.
15
.
But it is small and dirty and we bargained to pay 18 francs a day. Because
16
.
I have a friend here with whom I correspond on the subject of stamps, I wrote a letter to him from
17
.
Brindisi so that he would come to the station and meet me. But upon my arrival
18
.
I did not see him and I suppose my letter did not reach him. After we finished breakfast
19
.
we went to look at the town which is as pleasant as ever
20
.
could be. It has buildings and parks such as we have not seen before
21
.
and likewise its palaces and theatres. It is on the sea and its location
22
.
is lovely. There are many people here, some 600,000 souls. Especially these
23
.
days when Sultan Humberto and his son and his daughter-in-law

Page 096


01
.
are in residence, the whole town, the markets, and palaces are adorned with flowers
02
.
and other things. It is true that Naples is a paradise. After we toured the city
03
.
I wanted to go and look for my friend because we are here by ourselves and do not know
04
Naples
anybody. So we tried and with great difficulty found his place in a long street called
05
.
Via Chiaja, number 20. I went up to his room and rang the bell.
06
.
A woman came out and told me that he was not at home but at his office, and would return
07
.
at 8:00, after sunset. So I wrote him a note telling him that I had arrived
08
.
in Naples and wished to see him. I also gave him my address and begged him
09
.
to come to my place as soon as possible. Then the woman immediately brought me a note
10
.
that my friend Monsieur D'Ovidio wrote saying that he did not
11
.
know when I would honor Naples and that only my letter from Cairo had reached him.
12
.
In his note he also asked me to give him my address. I was truly pleased
13
.
by this and forgave him for not coming to the station because my letter did not reach him
14
.
from Brindisi. So we returned from the street to our hotel to await
15
.
Monsieur D'Ovidio's arrival. We had not been there an hour when someone knocked at
16
.
the door of the room. I opened it and there was D'Ovidio himself. I greeted
17
.
him and he me and I introduced him to my parents. He was very happy that we had come and apologized
18
.
for being late, saying that his wife had just now sent him both my note and letter which I sent
19
.
from Brindisi that arrived with us on the same train.
20
.
After a long talk he presented himself to us as a true friend and said
21
.
that he was ready to be of service to us in everything we desire here and that he would go eat dinner
22
.
and afterwards return to take us for an evening tour of the enjoyable sites in Naples.
23
.
We dined and afterwards Monsieur D'Ovidio came and we left to wander about in

Page 097


01
.
the superb sights of Naples. The people swarmed like worms and the carriages were coming and going.
02
Naples
We passed whatever there was to look at. First we went first to the Teatro St. Carlo
03
.
and then to the Galleria and the Palais Royal. Then we went to the seaside
04
.
across from Mt. Vesuve which was erupting and we could see
05
.
fire covering the mountain. I really do not know what to say about Naples
06
.
and all its entertainments. Two hours later we returned to the hotel.
07
June 16th
June 16th The morning is pleasant and the weather here is good. The weather is not at all
08
.
hot. Yesterday we arranged with Monsieur D'Ovidio that he would come and get us at 10:00
09
.
and we would go to tour Naples in a coach. At 9:00 he sent me a letter by
10
.
one of his clerks expressing his regret but that he is extremely busy and it is impossible for him to accompany
11
.
us now but he sent his clerk and his carriage. So we entered
12
.
the carriage and went to the vicinity of famous and great places. We began to climb, little
13
.
by little, up into the mountains where the entire city came into view. What a beautiful sight it was,
14
.
on the sea and Mt. Vesuvius among other things, and those palaces hanging in
15
Napoli
the middle of the green mountains. We toured around the town and then descended and went to my friend's office.
16
.
It was then 1:30 and he promised to meet there so he could take us
17
.
to the Port, board a jolly boat and go to sea.
18
.
He was not ready when we arrived but after 10 minutes he came
19
.
and apologized for being unable to accompany us in the morning. Then we went to the seashore,
20
.
boarded a boat and went out to sea. How pleasant was the view of
21
.
the town from the sea. Then the sea grew rough and the jolly boat began
22
.
to toss and turn. I remembered my time on the ship and my stomach grew

Page 098


01
.
upset. I asked him to take us back to shore because the wind at sea pains me.
02
.
We went back after an hour. Here in the harbor there are two Ports,
03
Naples
one for the navy and the other for trade, and it has a Phare that is
04
.
a lighthouse on the sea. Anchored in the naval harbor were two Italian warships.
05
.
One of them, named the Sardaigna, has 7 funnels and is extremely large.
06
.
At sunset we returned to our place having decided that we would go after
07
.
dinner to the Theatre, that is, to the Opera called San Carlo.
08
.
We bought the tickets for two francs each. Before we returned to the hotel my friend
09
.
took us to walk by the sea. On one side is a big garden and the sea
10
.
is on the other. The most pleasant of all places in Naples are here. The carriages
11
.
and people were passing like the sands of the sea and they say that in the entire world
12
.
one will not find as pleasant a sight as this place. Finally we returned and so too
13
.
did Monsieur D'Ovidio return home. It was decided that we would wait for him at the theater door,
14
.
that is, at 9:00. We returned at 8:30 to the theater. We waited for him until
15
.
arrived. We entered and took our seats. I was fascinated by this entryway and such a beautiful scene.
16
.
The performance began and there were about 1000 persons in the audience. They were
17
.
performing the drama according to the ordering of the Orchestra. The music was
18
.
playing and accompanied their singing. The scene was truly quite humbling.
19
.
They performed a ballet afterward, which captured the gaze of all those present,
20
.
and they applauded them as a sort of expression of gratitude. The drama did not end until an hour
21
.
past midnight. Then we left the theater and exchanged goodbyes with my friend. He said
22
.
that tomorrow he would come to say goodbye before my departure. The train
23
.
leaves at 8:15 in the morning.

Page 099


01
June 17th
We got up in the morning and the weather was fine with a westerly wind. We drank
02
.
tea hastily and afterwards arranged our things and paid the hotel bill.
03
.
We then hired a carriage, went to the station, and took our seats. I was
04
.
sad having not seen Monsieur D'Ovidio again. It is possible he had forgotten
05
.
to come. The train set out from Naples at 8:20, heading
06
.
toward Rome. I am sorry to be parted from this utterly lovely town.
07
.
8:44 Cancello, L 8:45 = 8:59 Caserta, L 9:01 =
08
.
9:08 S. Maria, L 9:09 = 9:15 Capua, L 9:17 =
09
.
9:34 Saparanise, L 9:35 = 9:49 Teano, L 9:51 =
10
.
10:03 Canianolla, L 10:05 = 10:40 Cassino , L 10 :43 =
11
.
11:04 Roccasecca, left 11:05 = 11:16 Ceprano, L 11:21 =
12
.
11:42 Ceccano , L 11:43 = 11:53 Frosinone, L 11:57 =
13
.
12:29 Segni, left 12:34 = 1:15 Ciocupino, left 1 :16. =

14
.
Arrival in Rome

15
.


16
.
From here the famous Rome appeared to us at a distance. The first thing that came into view
17
.
was the precious dome of Saint Peter's Cathedral. We arrived at the station at 1:30 and after
18
.
we hired a carriage and loaded our belongings we rode through the markets and streets to find
19
.
a hotel. Today is a major holy day, Corpus Christi Day, and all the shops are
20
.
closed and one finds only a few open. The people are also very scarce in the streets.
21
.
Finally we looked at two hotels and found one that is small and nice but for lodging only,

Page 100


01
.
for 7 francs a day. It is called the Hotel d'Orient and is in the Piazza
02
.
Pole, number 8. The hotel overlooks a large square and a square to one side,
03
.
called Piazza Colona. After we took two rooms and left our things
04
Rome
we went out to eat at a Restaurent. After eating we returned to
05
.
our lodgings. In the afternoon we went to the residence of the head of the Carmelite Fathers to ask if
06
.
he had a letter addressed to us from Baghdad. He said he had nothing
07
.
and if any letter comes he will send it to us. He is a very pleasant man and placed himself
08
.
at our disposal for anything we might need here. So we asked him only if he might send
09
.
a guide with us when we visit the Vatican. He said that tomorrow he would send a priest from
10
.
his parish church to accompany us there. Then we thanked him for his kindness and left. Since
11
.
I have a letter of recommendation from the son of Ossany Boutros in Baghdad, to his brother
12
.
here, Gabriel in the PropagandaPropaganda: Branch of the Catholic Church entrusted with expanding Catholicism and of managing Church affairs in non-Catholic countries. This branch of the Church operated in non-Catholic Europe, the Middle East, the Americas, and elsewhere. A few years after Alexander’s travels, it expanded its operations under the direction of Pope Pious X., I wished to see him. So we went to
13
.
the Propaganda and saw some Chaldean and Syriac priests at the door.
14
.
Then by chance as the scholars were leaving for the break I saw Mikha'il, the son of
15
.
Nazo a resident of Baghdad, and greeted him. I was quite pleased to see a son of
16
.
our homeland. Speaking of Gabriel Ossany, they told me that he is busy at the moment
17
.
but he will have time tomorrow afternoon. So I gave the letter to Mikha'il
18
.
for delivery. We returned at sunset to the hotel and afterwards went
19
.
to dine at the Restaurent in the Piazza Colona.
20
.
Here we listened to the Italian military band play music. There was a huge crowd
21
.
of people coming and going in this square which is as large
22
.
as two thousand cubits in length and width. At 9:30 we returned to our lodgings.

Page 101


01
June 19
I got up in the morning and the weather was cloudy and a bit rainy. After we drank tea
02
Saint Peter's Basilica Basilique St. Pietro
we changed our clothes and I went with my father to the Dominican Fathers because
03
.
we have letters of recommendation to them from His Grace the Papal Legate in Mosul.
04
.
We finally found their residence which was in the Piazza Tretone. We entered
05
Rome Roma
and presented our card to a door-keeper priest and he returned and said that the Father General
06
.
is engaged and is not accepting anyone. We were truly annoyed very much by
07
.
this and understood that there had been a mistake. So we said to him, here is a letter to him from the Papal Legate, give it to him.
08
.
And here is another to the Père Procureur,
09
.
give that to him too with our greetings. He then said, "You had best wait until I return
10
.
for an answer." He came back 10 minutes later and said, "If you please," took us and we went
11
.
to the great monastery to the Père Procureur whose name is
12
.
Père Cronier. He received us with a hearty welcome for he had received
13
.
news of our coming. Then after a long talk he said, "It is possible that I can go
14
.
with you to the Superior," because we came to ask the Superior for a letter
15
.
of recommendation to Vienna. So we went to the Superior General, whose name is Père BodinPère Bodin.
16
.
He came and received us appearing to be very much a man of fine character.
17
.
He apologized for having been busy and we had a long talk with him about Turkey. Afterwards
18
.
we begged a letter of recommendation from him to Vienna and he immediately wrote one and gave it to us.
19
.
Likewise he wrote another to the Head of the Vatican asking
20
.
him to show us around all the places of the Vatican. We had decided that
21
.
tomorrow we would go in the morning because it will be open from 8:00 to 1:00 in the afternoon.
22
.
Then we thanked him for his kindness and we returned to our residence. A few minutes later, there came to us

Page 102


01
S. Sebastian No. 10
a Carmelite priest sent by the head priest at whose place we had been yesterday
02
.
and we arranged with him that he would come tomorrow at 8:00 and take us to the Vatican
03
.
and show us around everything. But after breakfast we went
04
.
to see Saint Peter's Basilica, famed in all the world
05
.
and the like of which is not found in all the inhabited lands. So we hired a carriage.
06
.
We came to its square at 1:00 in the afternoon. We were stunned when we saw
07
.
the courtyard outside the Basilica which is larger than the Piazza Colona
08
.
by 5 times. It is also encircled by pillars in 4 rows, like this. On
09
.
the right and left there are two fountains than which there is none more magnificent.
10
.
We approached the door of the church and entered into the middle of the Basilica. We were amazed by
11
.
what we saw of refined marble work and by the size of the church, which is 500 paces in length
12
.
and 200 in width. It also has a dome which exceeds 500 feet in height. In truth
13
.
they are right when they say that this basilica has no peer in all the world. This is the truth
14
.
and it is impossible to elucidate in writing what is in it. This is the best of all
15
.
the sights we have seen from Baghdad to here. Inside the church there are
16
.
about 25 thrones and the graves of all the Popes and statues of human figures. It is something that
17
.
astounds one. It also has 6 very large doors and is constructed entirely of porphyry,
18
.
excellent and polished. In short, whatever I say will be too little said about this Basilica that has become famous
19
.
in all the lands of the earth. After we looked around for about two hours and a half, we returned to
20
.
our place wondering at the works of mankind. I wrote a number of letters to Baghdad,
21
.
that is to Nassoury, Jamil, Johnny Pahlawan, Father Philips, Mr. Demello and Rozario,
22
.
our servant Mansour, and Albert Asfar. I also wrote a postcard to my friend Hana Tabouni
23
.
in Marseilles informing him that I will be with him in only a few days and then sent them all by post.

Page 103


01
June 20
The morning is cloudy. Last night I was out of sorts and a little feverish.
02
Getti X Corso Diluix Porta Lalona
This was possibly from total fatigue. At 8:00 the priest came who
03
.
it had been decided would accompany us on the visit to the Vatican. But first we took him and went to see
04
The Vatican
Cardinal JeromeCardinal Jerome who 5 years ago was Head of the Carmelite PriestsCarmelite Priests: The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites. A Roman Catholic religious order founded in the 12th century on Mount Carmel, Israel..
05
.
His residence is not far from our hotel. So we arrived there and the Father went in to get us
06
.
permission to see him. Then we entered the house which was large and ascended to the room
07
.
of the Cardinal's private secretary. They told us that Cardinal Jerome was busy at the moment and that 10 minutes later
08
.
he would greet us. After he finished we went in to him. He received us cheerfully and we sat
09
.
in the diwan. He is a person with very good manners. After the conversation we arose
10
.
and left his place. The Cardinal's private secretary named ...[illegible] asked us about Father Anastas MariniFather Anastas Marini
11
.
and sent him his regards. Then we left the Cardinal's residence and took the Omnibus to
12
.
the Vatican square. We arrived there at 9:15 and my health continued to
13
.
decline. Thus we arrived at the gate of the Vatican where there are some of the Papal Guards
14
.
who protect the Pope without wages. Then we went up about 100 wide steps
15
Vatican
and here got tickets to visit the whole Vatican. As for the Vatican
16
.
they say that it is the largest of all the palaces in the whole world. It was
17
.
founded by the Popes Symmachus and TiberiusPopes Symmachus and Tiberius: Pope Symmachus (498-514CE) built two episcopal residences in the Vatican, one on either side of the basilica, to be used for brief stays. in
18
.
1473 and has 22 courtyards and 11,000 huge rooms decorated with
19
.
refined gilding and paintings, famous for color and unique in all the world
20
.
for their perfection because they were done by the brush of Raphael Angelo, the premier painter of
21
.
all the ages who spent his entire life working on the Vatican. The first place
22
.
we saw was the Sixtine (Sistine Chapel) where the Pope celebrates mass on

Page 104


01
.
holidays. It is 40 meters long and contains very famous paintings, among them a unique picture
02
.
which is behind the throne and is as large as the entire wall. It is of the Last Judgment and the finest thing
03
.
that ever was. And all the walls and ceilings have pictures on them of all kinds. After leaving
04
The Vatican Vatican
the chapel there was the room of Rapl AngeloRapl. Angelo: Possible reference to Rafael (Sanzio da Urbino), famous painter active in the 16th century. He has a series of namesake rooms in the Vatican, which are noted for their large frescoes. Noted for such works as The School of Athens and the Baptism of Constantine. and then we came to the Galleries of Paintings
05
.
which was founded in the time of Pope Pius VII. In it are some paintings which are priceless
06
.
forever and incomparable. As for the Galleries of PaintingsThe Galleries of Paintings: [in the Sistine Chapel] Established in 1815 by Pius VII, although officially begun under his predecessor Pius VI in 1799. Contains a number of paintings by well-known artists, including Da Vinci and Caravaggio. During the time of Alexander’s travels, the paintings were contained in the Borgia Apartments., in it are some 50 rooms filled
07
.
with the finest brush paintings to be found on earth. In one room I saw a large picture,
08
.
nearly 30 meters long, a gift of the Sultan of AustriaSultan of Austria: Alexander may be referring erroneously to a painting by Jan Matejko, entitled John III Sobieski at Vienna. Matejko painted this scene in the mid-19th century in Poland, not under Ottoman rule. The painting is very large; Alexander’s size estimates may have been an exaggeration. It is contained in the “Sobieski” room of the Vatican galleries. http://www.galenfrysinger.com/vatican_city.htm to the Pope. It depicts
09
.
the Siege of Vienna by the Turks and is, in short, a most excellent thing. After we finished
10
.
with this place we went up to the Gallery of Antiquities, or the Meseum,
11
.
which is unique in the world for the ancient Roman antiques it contains, like
12
.
idols, animals and other things that astound a person. There are some 100 rooms full
13
.
of these sorts of things. Here I saw the Pope's Confessor and the Pope's Private Secretary
14
.
passing by on the loggia. On all the loggias there are guards dressed in official uniforms stationed
15
.
to keep watch. It was 11:30 and, thus far, we have not seen but half of the Vatican quarter.
16
.
I am feeling quite poorly and became extremely tired from walking without ever stopping.
17
.
Finally we came up to the top floor. From here Rome is visible to him, with all its churches and houses.
18
.
This place is the private residence of the Pope so we obtained permission and visited his diwan and the place
19
.
where he sits at times when the Sultans and Princes come to visit him. It is a most excellent diwan
20
.
and a sight to be seen. There are two things left that we have not yet seen and these are the Gallery of Books
21
.
and the Gallery of Treasures. For that purpose special permission was necessary
22
.
from the Director General. As for the Gallery of Books, it contains more than 100,000 volumes

Page 105


01
.
in all tongues on earth and the Gallery of Treasures contains all the tiaras
02
.
in addition to the Stone of ...[illegible]Stone of [illegible]. Then we went down from the Vatican and it was 12:00, the time when
03
.
they close the doors. So we took the Omnibus, went directly to the Restaurent,
04
.
and had breakfast. I am quite feverish and so we returned to the hotel where I was seized by a raging fever
05
.
which continued to rise until nighttime.
06
June 21
Today is Sunday and a pleasant morning with sun. This
07
.
night I was suffering quite a bit from the high fever that was with me
08
.
until morning when it dropped somewhat. However I had grown very weak and could not
09
.
get out of bed. Only at sunset did I change my clothes
10
.
and go to eat in the Restaurent.
11
June 22
I got up in the morning and the weather was fine. We decided to visit
12
.
the Collosseum or the very ancient Amphiteatre that the Romans
13
.
were using as a theatre. In it they released wild beasts to attack people
14
Collosseum
while the populace looked on. So at 8:30 we hired a carriage and went toward these ancient constructions
15
.
outside the city. They were built in 72 A.D. during the time of Vespasian.
16
.
The Collosseum consists of 3 stories of arches and every story
17
.
has 80 arches in it, each story with a different style. The first is Doric,
18
.
the second Jonic (Ionic), and the third Corinthian. In this Collosseum
19
.
over a period of 100 years 500 wild animals were killed. It is 157 feet high,
20
.
278 feet long, and 177 feet wide, and in it could be seated more than
21
.
100,000 people. Truly this place is a wondrous thing
22
.
and one of the most ancient constructions. We left the Collosseum

Page 106


01
.
and came to other ancient remains. This is called the Arch of Constantine,
02
.
a great arch of stone inscribed from top to bottom and adorned
03
.
with ancient images. They also call it the Arch of Triomph
04
.
and it is one of the finest remains of Rome. It was built in 315 A.D. and
05
Rome Roma
many more ancient remains are next to it, the creations of the earliest
06
.
Romans. To this very moment they have been left as they were and are well looked after. We returned
07
.
two hours later to the hotel. At 1:00 in the afternoon I wished to go
08
.
once more to the Propoganda to see Mikhail Nazo and especially Gabriel Ossany and
09
.
whom I had not yet seen. So we all went there and asked for him. They came right away and were
10
.
very pleased to meet with people from their homeland. Then they promised us to get permission
11
.
from the Principal so they could come with us tomorrow to visit the famous Basilica of Saint Paul,
12
.
the same as the Basilica of Saint Peter. They also told us that it is now the Feast of Saint Ignatius
13
.
and that there is a church here dedicated to him. Today it is decorated and we must see it.
14
.
So we left their place and I promised them I would return in two hours to see if
15
.
they had gotten the permission. Otherwise we would travel to Marseille tomorrow.
16
.
After we returned to the hotel, we went to visit the Church of Saint Ignatius and saw that it was full crowded
17
.
of people. The Orgue was playing, the people were glorifying God, there was a great tumult, and it was quite
18
.
lovely. It is half as large as the Basilica of Saint Peter and contained some
19
.
3000 souls and yet there was much space. After we toured everything
20
.
we left and wanted to visit the Pantheon which is the mausoleum of King Victor Emmanuel,
21
.
the Sultan of Italy, but we found the door closed and admissions closed.
22
.
However from the outside the place appeared very large and lofty.
23
.
At 4:30 I went to Mikhail and Gabriel. They told me that the Principal gave them
24
.
permission and they will meet us at the hotel tomorrow at 10:00.

Page 107


01
June 22
This morning is pleasant with a westerly wind. Today my health is much improved.
02
.
At 9:30 after we had changed our clothes, Mikhail and Gabriel came to our place. We talked
03
St Paul's Basilica Basilique St. Paul
at length about Baghdad. I showed them photographs of some people and they gave us theirs and
04
.
other things. An hour later they left promising to come at 4:30 in the afternoon
05
.
to accompany us to the Basilica of St. Paul. So at 4:30 they kept their word
06
.
and came to us. They brought Father Samuel Jamil, the Chaldean who
07
.
has been here for some time and knows Father Yousif Taweel who is in Beirut.
08
.
Then we left together and we went by the Tramway to the Basilica of St. Paul.
09
.
We arrived there half an hour later and went in. We were truly quite amazed by
10
.
its size, the varieties of marble inside, and the Mosaïque images,
11
.
something bewildering. This craft appears to be quite well known in Rome
12
.
because they make with it large, masterful and very pleasant images. So inside
13
.
this famous basilica which is second only to the Basilica of St. Peter
14
.
there are countless marble works. But what kind of marble is this that is comparable to
15
.
gold? To the right of the entrance is a pulpit made of green marble
16
.
and they told me that this is the equivalent of yellow gold. On the left hand
17
.
many pillars extend to the interior or to the doorway, that is to say, about 180
18
.
pillars of excellent porphyry, tall and shining from a single block.
19
.
Likewise on the side walls and above the area surrounding the pillars, one finds pictures
20
.
of all those who had become Popes wholly done in Mosaïque work. In the middle
21
.
of the basilica one finds the Tomb of Saint Paul, but his body only, because
22
.
they claim that his head when it was cut off was buried elsewhere. For that reason

Page 108


01
.
there is another church that bears the name of Saint Paul, but much smaller than this one.
02
.
The Basilica of St. Paul is considered one of the most perfect basilicas in the world and second only to the Basilica
03
Basilica Basilique
of St. Peter which has no peer in all the world. This basilica,
04
.
the Basilica of St. Paul, had been greatly damaged by a fireFire: [in St.Paul's Basillica] Reference to Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, built over the grave of St. Paul in the 4th century CE. The referenced fire occurred in 1823 and damaged significant portions of the church. The church was re-consecrated in 1855. 27 years ago.
05
.
The entire roof collapsed and most of the fine images were destroyed. From that time
06
.
to this the basilica has been undergoing rebuilding and also some of the buildings outside it
07
.
are still in renovations. We finished looking around,
08
.
and went outside with the other people there. On one side there is an area for refreshing oneself.
09
.
They sell wine and other things so we sat there for about a half an hour
10
.
and afterwards took the Tramway and returned to town. The basilica is
11
.
outside the town two miles away. It is ...[blank] feet in length
12
.
and its width is likewise ...[blank] feet. On our way to the hotel we entered
13
.
another church, which is called The Church of Jésus. It is also very pleasantly
14
.
decorated. It contains a wondrous picture and the Tomb of Saint Ignatius.
15
.
Then we returned to the hotel at sunset and exchanged goodbyes with Mikhail, Gabriel, and
16
.
Father Jamil. We must leave tomorrow. I am truly very grateful
17
.
for all the kindness they have shown me.
18
.
Departure from Rome and the Journey to Marseille

19
.


20
June 23
I was up at 6:00. It is a pleasant morning with a little of chill. After
21
.
I dressed and drank tea I arranged my things and bound them up in preparation
22
.
for the journey. At 7:30 we left the Hotel d'Orient and paid their bill of 42 francs.

Page 109


01
.
We hired a carriage, stowed our things, and drove to the train station.
02
.
After we arrived we freighted our two trunks directly to Marseille and paid the bill of
03
Genoa Génes
28 francs. We boarded the Express train that goes swiftly and without
04
.
delay. So at 8:00 sharp, we left the Rome station.
05
.
9:25 Civatavecchia, left 9:30 / 9:46 Corvetto, left 9:47 =
06
.
10:40 Orbettelo, left 10:55 = 11:25 Grosetto , left 11:32 =
07
.
12:25 Campiglia , left 12:30 = 1:05 Cecena,left 1:16 =
08
.
1:52 Celle salvetti , left 1:55 /2:15 Pisa a big town,
09
.
left 2:30 = 2:44 Vareggio, left 2:47 = 3:05 Pietrasanta, left 3:07/
10
.
3:20 Massa , left 3:21 = 3:26 Spetzia , left 3:28 =
11
.
3:40 Sarzana ,left 3:45 = 3:53 Vezzano, left 3:55 =
12
.
4:40 Levanto, ... 4:43 here we passed several
13
.
tunnels for 2 hours we were going each 1 second
14
.
under a long tunnel of 5 & 10 minutes I counted
15
.
about 50 & always alongside the sea.
16
.
4:58 Sestri Levanto, left 5:00 / 5:25 Chiavari, left 5:30.
17
.
At 6:37 we arrived at the Genoa station and went into the town. We saw
18
.
some 20 of the hotels' private carriages awaiting the passengers and so we took the carriage
19
.
of the Hotel de Genéve and rode to the hotel. We arrived and took
20
.
two rooms. I was feeling very weak from exhaustion. Before sunset we went to
21
.
a church across from the hotel, named Annunziata, that is, the Church of the AnnunciationChurch of the Annunciation: Basilica della Santissima Annunziata, is a Catholic cathedral (1520) located in Genoa, Italy..
22
.
I was truly amazed by the work inside the church. The ceilings all had pictures
23
.
and gilding with frames matching the style of the building, astonishing. The church is also large and quite nice.

Page 110


01
.
Then we returned to the hotel and ate dinner. Afterwards we slept.
02
June 24
We arose at 7:00 and after washing and drinking tea came down
03
.
and paid the hotel bill, that is, 12 francs. The meal they had served
04
.
yesterday was not good at all and very costly. Genoa is quite a large town,
05
.
as large as Naples. It is pleasant and organized like Rome. It has electric carriages
06
.
and other things. After we finished at the hotel we took the carriage and went to
07
.
the station to travel to Nice. We arrived at the station at 8:30.
08
.
The train does not depart until 9:20 so we sat and waited in the station.
09
.
At 9:00 we boarded the train and at 9:20 it pulled out of the station leaving Genoa at 9:30
10
.
9:30 Sanpierd, left 9:32 = 9:44 Corniliagno, left 9:45/
11
.
9:59 Pegli, left 10:01 = 10:09 Voltri, left 10:10 =
12
.
10:27 Arenzano,left 10:30 = 10:40 Cogoletto, left 10:41 =
13
.
10:59 Gella, left 11:00 =11:06 Albisolla, left 11:07 =
14
.
11:15 Savona, left 11:25 = 11:38 Berjeggi, left 11:39 =
15
.
11:50 Noli, left 11:51 = 11:59 Varigotti, left 12:00 =
16
.
12:05 Finalemarina, left 12:10 = 12:14 Bergo ,left 12:15 =
17
.
12:20 Pietrligure, left 12:21 = 12:27 Lòno, left 12:30 =
18
.
12:45 Albenga, left 12:47 = 1:00 Alassio, left 1:03 =
19
.
1:16 Andora, left 1:17 = 1:28 Cervo, left 1:29 =
20
.
1:37 Onuglia, left 1:39 = 1:50 Porto Morizo, left 1:53 =
21
.
2:03 San Lorenzo, left 2:20 = 2:20 Taggia, left 2:30 =
22
.
2:32 San Remo, left 2:35 = 2:55 Bordighesa, left 2:59 =

Page 111


01
.
Then at 3:10 we arrived at Vintmiglia (Ventimiglia). We got off the train here because
02
.
this is where Italy ends and the French borders begin. There are customs here too.
03
.
So we took our things and went through customs. After the inspection we took them and went
04
.
to a French railway car that goes directly to Paris, passing through Marseille.
05
.
We found it more suitable that we go from here directly to Marseille and not stop
06
.
in Nice. So we boarded the train. Here the
07
.
time is different and one hour less than in Italy. So we set back
08
.
our watches to an hour less and the train departed with us from Vintmiglia
09
.
at 3:05 French time.
10
.
3:17 Mentone, left 3:19 = here, I have two people with whom I correspond.
11
.
3:58 Mont Carlo, left 4:02 = 4:06 Monaco, left 4:07 =
12
.
4:23 Beaulieu,left 4:25 = 4:29 Villefranche, left 4:30 =
13
.
4:34 Nice Niqueur, left 4:35 = 4:37 Nice.
14
.
Since there is an eating place here we stopped for a long time and we bought dinner
15
.
to eat in the carriage. At 5:03 the train left.
16
.
5:25 Antibes, left 5:28/ 5:45 Cannes, left 5:50 =
17
.
This extremely beautiful area is well known all over the world. It lays on the seaside
18
.
surrounded by many trees and houses. Even kings come
19
.
here to enjoy the fresh air, and especially to Nice because of its very fine weather.
20
.
6:33 St. Raphail,left 6:37 = 6:42 Fréjus,left 6:44 =
21
.
7:12 Les Arcs, left 7:38 = 8:55 Hyres, left 8:57 =
22
.
9:07 Toulon, left 9:22 = 11:49 Marseille.

Page 112


01
.
Arrival in Marseille

02
Coming and Going

03
.
Our arrival by train at this pleasant town was at 11:47 after sunset.
04
.
We got off the train and hired a carriage straight away. Then we rode among streets lined
05
Marseille
with excellent buildings. All the going and coming in the markets had somewhat
06
.
lessened as midnight neared. Then we came to the hotel where
07
.
we had written to have our friend here, Nassoury Sayegh, to make arrangements for us. We knocked at the door
08
.
and the hotel owner opened it and admitted us. He immediately gave us rooms. The
09
.
name of this hotel is Rubi at No.103 Rue Paradis. After we entered
10
.
and put things in order we went to sleep. It was 12:00.
11
June 25
I got up in the morning and the weather was fine but getting hot with a
12
.
westerly wind. After we dressed, at 9:30 I went with my father to look
13
Marseille
for Monsieur Nassoury Sayegh. We went to 29 rue St. Jacques
14
.
for we knew from earlier that he is there. Then we knocked and they told us that
15
.
he is at the office and that this place is only where he lives, but he works at 27 rue
16
.
des Princes. So we went there and found him. We were pleased to see him and he us. I had not
17
.
met him before. He gave us several letters addressed to me from Baghdad and the homeland. From the Baghdad
18
.
letters I learned of the death of Monsieur Vasilaki, thanks to Yaqoub Shamani
19
.
and of other things beside, but we have not heard anything from our family
20
.
since Beirut. We left Nassoury's office
21
.
at 10:00. He promised to come visit us in the afternoon. Today I looked
22
.
for my friend Hanna Tabouni here but I did not know the way

Page 113


01
.
to his place on 23 Boulevard des Dames. In the afternoon Nassoury came to see us
02
.
and near sunset we spent some time touring around with him. Nassoury is alone
03
.
in town because his wife and son have gone out of town for a change of air to
04
Marseille
a place half an hour away. I found out from
05
.
Nassoury how to go and see Hanna Tabouni at his place. I learned that
06
.
I would take the tram so I took the tram on which was written
07
.
Joliette and Castillan right away, paying 10 centimes for it. After
08
.
15 minutes I arrived at the street. I got off and looked for the number.
09
.
I found it and went up to his place and knocked at the door. An elderly woman came
10
.
and told me that he was not there and had gone out. So I wrote him a card and told
11
.
him that we arrived yesterday evening, that I would love to see him, and he should come after
12
.
dinner to such and such hotel in such and such street and number. Then I took
13
.
the tram back to rue St. Jacques. I arrived at
14
.
the hotel. I waited for Hanna until he returned at 7:30. I was quite pleased
15
.
when I saw him and remembered our friends, family, and Baghdad. I stayed with him
16
.
for about an hour and then we went out together at 9:00 and toured the streets. We went
17
.
to the Cannebière, an area very distinguished and pleasant. People were
18
.
bustling about as abundant as worms. I said goodbye to him here and told him to come to me tomorrow morning.
19
.
He is employed at a commercial shipping company for 100 francs a month.
20
.
I returned to the hotel by myself on the tram at 10:30 .
21
.
Stuffy weather. After I woke up, the weather is quite warm, my friend
22
.
Hanna Tabouni came to see me. He stayed until just about 7:30 and promised us that he would return tomorrow

Page 114


01
.
so we could go and hear mass at church. Tomorrow is Sunday. At
02
.
9:30 we went to Khowaja Nassoury's place. I settled an account I had with him
03
.
and took the remaining money, 242 francs. We returned to our residence
04
.
and afterwards, the three of us went to the bath which is not far from us and is called Bains ParadisBains Paradis.
05
Marseille
We bathed and paid 3 francs. Yesterday Hanna told me that
06
.
Razouk Rafi, our friend in Baghdad, had come to Marseille on the ship TurkistanTurkistan: [ship]
07
.
4 days ago and he promised to send him to see me in the afternoon. At the hotel
08
.
we found the trunk that we had shipped from Baghdad before coming
09
.
here. It contains some provisions like dates and arak and other things. After breakfast
10
.
we opened it and I found my book of stamps too, that is to say, the album I shipped
11
.
here. Then in the afternoon Razouk Rafi arrived and I was extremely happy to see him.
12
.
He had recently arrived from Basrah on the ship Turkistan, which docked 5 days ago
13
.
and will continue on to London. So I took Razouk Rafi and we walked the passages and environs of
14
.
the lovely Marseille. Marseille truly delighted me very much. It is the most recent town I
15
.
have found so pleasant and it has a very highly regarded port. At sunset
16
.
we returned and I found Monsieur Sayegh at our hotel. He proposed that tomorrow, Sunday, we will go
17
.
and have breakfast at his place. He is not in town having gone to spend the summer in the country, that is
18
.
in Montredon. He gave us the address of his house. After
19
.
dinner we went out to the area around CannebièreCannebière. We were astonished to see
20
.
so many people and such liveliness in the street. This is the best of all the streets one finds
21
June 26
in these districts. We returned an hour later to
22
.
our hotel.

Page 115


01
June 27
I got up early in the morning in order to wait for Hanna Tabouni and Razouk
02
.
so we could go hear mass in an excellent church on the mountain. Its name is
03
Marseille
Notre Dame de la GardeNotre Dame de la Garde. The weather is quite sultry and about to become hot and there is no wind.
04
.
Then at 7:15 they arrived and a half hour later we went to a place
05
.
where we could go up the mountain. There is an Assensessenur here in which they go up.
06
.
We all took seats and paid 40 centimes for each person. We ascended in this
07
.
fine machine which consists of a car moving along the wall to the top
08
.
of the mountain. When we reached the top the car drew level with the walkway and we got out.
09
.
The weather was very hot. First we came to a spot below
10
Our Lady of the Garde Notre Dame de la Garde
the church where there was a place with some pictures and holy relics. On the left there was
11
.
a statue of Jesus dying. Afterwards we climbed up to the church. The
12
.
mass was just beginning and so we listened. The church is not very big
13
.
but it is lofty and has a very large statue on top of the dome. They say
14
.
that in the crown people enter and the eyes of the statue are binoculars
15
.
that look from a distance on the ships coming in and those in danger because
16
.
the church is on the sea. All Marseille is visible below and the view
17
.
is extremely beautiful. There were many people on top, about 400 or 500. Some of them brought their breakfast with them
18
.
to eat it there. After we looked at everything we went down on the pathway and not
19
.
by the descending car. We were truly quite tired because the descent is difficult from such
20
.
a height. We reached the bottom and walked back to the hotel amid lovely trees.
21
.
This was on the Boulevard N. Dame. We returned to our lodgings
22
.
at 10:30 and waited a half an hour. Then we went to the Rue de Rome

Page 116


01
.
to take the Omnibus to Nassoury's place. We took the bus
02
.
to Montredon where Nassoury is. We arrived after half an
03
.
hour and paid 35 centimes each. Nassoury greeted us at the door of his house
04
.
and we entered his small but pleasantly situated house by the sea
05
.
with a very fresh breeze. We also saw his wife and son and at noon broke our fast.
06
Marseille
At 3:00 we returned by the omnibus to the hotel. Nassoury's wife is very quiet
07
.
and sensible and about 35 years old. At the door of the hotel we saw Hanna and Razouk
08
.
waiting for us in order to go to the animal garden, or
09
.
the Jardin ZoologiqueJardin Zoologique. So we went to the Rue Cannebière and took the
10
.
Tramway to Longchamps. We arrived and found
11
.
this road was very pleasant with trees on both sides. We reached the zoological
12
.
garden and before everything else went into the picture gallery which is also
13
.
nice. We then climbed to a high place among flowers and greenery
14
Marseille
before we went down to the garden which was full of people.
15
.
Music was playing in the middle and because today is Sunday all those who
16
.
enter do so for free. We looked around at the different animals. We saw
17
.
various kinds of birds, ducks, geese, and camels, and different kinds of mountain sheep, and
18
.
white, black and grizzly bears, and zebras, elephants, lions and monkeys
19
.
and other things that are certainly worth seeing. We continued to wander around for about two hours
20
.
and at sunset took a carriage and returned to our place.
21
June 28
The morning is pleasant with a westerly wind. After we finished
22
.
getting dressed, that is at 9:00, Monsieur Tiers arrived. He is Nassoury's broker, who

Page 117


01
.
works at his office, a man of about 40 years. He had agreed to take us around
02
.
the shops to buy a number of things. So we went with him to the largest shops
03
Marseille
and bought some clothes and other necessities. We returned in the afternoon to our place.
04
.
At 3:30 I went to Nassoury's and wrote him a bill of exchange from my mother to Baghdad
05
.
in the amount of 1,000 francs. He said that in half an hour he would come and bring it with him. Then I went
06
.
out to look around the shops for silk yarn for knitting to send to
07
.
Rosa my maternal uncle's daughter. I found in one shop and bought a large quantity, some
08
.
200 grams. They made it into two parcels for me to send by post and I took them to
09
.
the Central post office, or the main post office. All the clerks
10
.
are young 18 to 20 year old girls. I asked of them to post the parcels
11
.
for me but they refused saying the parcels were too large. They said it would better if I made them into
12
.
three parcels. So I was obliged to return to the shop to ask them to divide the two parcels into three for me
13
.
and this they did. I returned to our residence and found that Nassoury had come and taken my parents
14
.
to tour around. I tried to follow but did not find them. I passed one of the booksellers
15
.
and bought two books, one about teaching dancing and the other poetry. I had them made
16
.
into one parcel in order to send them by post tomorrow, one to Johnny Pahlawan and the other
17
.
to Nassoury Bahoshy. I returned at sunset to our residence.
18
June 29
I got up in the morning and the weather was somewhat hot. At 9:00
19
.
Monsieur Tiers came again to get us. We went to someone who prints visiting
20
.
cards and asked for some hundreds. Then we continued to a large department store
21
.
called the Magasin Général. Here they sell everything that a person
22
.
desires of clothes, accessories and other things that boggle the mind. We bought

Page 118


01
.
many things and returned to our lodgings before noon. We then began to arrange the items
02
.
to send to Baghdad. At 2:30 Hanna Tabouni came to see me
03
Marseille
and we left to tour the markets. We came to a place where they show
04
.
moving pictures. They call this the Cinamétographe (Ct[`e]nematograph) and admission is 50
05
.
centimes. It is truly a wondrous and amazing thing that a person can see
06
.
people walking and talking as if completely natural. Half an hour later
07
.
we left and I returned to our lodging. I found Nassoury at our place and after he left we took
08
.
mother and went out a second time and likewise bought few things. We returned
09
.
at sunset. Nassoury invited us to break our fast at his place at noon tomorrow and
10
.
very much insisted that we come. So we accepted.
11
June 30
The morning is unpleasant. The weather is extremely stuffy with clouds and it is very hot.
12
.
After we awoke we put our things in the trunks
13
.
and arranged everything because we will have to travel the day after tomorrow.
14
.
We stayed here a long time. At 11:00 Nassoury brought
15
Marseille
letters from Baghdad. I mean from my paternal uncle Henry and Johnny and from my maternal uncle Antone.
16
.
We were very pleased for news from our homeland. They wrote that they are all in good health.
17
Marseille
The heat where they are is very strong. The Syriac ArchbishopSyriac Archbishop: [in Mosul] had traveled to Mosul
18
.
where he would oversee his mission. Likewise Father Yousif Jarji had gone too and other
19
.
things beside. After we read the letters we went with Nassoury to the
20
.
train station to go to Montredon, where Nassoury stays. The weather
21
.
was extremely unsettling with a strong, dry wind, and the sand blinded us until
22
.
we arrived. His wife greeted us with a hearty welcome and after breakfast

Page 119


01
.
his mother-in-law arrived too. At 3:00 we said our goodbyes and returned to town.
02
.
When we returned to our lodgings we found that our work was not yet finished. So we will leave the day after
03
.
tomorrow. After dinner we went to the Cannebière district and returned after an hour.

July


04
July 1st
The morning is stuffy and cloudy, also very hot and humid.
05
.
I got up at and waited for Hanna Tabouni, but he did not come. We put all
06
Marseille
our things in order and prepared to travel the day after tomorrow rather than tomorrow as we had planned. At
07
.
9:00 we went to Cook's and bought tickets from them to Lourdes and Paris, and from
08
.
Paris to Vienna. We paid nearly 700 francs for the three of us. We returned
09
.
at breakfast time and after lunch Razouk Rafi came to see me.
10
.
I left with him to tour around. We went toward the Port and saw ships thick like
11
.
a thicket. I returned in the afternoon. Khowaja Nassoury came and showed us
12
.
some of the things he wants to send to Baghdad. Then we left and went to
13
.
the man about the visiting cards. He said they would be finished tomorrow. So we returned at sunset.
14
July 2nd
I got up early in the morning. There is a still wind today with dark clouds and the heat
15
.
is worse than yesterday. At 9:00 we went to visit Nassoury at his office and commission him on
16
.
some business matters. I received letters in the post from Yousif Fahmi in Paris.
17
Marseille
In response to my letter he informed me that he is in Paris and would be happy to see me.
18
.
I also received a letter from Razouk Majij in London saying much the same thing.
19
.
After we left Nassoury's place we walked to the Cannebi[e']re district.
20
.
Then we went to the Port and from there to the famous large church in Marseille which they call
21
.
the Cathedral. It is truly worth seeing because
22
.
it is of the most sublime construction, very long and very large. For 35 years they have been

Page 120


01
.
working on it and it has not been finished yet. There is nothing inside and no icons except, about 30 ...[illegible]
02
.
altars. I can say that it is as big as Saint Paul's Cathedral in Rome and even more spacious
03
.
but the construction and decorations are different. Yet it is a very large and grand church.
04
Departure from Marseille
We returned to our place at noon. The heat was fierce and we grew increasingly tired. In the afternoon
05
.
my friends Hanna and Razouk came to see me. We went out and bought few little things. Then
06
.
we sent a parcel of dates to Effie, Uncle Alexander's daughter in Cairo, on
07
.
one of the Messagerie ships. We paid charges of two and a quarter francs. At 5:00 we returned and I found
08
.
Nassoury who had come to bid us farewell. So we exchanged goodbyes and he left. Then, we also exchanged goodbyes
09
.
with Hanna and Razouk and I escorted them to the the top of the Cannebi[e']re. But in Razouk's case
10
.
I might see him in Paris. He also decided to travel in four days to
11
.
Paris. So we finally decided on leaving early tomorrow morning by train to
12
.
Toulouse. We paid the hotel bill and exchanged goodbyes with them.
13
July 3rd

14
Departure from Marseille Départ de Marseille
I awoke in the morning at . The weather is extremely unsettled. It rained heavily all night long with thunder and lightning, like on winter days,
15
.
and it continues to rain to this moment. After fastening our trunks and having tea we hired
16
.
a carriage to the station. We all went together and arrived at 5:30. We took a place on
17
.
the train and at 6:15 the train pulled out of the Marseille station. I
18
.
was sad to leave Marseille because it is a pleasant town and I liked it very much. We arrived
19
.
in Pas des Lanciers at 6:45, at 6:48 left 7:00 Rognac 7:03 to 7:10
20
.
Berre 7:13 -- = 7:27 St. Chamas 7:30 to 8:05
21
.
Mirama 7:45 L = 7:51 Entressen 7:53 L to 7:06
22
.
St. Martin de Crau 8:10 = 8:16 Raptale 8:17 to 8:25

Page 121


01
.
Arles here we changed trains and left at 8:35.
02
.
After two minutes, we passed over the bridge
03
.
on the river Rhône 9:03 St. Gilles 9:05 left
04
.
Franquevaux 9:16 = 9:25 Callicion 9:27 -- 9:15
05
.
Aimargues 9:43 = 9:55 Lunerve 10:03 -- 9:40
06
.
St. Anvires 10:34 = 10:50 Montpelier 10:55 -- 10:32
07
.
Vic Mireval 11:18 = 11:30 Frontegnan 11:33 -- 11:16
08
.
Cette. This is a large town on the
09
.
sea & has nice pretty buildings & houses on
10
.
the mountain. We started from here
11
.
at 12:00 changing train
12
.
12:25 Agde 12:27 12:49 Beziers 12:53 1:18
13
.
Narbonne 1:24 1:50 Lizignan 1:53 2:07
14
.
Moux 2:08 2:21 Capendu 2:23 2:40
15
.
Carcasson 2:54 = 3:10 Alzone 3:11 4:15
16
.
Avignonet 4:16 here we had hard rain.
17
.
4:21 Villefranche de Lauragais left 4:23 4:34
18
.
Villenouvelle 4:35 = 4:45 Montlaur 4:45
19
.
@ 5:08 Toulouse
20
.
So we arrived at last. Without delay we immediately hired a carriage and went to a hotel called
21
.
Hotel de FranceHotel de France on Lafayette street on Lafayette street. Afterwards
22
.
we went out to the street to look for P[e']re ExupierreFather Exupierre at the abbey.

Page 122


01
Toulouse
They said that he is no longer in Toulouse and that he left some time ago
02
.
because the French had expelled all the Capuchin and Carmelite fathersCapuchin and Carmelite fathers: [french expulsion of them from Toulouse] An order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites. A Roman Catholic religious order founded in the 12th century on Mount Carmel, Israel.
03
.
from Toulouse for some reason. Finally we returned to the Restaurent, ate dinner,
04
.
and went back to the hotel. Toulouse is a very pleasant and delightful town. Across from
05
.
our hotel is the municipal garden or Jardin Publique
06
.
and it is very nice too. It resembles the Azbakiyah garden in Egypt. Its streets and markets
07
.
are exactly like Marseille, but there are not as many people and it is not as big as Marseille. The weather
08
.
is extremely miserable with lots of rain. We heard that most of the lands of western France
09
.
were damaged by the rain of the past 3 days, that is, since the beginning of July.
10
.
Many rivers floodedFlooded rivers in Western France inundating the land, and many a lightning bolt had killed
11
.
people or so the newspapers reported. The weather here is wet and cold, just like
12
.
winter, and there is a big difference between here and Marseille.
13
July 4th

14
.
I got up early, that is at in the morning. The weather is still rainy with black clouds and very wet. At we hired a carriage with our things and went to the
15
.
train station after paying the hotel bill of 7 francs a night.
16
.
We arrived at the station and waited until 9:00. Then we boarded the train and it set out at 9:30.
17
.
9:45 Portet St. Simon, L= 9:46 / 10:10 Carbonine, left 10:13 /
18
.
10:26 Casere, L= 10:27 / 10:33 Bousseux, left 10:38 /
19
.
11:05 St.Godens, left 11:08 / 11:23 Mont Jean, L= 11:43
20
.
/12:17 Capveru, L= 12:20 / 12:32 Tournay, -,,- 12:35 /
21
.
1:05 Tarbes.
22
.
We had to get off the train here and into a horse-drawn carriage to go to
23
.
the next station which was a half an hour away because in all of the places

Page 123


01
.
we passed the rivers had flooded and destroyed the planted fields. However since yesterday
02
.
the floods have started to diminish. Here in Tarbes the train passes over a large bridge.
03
.
It had broken and collapsed the day before yesterday and that
04
.
happened just one minute after a train had crossed over. So for that reason
05
.
we came to a station at the entrance to the next town and again took
06
Lourdes
the train directly to Lourdes.
07
.
We set out from Tarbes at 1:30 and arrived
08
.
at the Lourdes station at 2:00 and did not stop at all. By chance
09
.
while on board we ran into a man named J. Soubiroux, a resident of
10
.
Lourdes and the owner of the largest hotel to be found in Lourdes, although there are 40 hotels there.
11
.
This hotel which has 230 rooms is next to the Grotte, so we bargained
12
.
with him for 9 francs each per day with food and drink. Immediately after
13
.
leaving we took a carriage and rode to this hotel, the like of which we had never seen,
14
.
it being so large and extraordinarily well laid out. It was a palace
15
.
like the palaces of the kings. We entered and took two rooms on the street.
16
.
The hotel is called de la ChapelleHotel de la Chapelle. The streets here are full of
17
.
shops selling holy relics like creches, rosaries, icons,
18
.
and the like as well as other things. Lourdes winds about and surrounding it are
19
.
the Pyrenees mountains which separate Spain from France. Because of this
20
.
the weather is so cold as if they were wet winter days. From Toulouse up to
21
.
here all the lands were lovely and the mountains were very green and cheered the heart.
22
.
So we arrived at the hotel, ordered breakfast, and ate. Afterwards we went to our journey's destination,
23
.
the Grotte, where the Virgin Mary appeared.
24
.
It is a 15 minute walk from here. Thus we came to the church

Page 124


01
.
which they call the Basilica. Then we went down into the GrotteGrotto:The Massabielle grotto is a place of Catholic pilgrimage in Lourdes, France (1858)., the place where
02
.
the Virgin Mary appeared. The place is truly humble. On the mountain where
03
.
the Virgin stood, I saw that there were many walking sticks of those who were cured
04
.
miraculously of their illness and there were benches to sit on as well. Before we came we bought
05
Lourdes
three candles and we gave them to someone to light inside the mountain where there were hundreds of burning candles
06
.
and wreaths as well. We had also brought with us two
07
.
tins each large enough to hold two bottles. I filled them and drank of the flowing water,
08
.
that is, of the Spring of MiraclesSpring of Miracle:The water which flows from the Grotte in Lourdes, France. The water is not considered holy water, but ordinary water taken from a sacred spring.s. After we all had prayed before the Virgin Mary
09
.
we returned to the hotel. The Grotte is only a short distance from here and many
10
.
of the pilgrims swarm in the streets. Most of them are Spaniards. The hotel is
11
.
very good but extremely expensive. The meals are very tasty and well served.
12
July 5th
I got up at 7:00 after having slept very well because of
13
.
exhaustion and lack of rest. The weather is somewhat better than before and the air is clear.
14
.
After we drank tea and changed clothes we went again to the Grotte and prayed
15
.
to Mary, Our Lady of Lourdes, to keep us safe on this journey of ours. Here, across from
16
.
the site of the Apparition, there is a river as large as the Diyalah river called the Gave.
17
.
Two days ago it rose a lot and flooded the pilgrimage site. Today they are cleaning up
18
Lourdes
the water and dirt that had been carried down. The inhabitants of these environs say that they do not
19
.
remember seeing such a rise in the river. Upon returning to our hotel we bought
20
.
a number of things like icons and chrèches and other trinkets from the hotel shop,
21
.
which had about 5,000 liras worth of holy mementos. We asked them to wrap
22
Lourdes
the things and send them to Marseille addressed to Nassoury who would send them to Basrah
23
.
with our trunk. Then I bought several pictures as souvenirs of Lourdes and sent

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about 30 by post, each a photograph of Lourdes and other things, to all of the family
02
.
and friends in Baghdad. I made them into a large packet and sent them in care of Nassoury
03
.
Bahoshy who would distribute them. We decided that we would travel from here tomorrow morning by train
04
.
to Paris via Bordeaux. Lourdes is a very pleasant town and I
05
.
loved it so much because it lies among the green mountains and is delightful and not very large.
06
.
In the afternoon we stayed at the hotel because there was nowhere else to go except
07
.
the Grotte. After we dined we went for the third time to the grotto
08
.
to say goodbye to the Virgin Mary. This would be our final pilgrimage to her here. So we arrived
09
.
at the site and saw a great throng of people with candles in their hands. They were climbing
10
.
the hill singing hymns of praise in a procession and then returning by the other side. They were
11
.
more than a thousand singing praises in full voice. It was truly very pious,
12
.
especially at night. Then they all knelt facing the church and prayed
13
.
to the Virgin Mary to save them from the flood and keep France safe.
14
.
I can honestly say that I shuddered with fervor when I saw such a scene of
15
.
devotion. We remained there for an hour and then returned to the hotel and bade farewell
16
.
to this place which it is a pity to leave.
17
.
Travel from Lourdes to Paris

18
.

19
July 6th
I got up in the morning and found the weather very clear but
20
.
there was a bit of a chill. After we drank tea and changed, we paid the hotel
21
.
bill which amounted to 58 francs for just two days. This is truly
22
.
the most expensive hotel we have seen. Then we got in the carriage and rode

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.
to the station to take the train to Bordeaux. At 8:00 the train moved off with us and we left
02
.
Lourdes. The church and the Grotto were still visible at a distance.
03
.
8:13 Saint Pé, L 8:15 / 8:20 Montant-Bétharam , L 8:22 /
04
.
8:25 Dufan , L 8:26 / 8:40 Bodrex , L 8:42 /
05
.
8:47 Assat , L 8:00 / 8:55 Pau ,L 9:05 /

06
.
We continuously followed the banks of the River Gave amid pleasant green places.
07
.
9:23 Danguin, L 9:25 / 9:40 Lacq, L 9:43 /
08
.
9:58 Orthez, L 10:00 / 10:28 Puyoo
.
09
.
Here we were obliged to get off the train and change after half an hour sitting
10
.
in the station to another one. We moved off at 11:15. The train we are in is very long
11
.
with no less than 45 Wagons of which 30 are loaded with goods.
12
.
11:38 Misson Habase, L 11:40 / 11:52 Mimbaste, L 11:.. /
13
.
12:10 Daz.
Here we also got off and changed to another train. We moved off at 12:25 /
14
.
12:45 Laluque, L 12:46/ 1:11 Morseux, L 1:22 /
15
.
1:40 Solferino, L 1:42 / 2:02 Ychoux, L 2:05 /
16
.
2:17 Lugos, L 2:19 /2:45 Lamothe, L 2:55 /
17
.
3:30 Bessac, L 3:22 / 3:47 Bordeaux

18
.
Finally we arrived at Bordeaux. We immediately hired a carriage and went to look for a hotel. We found
19
.
one that is agreeable and small. They gave us two rooms with dinner and tea for 16.50 francs.
20
.
It is called the Hotel des Indes et de la Marine and is located in the rue ...[blank]
21
.
After we washed and changed our clothes, because the railroad is very dirty and soils everything,
22
.
we went out to tour Bordeaux. I found it a truly large town, much
23
.
bigger than Marseille but not as pleasant. Afterwards

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.
we went to visit the famous church here called the Basilique de St. AndréBasilique de St. Andre:A Roman Catholic cathedral located in Bordeaux, France. It was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1096. .
02
Bordeaux
The church is worth seeing on account of its size and beauty. Its interior is very
03
.
spacious. There are 12 thronesThrones: By "thrones" [t'ronir],he seems to be indicating the altars of the various side chapels that circle the main central area, which he calls the "middle throne". circling it and facing a main space. Each
04
.
one is as big as our Latin Church in Baghdad! The middle throne is large
05
.
and I counted 1,300 seats in front of it. Other than this, there were Orgue,
06
.
two of them, in it, one for the big throne measuring more than 40 cubits in height
07
.
and the second for the smaller thrones. We left to look for
08
.
Mamère Exupérie head of the Sisters of Compassion.
09
.
Finally we met with her at 4 rue Monteugant and she greeted us with complete hospitality.
10
.
She offered us Bordeaux wine and poured it for us. Then she mentioned mère Thérèse
11
.
and Sister Adele in Baghdad and asked after them. She then told us the way to
12
.
Father Pierre's cousin, Madame De Calvindu. She said that she is here in Bordeaux
13
.
and living at 13 rue Hugury. So we said our goodbyes to her and left and went to
14
.
look for Father Pierre's cousin. Finally we found the street and came to number 13.
15
.
They told us that there was no one by that name here and so we returned to the hotel without
16
.
seeing her. We decided to travel tomorrow directly to Paris.
17
July 7th
I got up at and the weather was slightly cold. We prepared
18
.
our belongings for the journey, paid the hotel bill, hired a carriage, and went
19
.
to the gare or the station. We arrived there and took places on
20
.
the train and then at 8:05 we set out from Bordeaux.
21
.
8:37 Libourne-- = 8:39 = 8:56 Contras, left 8:58 =
22
.
9:16 Laroche Challet, left 9:18 = 9:30 Chalais, left 9:33 = 9:50 Montenoreu, left 9:52 = 10:22 Angoulain 10:45 =

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01
.
11:13 Luxé 11:15 left = 11:30 Ruffec 11:33 =
02
.
12:07 Couhé Vérace , left 12:08 -,,- = 12:32 Poitiers 12:39 =
03
.
1:06 Chatelerant 1:08 -,,- = 2:01 St. Pierre des Corps 2:03 =
04
.
2:54 Blois 2:58 -,,- = 3: 42 Aubrais , left 4:10,
05
.
train going fastest than every time, 30 poles in 1 minute
06
.
5:08 Etamps 5:10 -,,- = 5:35 Britigny 5:37 =
07
.
6:07 arrived after all to the gare D'Orleans
08
.
of Paris.

09
.
Arrival at Paris

10
Paris


11
.
So at 6:07 we arrived in Paris, which may be unique
12
.
in all the world. We left the station and hired a carriage after getting our trunks from
13
.
the gare de Lyon. We rode through wide avenues with
14
.
green trees on both sides, people abundant as sand, and shops adorned
15
.
as if they were brides. Finally after much touring we found a place in
16
.
4 Impasse Mazagrau Avenue, next to Boulevard Bonnenouvelle,
17
.
in a small hotel called the Family Hotel, and we took two rooms
18
.
for 8 francs per day without meals. After we had washed and changed
19
.
it was almost 8:00 so we went out to eat in a Restaurent close
20
.
to our place. We then arranged to take our meals with them daily for 4 and three quarters francs
21
.
each. After we finished dinner we went to tour these streets
22
.
which are like paradise on earth. We were amazed at seeing new things

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.
which our eyes had never before beheld. We returned after an hour struck by wonderment at this city.
02
July 8th
I was unable to rouse myself from sleep until 7:30 because of extreme
03
.
tiredness. After we changed I wrote a letter to my friend Yousif Fahmi who is here.
04
.
I informed him of my arrival here and my sincere wish to see him and gave him my address.
05
.
Then I went to get a haircut at the place of a person who has a big shop with nearly 20 people waiting
06
Paris
to serve. Then I left and came back to the hotel. At 10:00 we all went out, hired a carriage,
07
.
and went to look for our friend Ibrahim Hajo. We knew that he lived at
08
.
59 rue des St. Pères. So we went to the door and asked for him and he came because he was living here.
09
.
We were very pleased to see him especially since we are strangers here. After we chatted with him at length
10
.
he said that we must come and stay with him at the hotel where he lives. He showed us two rooms,
11
.
and the place was much better than the one [we are] in. So we decided that we would go with him and after breakfast
12
.
bring our things to this new hotel. Its name is Hôtel du Pas de Calais
13
.
at 59 rue des St. Pères. In the afternoon we went bringing all of our belongings
14
.
and paid 10.50 francs for our lodging. After we came to our new place
15
.
and settled in we went out with Ibrahim to see a place called
16
.
Les InvalidesLes Invalides: National Residence of the Invalids, a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments relating to the military history of France, and known as the burial site of Napoleon Bonaparte., a church where Napoleon the First is buried.
17
.
The Tour Eiffel was visible wherever we went. Thus we arrived
18
.
after a lot of walking to this lovely place and saw all the canons
19
.
that Napoleon captured in front of the door. The dome of the church is all of real gold.
20
.
We went in through the entryway and I saw this amazing site. In
21
.
the middle is a sunken circle with Napoleon buried in the center. Over him is a huge stone,
22
.
the like of which is not ever to be found, and around it are all the banners he acquired in
23
.
battle. Afterwards we saw many graves such as those of his brothers and the generals who were

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.
with him in the wars. In front of the grave there is a tall cross between four marble pillars which
02
.
are unique in all the world. Then we left this place and went to
03
.
the Magasin de bon MarchéMagasin de bon Marche: " The good market" in French, is one of the best known department store in Paris, France., a department store where they sell everything
04
.
a person craves or desires. Oh, what a place. When we entered it seemed
05
Paris
we were in a city because it is all one passage in which there are nearly 10,000
06
.
souls swarming as abundant as worms and its size is indescribable. There are altogether 6,000 people
07
.
selling and 100 taking money. It is made up of ten floors and truly
08
.
one could easily go astray inside and become lost. After we bought some things we left
09
.
and hired a carriage and went out to a place for a promenade called the Bois de BoulogneBois de Boulogne: A park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris..
10
.
Here is the true paradise. It surpasses all cities. So I do not know what to say
11
.
about this place which is an earthly paradise. People in carriages are coming and going
12
.
among these trees, thick and green, which cheer the hearts of the sorrowful. After we had toured
13
.
around for nearly two hours we returned to the hotel and left a second time to have dinner. We all went to eat
14
.
in a Restaurent and afterwards we left to tour and walk about in this heaven for Paris
15
.
is unique in East and West and has no peer ever. We went towards the place,
16
.
unique in Paris, that is the Opéra square and saw this unique ThéatreParis Opera: The primary opera company of Paris, it was founded in 1669.
17
.
and what the hands of man had wrought. This is the Opera famous
18
.
the world over. Then we went into a coffee house and listened to guitar playing. We returned to our place
19
.
at 11:00 and slept.
20
July 9th
The morning is clear with a pleasant western wind. At 7:00
21
.
we drank tea. At 9:00 we left with Khowaja Ibrahim and went to a department store named
22
.
the Magasin du Petit St. ThomasMagasin du Petit St.Thomas: A novelty shop that was based on the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, the Italian priest.. Here there are all sorts of silk goods and fabrics.
23
.
Workers are demolishing the large store so the goods are selling cheap. We bought many

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.
silk fabrics and things for 287 francs. Because of the size of the place we were not able to return to the hotel
02
.
before noon. After breakfast we left and went to this department store again
03
.
and asked them to package the things and send them to our place. Then we went back to the hotel and they brought us the things
04
.
we had bought. After we rested for a while we returned again to tour around and went
05
.
to a department store which is larger than any found either in Paris or anywhere else.
06
.
Its name is the Grand Magasin du LouvreGrand Magasin du Louvre: A department store in Paris, France, founded in 1855, three years after the Le Bon Marche. and it surpasses
07
.
the Bon Marché store. First, it is higher and wider and here one finds all
08
.
the products of the world. Because of the abundance of people the crowding and especially the costliness, we could not buy
09
.
anything. After an hour of walking we left and went to the environs of the
10
.
Louvre palace, which amazes one with its architecture and large size.
11
.
Then we went to the area of the Palais Royale. This distinguished place
12
.
is filled all along its length and breadth with shops in which are jewelry, gold crafts
13
.
and diamonds. There are about 100 shops and other things, and in short, one
14
.
becomes confused about what to desire and what to buy. Then the weather here turned bad, the clouds grew
15
.
thick, and it started to rain more and more. We rushed to get back to the hotel.
16
.
After dinner we left and sat in a coffee house. Then we went touring in a carriage and returned
17
.
to our place. All the streets and markets of Paris are being decorated
18
.
because is on the 14th. It will be a very big celebration.
19
July 10th
The morning is pleasant with an easterly wind. After we got up from
20
.
sleeping we changed and at 9:00 we went out with Monsieur Ibrahim and went to
21
.
someone who sells books. We instructed him to purchase for us a number of books that we need and then
22
.
we returned to wander around in other places. We went to shops and bought
23
.
different kinds of things. Afterwards we entered a Restaurent and ate.

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.
We went a second time to tour the markets and shops and then returned to our first hotel.
02
.
We asked if letters had come for us because when we left we had instructed the landlady
03
.
that if anything came for us she should send it to our new place. She told us that
04
.
three letters had arrived for us and she had sent them to our place. So at sunset we
05
.
ate dinner at the Restaurent Gazal, which is quite fine.
06
.
It cost 1 and a half francs for lunch and two francs for dinner. The food there is very good
07
.
and better than all the others and is located across from the Louvre.
08
.
After dinner we rushed off and went to a theatre named the ChateletChatelet theatre: A theatre and opera house, located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France..
09
.
We paid 8 francs admission fee and it was truly quite pleasant. There were
10
.
about 1,000 in attendance.
11
.
The story, entitled Michel StrogoffMichel Strogoff [play]: The play was based of a novel written by Jules Verne in 1876, it was adapted into a play in 1880., was partly comical and the rest done by the Orchestre.
12
.
At 12:00 we exited and came back to our residence and found our letters waiting.
13
.
Several letters from Baghdad had arrived for me. Everyone is doing well except they informed us of the death
14
.
of Aunt Susanne Sayegh among other things.
15
July 11th
I got up late, that is at 8:00, and the weather
16
.
was good and clear. Since today is Sunday we went with Ibrahim to hear mass
17
.
in the large church found in Paris which they named Notre Dame.
18
.
We arrived there half an hour later and saw that it was truly a large and spacious church
19
.
and well worth seeing. We heard high mass and then left and went
20
.
to see the Baghdad Commandant's sons who came here a month ago.
21
.
We found them at home and then left and went to have breakfast somewhere. We found
22
.
the Restaurent Duval in which only girls work as waiters, but
23
.
it is very expensive. After breakfast we went to the River Seine

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.
and took one of the boats which are on the river and went down to the site of the Eiffel Tower. We paid
02
.
3 piasters each, then disembarked and walked over the bridge across from the tower. What
03
.
a view it is, this soaring tower dominating the sky, which appears from afar
04
.
as if it were a small minaret. Then we took the Asenseur and paid
05
.
fifty centimes per person. We went up to the first level and were amazed by this pleasant view.
06
.
Here on top there is a theater, shops selling the souvenirs of the tower,
07
.
and a place to eat, among other things. After we stayed on top for about an hour we returned and came down
08
.
by the stairs. I counted 285 stairs to the bottom from the first level. Here we met
09
.
a Jew who is a resident of Baghdad and Basrah. His name is Haroun Baer. He calls himself
10
.
Henri and he has been in Paris for 12 years. He is about 22 years old and is the brother in law
11
.
of Farha, the wife of Yaqoub Levi. After we came down Ibrahim and I went to
12
.
his brother Henri's school. We arrived there and got him and brought him
13
.
with us because today is Sunday and they do not have any classes. Thus we came to a vast site
14
.
in which is the Trocadéro Palace, or the Exhibition of 1889Exhibition of 1889: Referring to the World's Fair held in Paris, France from May 6 to October 31, 1889.. In it are
15
.
every kind and shape of pavilions on earth. After it turned
16
.
6:00 we went back to the eating place and after that returned to our place in the hotel.
17
July 12th
The morning is pleasant and cheery. The weather is like
18
.
spring. After we drank tea and changed we went out with Ibrahim and went to buy
19
.
flower seeds and other things. We returned to the hotel close to noon. Afterwards
20
.
at 1:00 Razouk Rafi, whom I had left in Marseille, came in the door of the room.
21
.
He arrived here yesterday and I was truly happy when I saw him. At 1:30
22
.
I went with Ibrahim, mother, and Razouk to Razouk's brother Henri's school
23
.
because the students were putting on a play for the headmaster's celebration.

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.
So we showed up there. There were many people, some 5,000. It finished at 5:00 and we returned
02
.
to our residence. After dinner, we decided to go to the Opéra
03
.
and hear the performance of . We went at 8:30 and only with great difficulty were we able
04
.
to find seats because the people were many and the whole theater was packed
05
.
with about 8,000 persons or more. Finally we were able to find ourselves seats for twenty
06
.
francs. Truly the acting was quite fine, especially when Samson
07
.
lost his strength, when the hair on his head was sheared and he grasped the pillars and pulled them down
08
.
inside the temple and all the soldiers and people were killed by the temple's fall. Honestly
09
.
I have never seen such a fine drama in my life. We stayed until 12:00,
10
.
and when it finished we returned to our lodgings. We were impressed by such a
11
.
marvelous thing and then we slept the night until morning.
12
July 13th
I got up in the morning and the weather was pleasant with sunshine.
13
.
At 9:00 Gregor's brother came to visit us, the one who works on the SS Majidieh with the paddle wheelEngine: Alexander writes "jargh" in Arabic but most likely intends the Persian/Ottoman "charkh" which means "wheel, machine, engine" and probably refers to working in the engine room..
14
.
His name is Gabriel and he has been here for 5 years studying medicine. He says that after two months
15
.
he is going to Baghdad with certification that he is a physician. At 10:00 we all went
16
.
to Le Bon Marché department store and afterwards went to another store and bought a number of things.
17
.
At noon we went to have breakfast at Restaurant Gazal,
18
.
next to the Louvre. It is very expensive, 2 francs per person. After breakfast we entered
19
.
the famous Louvre and visited each part. We saw
20
.
several antiquities from Babylon, Niniveh, and other places. This gallery is truly worth
21
.
seeing. We also viewed the gallery of brush paintings and they are exquisite things.
22
.
At 4:00 we all left with Ibrahim and his brother Andreus and returned to our lodgings.
23
.
At 6:00 we returned again by omnibus to the dining place and ate.

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.
After dinner my parents returned to the lodgings, and I, with Ibrahim and Andreus,
02
.
went to a place called Musée GrévinMusee Grevin: A waxwork museum in Paris located on the Grands Boulevards. and paid 7 francs
03
.
to see beeswax representations of people. I saw
04
.
things that astonished me. One can see a full-sized
05
.
Tsar of Russia and all kinds of people, soldiers, and sultans made
06
.
of wax and dressed in purple outfits, seeming as if they were alive. One cannot
07
.
tell for sure that they are artificial things. In addition there are others, like
08
.
ministers and crowds, an amazing thing, indescribable except if one sees it with his own
09
.
eyes. Then we saw Cinématograph in color, I mean,
10
.
pictures that move and speak and make everything as if it were real life. At
11
.
12:00 we returned to our lodgings. I had been stunned by this spectacle.
12
.
There were 12 girls from Vienna playing the guitar and it was a fine
13
.
thing.
14
July 14th
I stayed up late last night and got up at
15
.
8:30. The weather was pleasant and cool. Today is Republic DayRepublic Day: This is referring to Bastille Day or French National Day celebrated on 14th July each year. or
16
.
Fête de la République and the streets of Paris, and its palaces as well as
17
.
all the shops, are decorated like brides with flags, electric lights and flowers
18
.
as if it were paradise. We went out in the morning and bought trunks to pack
19
.
all of the things purchased here. Then we packed everything and they were ready
20
.
for us to send on to Marseille to be forwarded to Basrah on the Asfar's ships.
21
.
At 12:00 we went to have breakfast at Gazal's and afterwards went to a shop where people make
22
.
things out of hair. We saw some things made of human hair
23
.
like chains, pictures, flowers, and trees which are amazing. How

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.
can human beings be capable of making this? We had some hair with us and gave it to them to make into
02
.
a chain. Then we hired a carriage and went to the Arc de Triomphe
03
.
to see the Republic Day RevueRepublic Day Revue. Here we saw
04
.
people standing, many as the sands of the sea, and the streets and everywhere were
05
.
packed with heads. We heard the sound of music and saw the private military
06
.
of Monsieur Faure coming from downtown, almost 300 wearing uniforms.
07
.
But what uniforms! They seemed to be shining like gold and were riding
08
.
such fine horses. In the middle of this troop we saw the carriage of Monsieur Faure.
09
.
He was sitting in it with the Grand General and behind his carriage were all of the ministers
10
.
and notables of the country like the marshal and army officers. Finally they passed in front of us.
11
.
Monsieur Faure, with his hat in his hand, was waving to the people with a smile and
12
.
a happy face. When they passed and had to go to the end of the Bois de Boulogne
13
.
where the Revue would take place. We followed the crowd and came to
14
.
the Champs Ėlysés to which all the army
15
.
would return and Monsieur Faure and his entourage, following the ...[illegible]The word here appears to be "ta'luum" for which we cannot find an attested definition. It might mean "troop of banners" but we cannot be at all certain.. Here
16
.
we found troop upon troop of people. Some were standing and others sitting
17
.
on chairs and there were police officers every five feet to prevent any
18
.
mishap. After much touring around we found a place and rented four seats
19
.
for 5 francs. Then we sat awaiting the return of the Revue.
20
.
It was so crowded with people and carriages that there was no room left for anyone
21
.
to enter this magnificent city of Paris. At 4:00 we caught sight of the General
22
.
charging up on his horse, parting the carriages and people, and giving orders to the police.
23
.
So all of the carriages pulled back and they were millions and thousands. Then we heard the sound

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.
of music coming and Monsieur Faure appeared in the carriage with all his entourage behind. All
02
.
the soldiers and columns passed in front of me, from cavalry and lancers, infantry
03
.
and artillery, to others. When everything came to an end we got on the omnibus
04
.
and went to the Gare St. Lazare. We bought 3 tickets for us to go to
05
.
London the day after tomorrow via New Haven. We paid
06
.
53 francs each for a round trip. After that we walked on and went into a place
07
.
to eat on the Boulevard Haussman. After dinner we toured around
08
.
and saw the activities they are preparing for tonight's big celebration.
09
.
Then it was 9:00 and we finally found a place on a bridge called
10
.
the Pont de ChangePont de Change: A bridge over the Seine River in Paris.. It looked out over the whole city and all
11
.
the fireworks and everything else would lie before us. Then they began to light up the city with electric
12
.
lights. How lovely is this delightful view when one sees the palaces,
13
.
houses, buildings, and statues all adorned with stars. At 10:00
14
.
they began the fireworks. That was very enjoyable and I saw things I had never before seen.
15
.
After 11:00 we made our way through the crowds who had spread out on the bridge and left
16
.
to return to our lodgings. However it was impossible for anyone to pass through them
17
.
and we were obliged to walk in a line, one after the other. I cannot describe
18
.
in writing the people who were out in the streets. The passages were full
19
.
to the utmost with women and girls, boys and men. In every nook they were playing
20
.
music and in the streets they were dancing. On this night Paris was
21
.
the definition of heaven on earth and a paradise. In short we arrived excited
22
.
at the hotel much impressed by these things
23
.
so worthy of recalling.

Page 138


01
July 15th
The morning is sunny and pleasant and the weather is temperate. We went with Ibrahim
02
.
and his brother in a carriage to see the woman who had done our hair. We got it from her and she had done it
03
.
well. We paid her 16 francs and afterwards drove to an amazing Paris cemetery
04
.
where we arrived an hour later. It is called Père la chaise and it is truly very
05
.
fine. In it there are thousands of graves made of excellent porphyry interspersed with statues
06
.
and flowers and worth seeing. After an hour we returned by omnibus to
07
.
the eating place. After noon we returned to the hotel, got the two trunks,
08
.
and went to ship them to Marseille to Nassoury Sayegh. From there we went on foot
09
.
to the Palais de Luxemburg. The palace was locked but the orchard
10
.
was open. How joyous and heart cheering a place this is. It is extremely large and contains flowers,
11
.
birds, and sparrows of all kinds. After sunset we went back to the hotel.
12
July 16th
The morning is clear. We got up at 6:00 because today
13
.
we will travel to London. We tied up the things and took
14
.
only one trunk and two suitcases with us. The rest remained with Ibrahim.
15
.
We hired a carriage and, after paying the hotel bill which came to 102 francs
16
.
we went directly with Ibrahim to the Gare St. Lazare. We sent a telegraph
17
.
to Razouk Gergis in London and said, "We will be with you this evening in
18
.
London Tower Station." Then we took a place on the train. Many passengers
19
.
going to London, most of them English, were with us. At 10:00 the train
20
.
set out for Dieppe. It stopped at 12:00 for 5 minutes at Rouen.
21
.
At 1:15 we arrived in the Dieppe station which is on the sea. The boat
22
.
was ready to take us across to England. So we transferred into it. It was called the SeineThe Seine.
23
.
Here we presented our tickets from Paris to here. At 1:45 it set off.

April


Page 001


01
.
جورنال
02
.
رحلت أوربا
03
.


04
.
عن طريق البر
05
.
على الشام و بيروت
06
.


07
.
أبتداء في ١٠ نيسان
08
.
١٨٩٧
09
.
اسكندر ازفوبودا

Page 002


01
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السفر من بغدا وا لموادعة

02
١٨٩٧


03
.

04
نيسان ١٠
فقد صممنا على السفر الى اوربا و ممشانا من هنا سيكون
05
.
نهار الاربعاء صباحاً اعني في ١٣ من هدا الشهر "Thirteenth of the month" Alexander is mistaken about the date, Wednesday was the 14th of the month.
06
.
و تختروان Mule litter: [taḫterewān] From the Persian taḫt-e revān (taḫt meaning seat or throne, revān meaning moving). It was commonly used in Iraq, sometimes in the abbreviated form taḫt. In the English diary of the return journal, Alexander used the term teḫtersin, for which we have been unable to find any references. ورتبنا كل شيء و ما بقي سوى ان نضع بغداد ورائنا
07
.
من الايام الثلاثة الفاتت الى الآن جملة خطار عمال يجون يودعونا
08
.
و بالاخص الاهل جملة امرار يجون عندنا فنسافر صحبة كرنل The word Balioz was originally the Turkish form of the title of the Baglio, the Venetian representative to the Ottoman court. In later years the word 'Balioz' became a vulgar term for any foreign consul. The British Consulate or Residency in Baghdad was commonly known among the inhabitants there as "the house of the Balioz". Here the term refers to the British Consul-General.
09
.
مكلر باليوز Colonel Edward Mockler: The British Consul General in Baghdad from 1892 to 1897, when he was replaced by Colonel William Loch and journeyed overland to Cairo with Alexander Richard Svoboda and his parents. Born in 1839, he served in several positions in the British Army in India and the Middle East. He was also a scholar and linguist. For more information see (http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Edward_Mockler) the Edward Mockler page in the Svobodapedia. الانكليزي الذي معتمد يروح الى لندرة فنأخذ درب
10
.
البر اعني الى الدير al-Dayr: An abbreviation commonly used by the diarist for the town Dayr al-Zawr. و الشام و بيروت و من هناك الى القاهرة اذا
11
نيسان ١١
سهل المولى
12
.
اليوم بما هو نهار الاحد الآخيرلنا في بغداد فبعد ان
13
.
سمعنا القداس بدينا ندور و نتوادع مع الاصدقاء و عملنا
14
.
زيارات لتقريب ٢٠ بيت و عندنا ايضا اتوا جملة اناس
15
.
يتوادعون معنا و يهنونا بسفر هني و الغروب كنا
16
.
مجتمعين في بيت كسبرخان Kasperkhan: Fathallah [Fettohi] Kasperkhan was born around 1819 and married some time before 1862 to Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda (Alexander's Aunt Eliza). He was an Armenian who seems to have worked both for the Ottoman government and in the construction business. He was the relative of Tanton Kasperkhan whose daughter was married to Selman b. Berbin, who worked for Seyyid Turki, the Sultan of Muscat. Fathallah died at nearly 76 on 07/19/1895. [JMS-MM27:117; JMS-MM41:11] عند عمة اليزة Aunt Eliza: Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda (12/03/1830-04/26/1910). She was married to Fathallah Kasperkhan some time before the first JMS diaries (ca.1862). They had two sons, Johnny [Jany] and Artin [Arteen], and four daughters: Guiseppina, Theresa [Taroosa], Regina, and Jenny (who became a nun).[See Appendix] و رجعنا ساعة
17
.
٣ تركيه Turkish time: Refers to the Turkish version of the traditional time-keeping called ġurūbī (sunset) time or eẕānī [edhānī] (call-to-prayer) time. According to this practice the "day" began at sunset and was divided into two 12 hour periods, the first ending at sunrise and the second at sunset. The period between sunset and sunrise was divided into twelfths as was the period between sunrise and sunset. This resulted in "hours" that varied in length throughout the year. In the "Turkish time" developed after the spread of mechanical clocks, the day was divided into two periods of 12 hours of equal length beginning at sunset. All clocks were re-set at sunset. "European" or "Western" time was "mean time" which ran from high noon to high noon with regular hours and had no other connection to hours of light and dark. مع كافه الانشراح و اليوم الغروب سمعت
18
.
من تيلكراف اتي من البصرة الى بيت النج The House of Lynch: The Lynch Brothers Trading Company, a shipping and trade conglomerate operating mainly in the Middle East, founded the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company in 1861. It operated two 100 ton steamers between Basrah and Baghdad along the River Tigris because the Euphrates River was thought to be unsuited to navigation by deep-draft vessels. These steamers transported a mix of passengers, wool, dates, rice, and other cargo. http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Lynch_Brothers_Trading_Company يخبرون عن
19
.
موتت اسكندر وكيل في البصرة عن وجع الدق الدي به
20
.
البارحة ساعه ١٠ فرنكيه Western time: [al-frangiyyeh] Also known as European time. See above note on Turkish time. [8] اتى من البصرة قنصلالجديد الانكليزي
21
.
الى بغداد مع امرأته و جاء معه قنصل بصرة ميجر فيكن Fagan: Major Charles George Forbes Fagan (1856-1943) was born to a military family. He served in the second Afghan War of 1878-1880. He was Assistant Political Agent in Basrah when he met Alexander Svoboda. See http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svobodapedia/index.php?title=Major_Charles_George_Forbes_Fagan و قنصل
22
.
الجديد لبغداد اسمه كرنل لوك Colonel Loch: Col. William Loch replaced Col. Edward Mockler in 1897 as the British Consul General in Baghdad. و بما نحن متمدين نسافر

Page 003


01
.
مع كرنل مكلر الذي رائح من بغداد الى لندرة ليأخذ التقاعد و كان
02
.
كل هذه المدة منتظر مجي كرنل لوك فالآن تحقق ازود ممشانا
03
.
سيكون نهار الاربعاء
04
نيسان ١٢
اليوم صبحت مغيمة و ممطرة مع هوا شرقي In Iraq, the East wind is actually a southerly wind. كذلك
05
.
غيم تخين و مظلم لكن بعد كم ساعة صفي الجو بعد الظهر
06
.
رحت الى الاوفيس و طلبت من كرنل مكلر شهادتنامه عن خدمتي
07
.
في القنصلخانه Consulate: [al-ḳonṣolḫāne] The diarist refers to the British Consulate in Baghdad, which was established under Mamluk rule in 1802 and staffed by a British Consul-General who also acted as a political agent to the Government of India and ranked second to the British Ambassador in Istanbul. مدة سنتين فوعدني بأن غداً يعطيني اياه الغروب
08
.
عملنا فزيته الاخيرة الى بيت خالي انطون Uncle Antone: Antone Jebra Marine was the brother of Alexander's mother Eliza Jebra Marine [Sayegh/Svoboda]. Antone worked for the British Residencies in Baghdad and Basrah and was part owner of the Marine family date groves at Sufyah. After his proposal of marriage within the Svoboda family was rejected, he married Theresa [Taroosa] Hannosh Asfar on 04/11/1880. Their children: Rosa Guiseppina (b. 03/10/1881), Ellen Iranohy Semiramis (b. 02/08/1883), Gabriel Yousif Abdulmessih [Joury, Jeboory] (b. 04/11/1884), Mary Goseppine, Yousif, John and Philip who died in infancy. [JMS-MM23:143-32:8; JMS-MM15:146; JMS-MM22:2] و قالوا لنا بأن جوري ابنهم
09
.
مزمع ان يرسلوه معنا الى بيروت الى المدرسة و قبل الغروب بساعة
10
.
وديت الهارمونيوم Harmonium: The portable harmonium used in India and the Middle East is a type of reed organ that rests on the ground. The musician usually kneels and plays with one hand while the other pumps a bellows located at the back of the instrument. The sound is similar to that of an accordion. الذي عندي بالبيت الى بيت الخال ليتقيدوا عليه
11
.
بمدة غيابنا و اليوم ايضا اتوا يودعونا جملة اناس من الاقارب والاصدقاء
12
نيسان ١٣
هده الليلة كانت للغاية متعسة الغيم و الرعد ابد ما انقطع و نصف
13
.
الليل اتت مطرة للغاية قوية حتى عملت الدروب اشطوط لكن
14
.
الصباح كسرة و صحت مع شمس مبهجة للغاية و نهار ربيعي لطيف
15
.
اليوم اتوا ايضاً كثير من الناس ليودعونا لكن لما رحت الى الاوفيس سمعت
16
.
بان كرنل مكلر بدل افكاره عن المشي الاربعاء الى يوم الخميس العصر
17
.
فحقيقة كثير احتصرت من هذه التقلبات و كل يوم جنس
18
.
فبالخير اعتمدنا السفر نهار الخميس بعد الظهر و الغروب اتو عندنا بيت
19
.
العم هندري Uncle Henry: Henri Charles Pierre Svoboda (06/28/1847-10/17/1901), the son of Antoine Svoboda and Euphemie Joseph Muradjian. Henry worked on the Lynch Bros. steamships. He married Marie Chanteduc (b.12/1851 - d.05/26/1922) who was the daughter of a neighbors of the Svobodas, with whom Antoine had a long standing quarrel. They had seven daughters and five sons, of whom Louisa Madeline (d.1954), Hariette [Henriette Adeline] (d.1971), Marie Josephine [Soeur Marie-Louise] (d.1966), and Louis Pierre Augustin (d. 1956) survived to adulthood.[See Appendix] و العمة مدولة Aunt Medula: [Medoola, Medooli, Madalena] (05/07/1843-08/31/1913) Madeleine Fransisca Svoboda, the daughter of Antoine Svoboda and Euphemie Joseph Muradjian. She was married to Stephan Andrea (d.01/31/1884) sometime before 1862, and they had only one duaghter, Guiseppina (d.09/18/1886). Medula's second marriage was to the Polish apothecary Vincent Grzesiky (d.01/29/1900) and the third, one year later to Rezooki Andrea. [JMS-MM32:12; JMS-NA50:98; Appendix; JMS-MM26:186 and 29:26] و جاني Johnny: [Jany](nd) The son of Fathallah Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. Johnny was born sometime before 1862 and employed at Lynch Brothers in Baghdad ca.1874 by his aunt Carolina's husband Mr. Thomas Blockey. In 1886, he married Guiseppina (d. 09/29/1893), the youngest daughter of Antony Hanna Andrea (d. 09/04/1877) and Takooyi. They had two children: Antoine Marie Albert (b.10/20/1887) and Rosa (b.03/14/1889). [JMS-MM30:141 and 33:66; JMS-MM13:85; JMS-MM18:104 and 26:186] و ارتين Artine: (b.05/28/1859) The son of Fathallah Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. Like his brother Johnny, Artine was employed by Lynch Bros. He married Sirpohy, daugher of Dr. Cazassian on 11/26/1889 and they had two daughters: Henriette Elizabeth Marie (b.09/12/1900) and Marie (b.10/03/1901). [JMS-NA51:82 and Appendix] و بقوا عندنا لحد ساعه واحده
20
.
و نصف لكن ما توادعوا الوداع الاخير و بعد الظهر رحت
21
.
توادعت مع كم صديق و بعده رحت شفت التختروان الذي لازم نسافر به
22
نيسان ١٤
يوم مفرح الى الغاية و الطيانات من الدروب نشفت
23
.
قليلاً و الشمس لامعة من دون غيم ابداً فبعد ان

Page 004


01
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زرت بعض من الاهالي و الاصدقاء اتيت للبيت و سمعت
02
.
بأن نية الخال انطون انقلبت و جوري ولده لم يسافر بعد
03
.
معنا لأنه كثير عمال يحتصر عليه فيا حيف على هكذا فرصة التي
04
.
فاتت و لم تصح بيد الخال بعد اليوم قبل الظهر اتت عندنا
05
.
العمه اميليه Aunt Emilia: Emilia Josephne Svoboda Rogers (12/25/1837-05/09/1921), the daughter of Antone Svoboda. Sometime before the birth of her daughter Alice in 1861, she was married to Mr. Richard Rogers, an Englishman who worked at the British Residencies in Baghdad and Basrah. Following the death of her husband in 1859, she returned to her father's house where she remained following his death (09/07/1878) until the marriage of her daughter to Captain Clements (06/20/1880), when she went to live in their house. [JMS-MM28:65, 19:193, 20:09, 22:50 and Appendix] و ترجينا منها لتتناول الغداء معنا فقبلت بذلك
06
.
و بعد الفطور Breakfast: Alexander meant "lunch" but wrote "breakfast" because in the late nineteenth century, "lunch" was rarely used. In Joseph Mathia's diaries, breakfast was the main meal of the day. A light meal was taken in the early hours of the afternoon, and supper was the last meal. اتى عندي الصديق جميل عبد الكريم و جاب له كتاب
07
.
الى ابن دنحه رزوق Dinha Razouk: The friend of Joseph Mathia. When Alexander made the return trip from Europe with his wife, Marie, Joseph Mathia sent a letter to Razouk at al-Dayr. Razouk traveled with Alexander from Dayr al-Zawr to Baghdad in 1900. [Journey to Baghdad from Europe via Der-el-Zor and Musul, Oct. 1900] الذي ساكن في دير الزور فاخدت
08
.
الكتاب ووضعته مع اوراقي الخاصة و اتت عندنا كترينه Catherine Yaghechi: [Catherina Yaghchi] is Catherina Sayegh. Fathallah Sayegh, Eliza Marine's first husband, was Catherina's Uncle. She was married to Rafael Yaghchi (d.05/28/1878), and their children were Theresa [Terooza], Mikh'ail, Yousif, and their youngest son Gabriel. Gabriel pursued religious studies in Mosul with his uncle Père Augustin [Elias Sayegh] and Père Louis. Mikh'ail tutored Harry Tom Lynch in Arabic during Lynch's visit to Baghdad and accompanied him to Basrah and eventually became a clerk in Basrah. [JMS-MM19:162; JMS-NA39:120; JMS-MM36:142]
09
.
ياغجي و توادعت معنا و كثير احتصرت على فرقتنا
10
نيسان ١٥
اليوم هو يوم السفر كما افتهمنا البارحة بأن
11
.
اليوم بعد الظهر سنعبر الى داك الصوب اليوم صبحت
12
.
هوية مغيمة و صباح مزعج للغاية لكن بعد طلوع الشمس
13
.
بساعتين صحت الدنيا و صار نهار مبهج لطيف فبعد أن
14
.
رحت الى الكنيسة و اخدت الفصح كما اليوم هو خميس
15
.
الفصح و رجعت ساعه ٨ فرنكيه الى البيت و كنت هناك
16
.
احضر اغراضي و امهر ابواب الدواليب في الكفشكان Kefeshkan: From the Persian kefsh-ken "a place for removing shoes" (kefsh meaning shoe and ken, from kenden means to dig up or peel off). As used in Iraq it referred to a small elevated chamber in old Baghdad houses used mostly for storage. It was usually reached by the stair leading to the roof or by a wooden ladder. Joseph Svoboda’s diaries also indicate that it was used for sleeping at the beginning of the hot season, especially April and May.
17
.
و اتوا عندي بعض من الاصدقاء و توادعت معهم وداع الاخير
18
.
فلما صار الظهر كنا ننتظر وصول البغال لأخذ الاغراض
19
.
و لما صارت ساعة واحده بعد الظهر بدوا يأتون عندنا الاهل
20
.
جميعاً ليتوادعوا اخيراً و حقيقة كثير صعبت علي لما بديت
21
.
احكي معهم على الفرقة و هم جميعاً كانوا كثير يحتصرون
22
.
اخيراً بعد ان صارت ساعه ٢‪,‬٣٠ فرنكيه اتت بغالنا و بدوا
23
.
يحملوا الغرضان فجميع الاهل كانوا يضجون بالبكاء وانا معهم

Page 005


01
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و ما كنت اظن بان الفرقة هي هكدا زحمه فبعد ان شدوا
02
.
الحمول طلعوا من البيت مع زابطيه الذي كنا مأخذيه بواسطة
03
.
بيورلدي و امرناهم ان يعبروا الى ا لخر Khirr bridge: In 1897, the Khirr Bridge was inaugurated in the presence of provincial governor Ata Pasha, as well as Field Marshal Rajab Pasha and high state officials, both military and civilian. The bridge was called the Hamidi Bridge, but people continued to call it the Khirr Bridge. و هناك ينتظرونا لنبات
04
.
تلك الليلة فلما صار وقت الفراق و الساعة قربت جميع اهلنا
05
.
من عمة اميليا اليزه و مدوله و اليز Alice: Alice Rogers Clements (09/29/1861-03/10/1904) is the daughter of Emilia-Josephine Svoboda Rogers and Richard Rogers. She took her first communion at the Latin Church in Baghdad on 04/27/1873. In the first week of March 1880, Captain Clements, who worked on the Lynch Bros. steamers, proposed to Alice and they were married in the British Residency on 06/20/1880. Alice was widowed on 07/31/1895, when Captain Clements died of illness. [JMS-MM28:65; Appendix; JMS-MM12:7; JMS-MM41:13; JMS-MM22:50, and 21:200] بنت عمة اميليا و الويز Louisa: [Louise] Louisa Madeleine (03/20/1876-01/18/1954), the daughter of Henri Charles Pierre Svoboda and Mary Chanteduc [Mariam, Mari, Menusha]. On 12/19/1895, her father bought her a piano. She married Yousif Yaghchi on 11/21/1898. Their sons and daughters are Philip (01/21/1901-08/19/1918), Mary (b. 08/19/1902), Jano, Robby, and Camille.[JMS-NA16:24; Appendix; JMS-MM42:3; JMS-NA60:171; JMS-NA51:178] بنت
06
.
العم هندري و والدتها و تروزه Taroosa: Theresa [Terousa], the daughter of Fathalla Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. On 02/20/1881, she was married to Razouki, the son of Antone Sayegh, Eliza Jebra Marine's first husband. Razouki's mother was named Catherina. Razouki Sayegh and Terroza Kasperkhan had only one daughter born on 02/14/1882 named Bella. Bella later married Razouki Batta, a shopkeeper in Basrah on 11/17/1907.[JMS-MM23:33; JMS-MM24:79; JMS-MM24:79] و ريجينه Regina: The daughter of Fathalla Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. She married Duncan Alexander, who worked as a clerk on board the S.S.Comet. In 1904, Duncan Alexander was appointed to Bombay with his wife and left Baghdad. They had one son who did not survive infancy, and a daughter named Daisy. [JMS-NA51:25; JMS-NA60:63; JMS-NA51:25 and 60:103] بنات عمه اليزة
07
.
و امرأة الخال انطون مع بناتها روزي Rosie: Rosie Giuseppina (b.03/10/1881) was the daughter of Antone Jebra Marine and Taroosa Hannosh Asfar. "Rosie" is Alexander's nickname for "Rosa". [JMS-MM23:45] و اللن Ellen: Ellen Iranohy Semiramis (b. 02/08/1883) was the daughter of Antone Jebra Marine and Taroosa Hannosh Asfar. In Basrah on 09/11/1907, Ellen was betrothed to Antone Bedroni, a native of Jaffa who was employed in the Russian Agency's Steamers at Bushire. His mother was Syrian and his father, Italian. [JMS-MM25:143; JMS-NA60:183] بدوا يبكون بصوت
08
.
على الم الفرقة و انا هده اول مرة من عمري شفت نفسي هكدا
09
.
حزين من الموادعة و الدموع ما كانت تنقطع ولا دقيقة و المحبة
10
.
التي بينة من نحوهم لي كانت للغاية قوية و ما كنت اظن هكدا
11
.
يحبوني اخيراً صارت ساعة ٤ فرنكيه فطلعت الى الكفشكان
12
.
اخر مره و لبست العكال و الجفية 'Akkal and Kaffiyah: The headscarf [jaffiyah, more commonly known as kaffiyah] worn by Middle Eastern males, which is fastened to the head by a corded loop ('akkāl). و نزلت من كفشكاني
13
.
العزيز اخر مرة و سلمت عليه بقولي Adieu و من يعرف
14
.
متى سأشاهدك مرة الاخره فلما دخلت عند الاهل و لابس
15
.
تكميل حواس الركب ضجوا الجميع بالبكاء فحينذ قام والدي
16
.
و قال لزم نترككم جميعاً فانا مع الوالد و الوالدة بدينا نقبل
17
.
الاهل واحده بعد الأخرة و الدموع هاطلت كالمطر فنزلنا بالحوش
18
.
و هم واقفون بالطارمه يسلمون علينا فدرت عيني و قلت
19
.
اودعكم بالله يا جميع اهلي صلوا و ادعوا لي بالتوفيق و لما
20
.
طلعت من الباب كانوا جميعهم يسلمون علي من الشباك
21
.
فدرت اخر نظري و سلمت عليهم بالكفية اخر مرة و لكن
22
.
العبارات القوية كانت تهطل على خدودي فتوادعت مع
23
.
الاهل و البيت و درت رأسي نحو السوق فبينما كنت
24
.
امشي بالطريق رائحاً الى الجسر Bridge: The Baghdad Bridge. In the last decade of the nineteenth century there were two bridges crossing the Tigris, which connected the two parts of Baghdad: Karkh to the west and Ressafa to the east. The Baghdad Bridge, a very old bridge, was at the center of the town. Upstream was the Aʿzamiya Bridge near to the Bab al-Muʿadhdham formerly known as the Bab Khurasan (the Khurasan Gate), which connected the little town of Kādhimiya [Kāẓimīya] to the district of Mu'adhdham. Both bridges were approximately 200 meters long. The Baghdad bridge was wider, at about 8 meters. They were both pontoon-type bridges consisting of wooden planks laid on barges coated with bitumen and fastened to buoys with iron chains. The modern Baghdad Bridge ordered by the Ottoman governor of Baghdad province, Namık Pasha, was completed in 1902. It was later burnt (1916) by retreating Turkish troops. لقيت الصديق جميل كريكور Jamil Krekor: The son of Kirikor Hanna Koorookchi [Kurukchy]. He travelled from Basrah with his nurse, Mina, on the road to Hudayda on the Red Sea for an appointment as a clerk in the Societe du Tombac. His sister married Artin, the son of Eassayi Elias 'Aysa in 1892. [JMS-NA51:70 and 37:126]

Page 006


01
.
فاصحبني و كانوا معي يصحبونا جميل عبد الكريم شكر الله صايغ Shukrullah Sayegh: Shukrullah [Shekoory] was the son of Antone Sayegh. His father passed away in 1873 and his mother's name was Catherina. Eliza Jebra Marine's first husband Fathalla Sayegh was his uncle. On 02/01/1894, the Armenian priest Phillipus officiated his marriage to Takooyi Eassayi Elias Aysa. Shukrullah's brother was Razouki, who married Theresa, the daughter of Fathallah Kasperkhan and Sophie-Elizabeth Svoboda. [JMS-NA39:30; JMS-MM23:33] و يعقوب
02
.
تيسي Yaqoub Tessy: The son of Hannsoh Tessy (d.02/12/1893), the uncle of Ferida Ghorgis Faraj (d.03/14/1892). Yaqoub Tessy worked for the Lynch Brothers in Baghdad. He married Medula Sayegh, daughter of Fathallah Sayegh and Eliza Jebra Marine on 05/10/1880. [JMS-NA37:27; JMS-MM36-106; JMS-MM22:23] قرين الشقيقة مدوله Medula: Alexander’s half-sister, the oldest of the children of his mother Eliza Jebra Marine and Fathulla Sayegh. This was not Alexander's Aunt Medula. فمشينا على الجسر و كما العم هندري
03
.
كان في مركب خليفه Khalifa: The name of one of Lynch steamships (Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company). It was built with parts from England in Maghil, southern Iraq, and brought up to Baghdad in 1879 by Lynch's agent Mr. Thomas Blockey, the husband of Alexander's Aunt Carolina . لأن يوم ممشاه كان اليوم فطلع على سطح المركب
04
.
و سلم علينا و نحن كذلك الى ان فتنا و عبرنا الجسر و وصلنا الى علاوي Alawi al-Hilla: ʿAlawi al-Ḥilla 33° 20' 0" North, 44° 23' 0" East. This place is in the western part of present day Baghdad. It was known to Joseph Mathia as "al-Alwa" and appeared in a 1908 map of Baghdad as "Alawi al-Hilla". [JMS-MM21:194]
05
.
الحله فهناك كانوا الدواب حاضرين ليأخدونا الى الخر فقربت
06
.
ايضاً موادعت الباقي فقبلنا واحد الآخر و درنا رأسنا نحو الخر و بغداد العزيزه
07
.
بقت ورائنا فدرت رأسي نحو الوطن و قلت اودعكِ يا ارض الاحبة
08
.
يا ارض الاعزاز اي وقت ستكون الملاقات فركبنا الدواب و كانت ساعه
09
.
, فرنكيه فوصلنا الى جسر الخر ساعه ٤٥,٤ و عبرناه و اتينا قليل و شفنا جميع الكروان
10
الخر
حاضر و جادرنا منصوب و الغرضان حوله’ ايضاً جوادر و غرضان كرنل
11
.
مكلر كانت قد اتت ايضاً جوادر عيسى الزهير Issa al-Zuhair: [Zheir] In Joseph Mathia's diaries, is the son of Abdullah Zhair and the brother of Salih Abdullah Zhair. The Zhair family lived in the walled city of Zobeir and were known for their political role during the Ottoman rule of Iraq and their titles of "Sheikh", "Bey", and "Pasha". [JMS-MM13:45, 29:59, 27:96] الدي سافر معنا
12
.
الى الشام مع ولده الصغير عبد الله ليضعه في المدرسة فدخلنا في الجادر و استراحينا
13
.
لكن انا كنت كثير محصور على الفرقة لأن هده اول مرة نزلت بي
14
.
فصبرت نفسي و اتكلت على الرب لأن من الاحتصار لا فائدة
15
.
فبعد ان وصلنا عجبني اكتب كم سطر الى عزيزتي لويز و اخبرها على شده احتصاري
16
.
بمفارقتها فطلعت من جنطتي الكاغد و القلم و كتبت كم سطر فقبل الغروب
17
.
بنصف ساعه رأيت كرنل مكلر اتي مع البايسكل Bicycle: To be completed. و وراه اتيين مسس
18
.
مكلر Mrs. Mockler: Mrs. Mockler was the daughter of Colonel Edward Charles Ross, the chief political resident of the Persian Gulf for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the Trucial States (1872-1891). During Colonel Mockler's service at the British Residency at Basrah, Mrs. Mockler delivered a child on board the mail steamer as she was traveling to Bushire (06/1885). [JMS-MM28:7] و مس تانر Tanner: 'Miss Tanner'. We have no references for her. She was most likely an employee of the British Residency. مع الخال انطون فبعد ان نزلوا اتى عندنا الخال انطون
19
.
و مسكناه على العشي و النوم فبعد الغروب بكم دقيقة اتى الينا من
20
.
البلد جاني ابن العمة اليزه و حقيقة كثير فرحت لما رأيته أتي من الاهل
21
.
فبقي عندنا هده الليلة و تعشينا جميعاً سويةً و نمنا لكن لم قدرنا
22
.
ابداً لأن كنا ملبوكين و ليس مترهدنين بعد فجاني نام
23
.
في التختروان و الخال على الزوليه و عليه العبي و هدا اخر
24
.
يوم نحن قريب بغداد لأن بكره سنقوم ساعه ٨ فرنكيه كما صار القرار مع
25
.
كرنل مكلر و نروح الى اولقوناغ

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01
.
تركان البلد و السفر من الخر

02
.


03
نيسان ١٦
اليوم قمنا من الفجر و جميعنا سهرانين من هده الليلة الملعونة
04
.
فبعد ان شربنا الجاي سمعنا بان مركب خليفه سيفوت من
05
.
علينا و شفنا دخانه من بعد فحالاً سرعنا نحو الشط و شفنا المركب
06
.
اتي و في الحال رأينا ارتين ابن العمة اليزة ايضاً قد جاء من بغداد
07
.
الينا فلما فات المركب العم هندري كان واقف و يسلم علينا
08
.
و نحن كذلك الى ان غاب النظر فلما صارت ساعه ٨ فرنكيه
09
.
نزلنا الجوادر و شدوا الحمال و هيئوا الكروان فشالوا تخترواننا
10
.
و لازم الآن نقعد به فوضعوا الدرج من خشب على بابه و طلعت
11
.
الوالدة و كذلك انا و قعدنا به و هده اول مره من عمري و زماني
12
.
قعدت في التختروان فجميع الكروان صار حاضر و تهيئنا على المشي
13
.
و اتكلنا على الله و مشي بنا التخت و الكروان ورائنا يجي و جاني
14
.
و ارتين و الخال ايضاً مصحبينا فبعد مشي نصف ساعه اتى الخال نحونا و وقفنا
15
.
التخت و نزل من على الدابه و اتى يتوادع معنا لأن لازم يرجع للبلد
16
.
سريعاً فبعد ما توادعنا جرت عيونا دموعاً على الفرقة و سقنا البغال
17
.
و الجول هنا جميعه يابس و لازمه مطر فبعد ما فتنا مقدار ساعة -,٢
18
.
كانت بغداد بعد تليء لنا و مناير الكاظم Minarets: These are the minarets of al-Kadhim/al-Kadhimiya [al-Kāẓim/al-Kāẓimīya] (also Persian: Mashhad-e Kāzimiya), a Shi’ite religious shrine in Baghdad with two gilded domes. Originally the burial place of the Imam Mūsā ibn Jaʿafar al-Kāẓim, the seventh imam of the Twelver Shi’a, who died in 799. Since then the shrine became a pilgrimage site for the Shi'ite community and a town grew round the graveyard, known as the Kādhimiya. In 835, the ninth imam, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī at-Tāḳī al-Jawād was also buried by the side of his grandfather. Hence the name Kāẓimayn (Kadhimayn), referring to the two Kāẓims (the enduring ones). A noted school of theology was founded in this town and it is still a source of learning. The present shrine dates back to the 16th century. The gold tiles for the two cupolas were provided by the Iranian Shah Agha Muhammad Khan in 1796. It is said that al-Manṣūr, the second Abbasid Caliph (754-775) ordered the construction of a graveyard here, on the west side of the Tigris, adjacent to his famous round city of Baghdad. His eldest son Jaʿfar al-Akbār was the first to be buried here in 767. The graveyard was also known as the Quraysh (Ḳurayş) cemetery and the western part of the mosque was known as the Sahn Quraysh (Ṣaḥn Ḳurayş—the Court of the Quraysh). Up until the early 20th century, the main language of the Kāẓimayn was Persian. ايضاً تبان من بعد فتوادعت اخيراً
19
.
من بعد مع البلد الى ان غاب نظرنا من كل علامة بغداد ية فلما صار ساعه ١١ فرنكيه
20
.
جاني مع ارتين ايضاً توادعوا معنا و هولأ كانوا الاخرين الذي اصحبونا
21
.
الى هنا فعطيت ٣ مكاتيب الى ارتين واحد الى الويز و واحد الى العزيز
22
.
الصديق جاني بهلوان Johnny Pahlawan: The son of Yaqoub Pahlawan (nd) and Farida (nd). The Pahlawan family were neighbors of Joseph Mathia. In 1906, he was the agent of the Ottoman Bank of Basrah and the following year, he transferred to the Mosul branch. [JMS-NA59:45, 183] والآخر الى الصديق انطوان جوليتي Antoine Guilietti: The son of the French superintendent and inspector of the Turkish Telegraph line. Mr.Guilietti was responsible for erecting and inspecting telegraph lines along the Tigris River, especially in southern Iraq from Baghdad to Basrah. His family settled in Baghdad and were friends with the Svoboda family. [JMS-MM26:186; JMS-MM42:23]
23
.
و بينت لهم عظم كدري على فرقتهم فمشينا وحدنا و قطعنا اراضي

Page 008


01
ابو غريب
و اجوال و اوعار و ساعه -,١٢ صرنا قبال عكركوف Akarkuf: A prominent landmark located in the desert of Southern Mesopotamia, situated about nine miles to the northwest beyond the town of Baghdad near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers. It is thought to be the remains of a ziggurat (Babylonian pyramid) that marks the site of the 14th century (BCE) Kassite city of Dur Kurigalzu. Originally a huge tower of more than fifty meters in height on a 70 X 68 meters base, only the base remains today with the inner mud-brick core rising above it. من اليمين
02
.
و فتناه و الى ساعه -,٢ كان يبان لنا اخيراً نغطاء Dot: The word translated as "dot" here is problematic. The Arabic is clearly written as n-gh-ṭ-a-' [nuġṭāʾ] but no such word appears to exist in either literary Arabic or the dialects. The closest match is the form n-gh-ṭ [nuġuṭ] found in several standard dictionaries of classical Arabic including the Lisānu’l-ʿArab and al-Ḳāmūsu’l-Muḥīṭ [http://www.baheth.info] with the meaning "tall persons". We know that Alexander would have had an excellent education in classical Arabic at the Carmelite School in Baghdad, which boasted such outstanding teachers as the noted philologist Père Anastas and it is somewhat remotely possible that he might have retained a vague memory of a classical term that he for some unknown reason wrote with the added alif and hamza. Indeed the receding sight of Akarkuf might have resembled a "tall person". However, given the context we have leaned toward the very tentative conclusion that Alexander was rendering his pronunciation of the word nuḳṭa in the meaning of "dot". When nuḳṭa is used in the sense of a "police post" he spells it correctly but it is possible that when it means "dot" he thinks of it as a different word which he renders phonetically [nuġṭā’]. و لم نزل نراه بعد
03
.
فسقنا الدواب و انا تارة انزل اركب من بدل والدي
04
.
و تارة امشي و ثم اركب في التخت الاراضي للغاية تريد مطر و بعض احيان
05
.
نفوت خييم عرب و جميع عرب هده الاراضي هم الزوبع al-Zobaʿ: One of the three main branches—with the Abda and Aslam—of the Shammar tribal confederation which migrated to Iraq from the northern Najd in the 17th century and became a major power in the Jazīra up to Mosul. Alois Musil says of them, "The Zōbaʿ are descendents of the Ṭajj (Ṭayy) tribe. Their main camping ground lies between al-Mahmūdijje, Abu Ḥunta (Ḥabba), and the highroad from al-Felluǧe to Baghdad." [ME, 127] و بعض
06
.
من الاراضي مزروعه زرع ديم و بين كل ساعتين نفوت قليل
07
.
من بعض اجوال مخضره و تلول ناصية و في ساعه ٢ فتنا ايمام صغير
08
.
عن بعد على اليسره و قريب منه بير ماء و ساعه -,٢ عبرنا من على كنطره
09
.
صغيره و تحتها نهر رفيع يجري من شط الفرات فوقفنا و شربنا منه
10
.
قليل و بعض من الاوادم غسلوا به فبعد نصف ساعه وصلنا على ايمام
11
.
اكبر من الاول و يسموه ايمام ابو ظاهر الحمود Imam Abu Zahir al-Hamud [İmām Abū Ẓāhir al-Ḥ’mūd] It is common in Iraq that imam (prayer leader) means "shrine" and does not necessarily refer to the title or occupation of the person named. This is probably the tomb of Ḥ’mūd ibn Ṯāmer (Ḳabr Ḥ’mūd), who was chief of the Muntafiq tribe early in the 19th century. The reference to the Mutafiq tribe conflicts with information from Joseph Svoboda's diaries. [ME, 127] و صرنا قريبين من اول
12
.
قوناغ اعني ابو غريب Abu Ghrayb: The name of one part of Baghdad, located to the west of the city center. The old road to Jordan passed through Abu Ghrayb. The city of Abu Ghrayb was established by the Government of Iraq in 1934. فاخيراً وصلنا على ارض حصو و صرنا قبال نقطة تسمى
13
.
عنبار السنيه Sanniya: The sannīya lands refers to land held personally by the sultan, "crown lands." Here Alexander may be referring to a building that preceded what Musil calls the "Ḫān as-Seniyye". [ME, 126] بها كم زابطيه لمحافضة العنبار الذي به طعامات السنيه
14
.
فاستخيرنا هده الارض و وقفنا الكروان و نزلوا الحمول و نصبوا
15
.
الجوادر و كانت ساعه =,٣ فرنكيه و هده الارض ايضاً تسمى
16
.
ابو غريب كرواننا يحتوي على خمسين دابه و ٣ تختروانات
17
.
فبعد ان نزلنا هنا و ترهدنا اخدت القلم لأكتب ما سبق
18
.
و بعد ان خلصت الكتابة استراحيت قليل بالتمديد و لما صار الغروب
19
.
كنا نسمع من كل الاطراف صوت الطراج الذي حسه كثير لطيف
20
.
و يبان كثير يوجد هنا منه فاغتنمت الفرصة و كتبت كم سطر
21
.
كتاب الى الاهل و خبرتهم عن صحتنا و على احتصاري من مفارقتهم و غير
22
.
شيء و اعتمدت ان ارسله’ مع اولاد النواب Nawwab: Literally means "representative". Joseph Mathia's diaries repeatedly refer to the "nawwab and his sons" for Nawwab Ahmad Agha. The Nawwab bought the Gerara garden and socialized with Joseph Mathia's family and other foreign diplomats, traders, etc. [JMS-NA51:10, 59:168 and 60:82] الذين ساروا
23
.
معنا الى الفلوجه Falluja: A town of ancient origin near to the Euphrates on the main west road about 69 km from present day Baghdad. At the time of Alexander’s journey much of the land around Fallujah was owned by the Kouyoumdjian brothers, Kerop and Hagop, who seem to have been acquaintances of the Svobodas. For an unpublished history of the Kouyoumdjians, see http://courses.washington.edu/otap/svoboda/public/kouyoumdjian/index.html . لأجل القنص بالطير فالغروب تعشينا من وقت
24
.
و نمنا ليلتنا لأننا كنا تعبانين من مشي الكروان

Page 009


01
نيسان ١٧
اليوم قمنا صباحاً و رأينا نهار للغايه بهج مع هواء غربي
02
ابو غريب
بارد و هده الليلة كانت كثير بارده تقريباً تشبه ليالي الشتاء
03
.
و في نصف الليل مطرة قليل لكن الصباح كان لطيف مع صحو و بينما كنا
04
.
في الجادر اتى تامي دكستر Tommy Dexter: Tom Dexter has a long history in Iraq. Captain R. E. Cheeseman (of the Secretariat of the High Commissioner for ʿIraq) in his 1923 article "A History of Steamboat Navigation on the Upper Tigris" related a story that he received "first hand" from Tom Dexter, who was a dragoman at the British Residecy in Baghdad at the time of writing (1922). According to Cheeseman’s account, a steamer named the Comet was built in Bombay to replace a steamer by the same name which had sailed out of Basrah since 1852. Tom Dexter was, at the time, a 17 year-old apprentice at the Bombay dockyard. He was assigned to the post of engine-driver on the Comet’s trial voyage. Because he was a member of the foreign community in Baghdad of English and Armenian parentage, he was sent with the ship when it traveled to Baghdad in 1885. Shortly thereafter he served on it during an adventuresome exploratory journey up the Tigris to Mosul. Of the many amusing stories he related to Captain Cheeseman, we will cite just one, which has especial relevance to Alexander Svoboda’s journey in the company of the colorful Dexter. Cheeseman writes: "On one occasion, seeing a band of mounted Arabs in the distance, Dexter thought a visit on a bicycle might impress them. Mounting his 54 inch bicycle he went out to meet them dressed in his white uniform. The effect was not exactly that desired. The whole cavalcade turned and put their horses into a gallop, and nothing could be seen of the column but flying dust and gravel. Doubtless the unfamiliar outline had been sufficient and the mirage had done the rest." Subsequently a rumor reached the ship that a long thin white jinn (Ar. spirit) haunted the lands of Waush-haush, that was three times as high as a man and could travel faster than a horse. The bicycle afterwards became famous, and visitors from distant tribes came in from afar to see for themselves this wonder of machinery. At the time he accompanied the Svobodas and Colonel Mockler on their journey, Tom Dexter would have been 29 years old and may have been working for the Lynch Brothers as was Alexander’s father. It is also possible that the bicycle that accompanied the caravan and amused Alexander, was similar to or the same as Dexter’s famous machine. [Cheeseman, The Geographical Journal Vol. 61, No. 1, Jan. 1923, 27-34; Navigation, 32] الذي مع كرنل مكلر و قال بأن كرنل مكلر
05
.
يقول ما يقدر يمشي هدا النهار لأن مسس مكلر ما عندها كيف و لازم
06
.
يكسر هدا النهار هنا فحقيقة كثير احتصرنا من هده الخبريه لأننا كنا مصممين
07
.
ان نسافر الى الفلوجه في هدا النهار فاختصبنا اخيراً ان نطيع هدا الامر
08
.
فانا طلبت من كرنل مكلر ان اركب قليل البايسكل فاخدته و كنت اتعلم
09
.
عليه فتارة اوقع و تارة امشي عليه و هده اول مره من عمري اني مجرب
10
.
نفسي على البايسكل فبقيت اتعلم عليه لمقدار ساعه و شفت نفسي كثير
11
.
خفيف و مقدار ١٠ مراة مشيت وحدي عليه من دون مساعده لكن بعد ان
12
.
نزلت حسيت جميع اعظامي مهشمه و تعبان الى اخر درجة لكن
13
.
اظن مع الوقت اتعلم على ركبه فاختصبنا ان نقضي هدا النهار هنا ففي
14
.
ساعه ٩ فرنكيه رحنا جميعاً الى عنبار السنيه الذي مخيمين قباله’ و درنا
15
.
به و هو له سطح كبير و كم عنبار به مونة السنيه فبعد الفطور زارنا
16
.
شيخ ظاهر الحمود و قعد عندنا بالجادر و هو ابن صاحب الايمام الذي فتناه
17
.
البارحه ساعه ٣ فرنكيه بعد الظهر و يبان هدا الشيخ هو عاقل و حكيم
18
.
و عمره تقريب ٨٠ سنة كما هو قال لنا فقدمناله تمر البصره و أكل منه و طلب
19
.
مننا دواء العيون الى ابنه الذي هو ارمد فعطيناه كم تركه Remedy: The Arabic here gives the letters t-r-k-h for which the various possibilities include "something left behind, abandoned, the property of a deceased person". None of these make much sense in context. Our tentative suggestion is that Alexander intends the word tiryak/tiryaki which is a theriaca (antidote, cure-all, medicinal compound, remedy). He may also be representing the European term "theriaca" in Arabic characters as he has done in other cases. و بعد نصف
20
.
ساعة ركب و رجع الى اهله و راد يشوف كرنل مكلر لكن كان بالصيد و هكدا
21
.
ذهب من دون ان يشوفه ففي ساعه ١ بعد الظهر رجع كرنل
22
.
مكلر من الصيد و معه ١٢ ضراجه و كان يقنص مقدار ٥ ساعات فجاء
23
.
خادمه و معه ضراجتين لنا لكن كثير ضعيف لأن الآن في هدا الوقت
24
.
ما يصيدوه من طرف يبيض و كثير لحمه يصير خفيف فبعد ان

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01
.
قمة من النوم و كانت ساعه ٣ شربت الجاي و ثم طلعت ادور
02
.
قليل بالجول و الغروب اتى عندنا كرنل مكلر و رجع الى
03
.
جوادره بعد نصف ساعه
04
نيسان ١٨
صباح لطيف مبهج مع صحو و برد هده اليلة كانت
05
.
بارده ازود من البارحة فمثل ما صممنا البارحه بعد شروب
06
.
الشاي اعني ساعه ٧ فرنكيه تهيأ الكروان للمشي الى قوناغ
07
الفلوجه
الثاني فحضر كل شيء و مشينا و هدا النهار تقليب النفس
08
.
الذي كنت احس به بالتختروان قل من احسن و سرنا بين
09
.
اراضي لطيفه مورده بورد اصفر تقريب الجميع من ابو اغريب
10
.
جميع الاراضي متروسه بالحصو كبار و صغار و السحاب Plains: [al-saḥāb] We were unable to find a direct reference for the word al-saḥāb with any meaning that makes sense. The usual meaning (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman) of "clouds, cloud" is not tenable here. Our conjecture is that Alexander has confused and conflated s-ḥ-b with s-h-b which in the form sahb, suhūb means "level country, plains", which fits the sense of the passages in which it is used بلاط عدل
11
.
و من هنا بدت الجوال بالارتفاع قليلاً و ثم تخفيضاً و في ساعه
12
.
٢٥, ٩ فتنا على اليسار تل صغبر و عليه قبر مبني عليه الجص الابيض
13
.
و في ساعه ٢٥,١٢ الظهر وصلنا قرية الفلوجّة و من بعد نصف
14
.
ساعه كانت تبان لنا و هي مبنية على شط الفرات و بها مقدار ٤٠٠ ٠
15
.
الى ٥٠٠ نفس مع قهوات ٣ و خانين و بيت صغير يخص كاظم باشا Kadhim Pasha: (nd) The Turkish commander of the troops. Toward the end of 1892, Joseph Mathia mentioned Kadhim Pasha and the troops went in pursuit of Sayhood of the Elbu Muhammad in the marshes south of Iraq. Seyhood's Arabs attacked the Lynch Brothers' Khalifa steamship in 07/08/1880. Kadhim Pasha possessed a palace on the western side of the Baghdad. Built around 1875, the palace was known as Khadim Pasha's palace after the brother in-law of the last Ottoman Sultan who resided there as a political detainee. It was purchased by Sir Arnold Wilson to provide offices for the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox and remained in British hands until 1932, when the League of Nations took it as their headquarters in Baghdad. [JMS-MM25:126, 36:151, 22:64; The British Embassy - Baghdad]
16
.
و ازود الاراضي هنا مشتريها كاظم باشا و كيروب اغا Kerop Agha: (1846-1902) The son of Mardiros Narutiun Kouyoumidkian by his first wife. Kerop's grandfather was an Armenian from Izmir. Both his father and grandfather were goldsmiths. His wife was Maritza, and they had three daughters (Vergin, Shoushan, and Eva) and three sons (Kaloust, Misag, and Harutiun). In 1890, Kerop worked for Messrs. Gulbenkian who had substantial businesses in Istanbul. In 1892, he represented their holdings in Baghdad.[The Kouyoumdjians - A History and reminiscences compiled and written by J. Kouyoumdjian] فوصلنا على
17
.
جسرها و عبرناه و هو يحوي على ٢٥ سفينة مقيره و ليس عريض
18
.
فهده اول مره من عمري شفت شط الفرات من هكذا اماكن
19
.
فلما وصل الكروان كرنل مكلر قال الأحسن نستريح هنا مقدار
20
.
ساعه و نأكل التفن Tiffin: Transcribed as t-f-n in the Arabic text. A usage popularized in British India with the meaning "lunch" or "a light meal/snack". و ثم نمشي مقدار كم ساعه لأن قوناغ الثالث هو
21
.
بعيد لمقدار ١٠ ام ١٢ ساعه مع التختروانات فرضينا بذلك و بعد ان
22
.
اكلنا شيء جزئي ارتحلنا كذلك من الفلوجه قاصدين نصف درب
23
.
ثالث قوناغ و كانت ساعة ٢٠‪,‬١ بعد الظهر و هنا الاراضي نديه للغايه
24
.
و ازودها اهوار و ليست يابسة مثل اجوال الصباح وفي ساعه ٢

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01
سن الذبان
فرنكيه فتنا قريب من كم عرق تحتوي على ٢٤ نخله و ٤ عروق
02
.
تين و عرق تكي و يسمون هدا المكان بستان ام العصافير و من
03
.
هنا بدينا كل خمس دقائق نعبر على كنطرات منها عاليه و منها ناصية
04
.
و هنا الاجوال بدت بالخضار و العشب هنا كثير و الاراضي
05
.
تشبه اراضي المعدان Miʿdan/ Maʿdan: The so-called "Marsh-Arabs", who dwelt in the swamps around Basrah and in the vicinity of Amara. Led by powerful local sheikhs, they generally remained independent of the Ottoman Government and the Bedouin tribes of Iraq. They raised large herds of water buffalo and sheep and, on occasion, raided shipping traveling up the Euphrates. بجانب البصره و في ساعه ٥,٣ فتنا
06
.
قبال من اليمين نخل الصكلاوية al-Saklawiya: [al-Ṣaklawiya] In Joseph Mathia's diaries (ca. 1872-1876), the Saklawiya was the name of a canal connecting the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Saklawiya canal branched from the Euphrates a few miles above the village of Falluja upstream carrying river water to the Tigris, entering the town of Baghdad to the south through the Masʿūdī canal that encircles the Western parts of Baghdad. The canal was closed in 1883 and by the early 19th century its bed was used as farmland. In his account of a 1912 journey along the Euphrates, Alois Musil twice refers to "the settlement of as-Saḳlāwiyye". This is likely the site referred to by Alexander in his journal.[JMS-MM15:9; JMS-MM12:33; ME, pp. 151-152] و اليسار تلول صغار و من بعد
07
.
يقدر واحد يرأ لمع الصخور مثل فصوص الالماز اخيراً بعد ١٠
08
.
دقائق وصلنا الى مستقرنا و خيمنا على شط الفرات قبال التلول
09
.
و هدا المكان اسمه سن الدبان لأن هنا يوجد تل الاول
10
.
و هو اول واحد من بغداد الى هنا فبعد ان نصبنا الجوادر كانت
11
.
ساعه ٥ و قريب الغروب و هنا السحاب لطيف
12
.
و اليوم من الصباح صحتي كثير تغيرت و صار معي نشله قوية
13
.
و في الغروب صرت آتعس من النهار و نرأ الى غداً كيف أصير
14
.
فبعد العشاء نمت حالاً و صار الوعد بأن غداً نروح رأساً الى
15
.
الرمادي al-Ramādī: [ar-Ramadi, ar-Rumādī] The name of a town to the northwest of Baghdad on the Euphrates River. It was founded and built in 1869 by the Ottoman Wali of Baghdad Midḥat Pasha (1869-1872) to control the nomadic Dulaim (Dulaym/D'laim) tribes of the region, but it also proved to be an important stopping point along the caravan route between Baghdad and the Levant. al-Ramadi is the capital of al-Anbar province in Iraq and most its inhabitants are Sunni Muslims from the Dulaim tribe. Alois Musil’s account of his 1912 journey describes ar-Ramādī as a "wealthy settlement of about fifteen hundred inhabitants" with extensive land holdings. It also had a population of some 150 Jews who had their own synagogue. [ME, 33] ثالث قوناغ
16
نيسان ١٩
صباح بارد للغاية مع هواء شرقي قوي و هده
17
.
الليلة قضيتها اتعس الليالي لأن من الغروب اتتني صخونه الى الصباح
18
.
و الليل كان ابرد ما يكون و الى طلع الفجر اني كنت بعداب و في
19
.
ساعه ٧ تهيأ الكروان للمشي و كما يوجد بجانبنا تل سن
20
.
الدبان عجبني كثير ان اروح اطلع عليه فاخدت حالاً الحصان
21
.
و مع الضابطيه رحت و سقت نحو التل فوصلته بعد نصف ساعه
22
.
و ردت اصعد عليه انا و الحصان لكن كان غير قابل فنزلت من على الدابه
23
.
و سلمتها بيد الضابطيه و طلعت عليه و هو تقريباً ٣٠ متراً عالي فحبيت
24
.
اوقف فوق و أتني الكروان فبعد نصف ساعه بين الكروان

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01
رمادي
و في رأسه كرنل مكلر و التفاكه و بما انا كنت قاعد على القمة غير متحرك
02
.
و لابس هدوم بلون التل و رأسي فقط اسود بعد النزول من
03
.
عليه خبرني كرنل مكلر بأن قدر عظيم فاتني الآن لأنه لما نطرني
04
.
عن بعد توهم رأسي بطير و اخد التفك الرصاص ليضرب الصيده
05
.
و بقدرته تعالى تحركت ونزلت’ في تلك الدقيقة عينها الذي
06
.
كان بها يريد يضرب فبعد نزولي شكرت الباري على هده
07
.
القضية الكروان مشي من منزل البارحة ساعه ٧ و بعد
08
.
ساعتين ركب على الدابه حبيت اركب التختروان و في ساعه ٩
09
.
تلاقيت مع ٤ اوادم داهبين الى بغداد فحالاً عرفت واحد منهم و هو
10
.
اسغاء Realtor: The Arabic word "sagha", "سغاء" is unclear in the diary. Alexander used it to refer to a leasing agent. In the handwritten diary, the غ and the ق are easily confused. Joseph Mathia used "سقاء" with a "qaf" to mean water carrier. [JMS-MM61:4] في بغداد فترجيته ان يقف لأكتب كم سطر الى بغداد فحالاً
11
.
طلعت الجزدان و كتبت كذا اهلنا العزيز كيفنا كثير مليح ممشانا
12
.
تقيل نحن ما بين فلوجه و رمادي ادعوا لنا بالخير الراعي اسكندر " ) و ارسلتها
13
.
معه وركبت ثانيهً و هنا الاراضي جميعها يابسة ليست لطيفة ابداً
14
.
و سلسلة التلول ابداً ما انقطعت و دائماً نحن نمشي قريب منها على
15
.
اليسار و ساعه ١٠ فتنا على اليمين كم قبر مقدار ١٢ لكن متفرقة عن
16
.
بعضها و هنا فتنا اول مره من بغداد الى هنا تحت تيل التلكراف Telegraph: To be completed. و بقينا
17
.
نمشي حواليه الى مقدار ٣ ساعات و في ساعه ١١ فتنا على اليسار بداخل
18
.
التل ايمام كبير و يوجد به قبة كانوا بها كم عربي و يسمى الايمام
19
.
شيخ مسعود Sheikh Mas'oud: Musil mentions "the little sanctuary" of Sheikh Masʿūd located on the bluffs above the ruins of al-Bārūd on the outskirts of al-Ramādī. [ME, 34] و بعد ممشى كثير وصلنا اخيراً ساعه ٢ بعد الظهر قرية
20
.
الرمادي و دخلنا من باب الشمال و طلعنا بعد نصف ساعه من
21
.
باب الجنوب و مشينا بين البيوت و جميعها مبنية
22
.
من طين فقط يوجد كم بيت من حجار و هده القرية كثير اكبر

Page 013


01
.
من الفلوجه يمكن بخمس مرات و بها مقدار ٦٠٠ نفس فلما وصلنا
02
.
تاليها عبرنا نهر صغير بعرض ٨ ادرع Cubit: The cubit (dirāʿ) is a measurement of length. In Baghdad, the cubit is equivalent to 75 centimeters. There is a cubit of Aleppo at 68 cm and a cubit of Persia. و يسموها العزيزيه و خيمنا على
03
.
جرفها من طرف الجول و في دخولنا الى الرمادي جميع
04
.
اهل القرية طلعت من بيوتها يتفرجون علينا و صرنا فرجة للجميع
05
.
و انا كنت بهكدا درجة منحرف المزاج حتى ان رأسي كان ينشلع من
06
.
الوجع و لما نصبوا خيمتنا حالاً اخدت’ جأي و نمت لمقدار كم وقت
07
.
و هدا الغروب كان الهواء عالي جداً مع غيم و عج و مساء
08
.
مزعج الى آخر درجة و انا قطعياً ما حبيت هدا منزلنا اخر بعد
09
.
العشاء حالاً نمت و هنا القائمقام Qaʾim maqam: [Ḳāʾim-maḳām, qā’imaḳam] Established during the Ottoman "Tanzimat" (reform, reorganization) period in the late 19th century, the qaʾim maqam was the highest administrative official of a sub-district appointed by the district governor and confirmed by the provincial governor. He handled all administrative and financial affairs of the sub-district, including taxation and policing. رسل لنا ضابطيه بعد الغروب لتحرسنا
10
.
في الليل لأن المكان مخطر و صممنا بأن غداً نسافر من
11
.
هنا الى نصف درب الهيت al-Hit: First mentioned in accounts of a visit by the Assyrian king Tukulti Enurta II in 885 BCE. At that time it was known as Īd and later as Īs, Iskara, and Ispolis, all of which are thought to be related to words for "bitumen". The town is mentioned by writers from Herotodus to Talmudic and Arab sources. Musil, in his account of a 1912 visit, describes al-Hit as follows: "The dark brown buildings of the town of al-Hit cover from top to bottom a yellowish cone about thirty meters high. The largest and tallest houses are on the east side, where also stands the old mosque with the leaning minaret. A broad street divides the town on the cone from the khans and warehouses at its southwestern foot. Between the suburb and the gardens of ad-Dawwāra are ovens for melting and refining bitumen. al-Hit has about five thousand inhabitants, two-thirds of whom come from the Dlejm [Dulaym] tribe and only about a fifth from the ʿAḳejl [ʿAḳeyl]. The houses are usually two stories high, the streets narrow, crooked and dirty, as they are washed only during the copious winter rains. Above the houses rises the tall minaret. Among the inhabitants are numerous Jewish families who have lived there from time immemorial… The principal occupations of the inhabitants are gathering bitumen and naphtha, quarrying stone, gardening, and building boats (şaḫātīr)… The ground in the vicinity of al-Hit consists of yellow limestone, covered with a thick layer of roughly crystallized gypsum, from which issue many springs with salt or somewhat bitter water, the latter smelling of sulfur. From these springs various gasses escape, which form large bubbles. The bitumen flowing to the surface resembles dirty scum. The salt surrounded by rosy-tinged slime settles on the edges of the springs." [ME, 27-28] اي مقدار ٤ ام خمس ساعات
12
نيسان ٢٠
اليوم صبحت للغاية مزعجة مع هواء غربي قوي
13
.
مثل ما لازم و الطراب و الطوز عمانا و الجو مغيم مختبط فبعد
14
.
ان شربت الجاي حسيت بأن نفسي صارت كثير أحسن
15
.
من البارح و ذلك من طرف لما نمت امس اخدت منكاسة ورد النوشة Nousha flower: [(Ar.) ward an-nūsha] It is unclear what Alexander means by 'nousha flower', as we have not been able to find a native speaker who recognises it. Nousha is typhoid fever in Arabic and this may refer to a flower used in an infusion to reduce fever. It is also possible that he is (also) reflecting or recreating the common word for violet in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, banafsha which in Kurdish speaking areas is pronounced wanawsha.
16
.
ففي ساعه -,٧ رأينا كروان كبير جاي من الحلب ورائح الى
17
.
بغداد و في اخره تختروان واحد به ٣ انفوس ولدين و امراة
18
.
لكن سمراء اللون فحبيت ارسل مع هدا الكروان كم سطر
19
.
كتاب الى الاهل فطلبت من عكامنا ان يسأل انكان يوجد
20
.
واحد يعرفه ليسلم له الكتاب فرجع و قال لاحضر الاسطر فحالاً
21
.
قعدت و كتبت على الكارت فيزيت رمادي صباح الثلاثا
22
.
نيسان ٢٠ لاهلنا العزاز جميعنا صحتنا عال انشاءالله انتم

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01
شريعة ابو رايات
كذلك بعد ساعه نمشي من هنا الى الهيت ادعوا لنا بالخير نقبلكم جميعاً المشتاق
02
.
لكم اسكندر ) ووضعته في مغلف و ارسلته حالاً مع عنوان الخال انطون
03
.
و ثم لبيت زبويده بغداد و لما صارت ساعه ٨ تحضرنا للمشي لكن
04
.
كرنل مكلر دهب الى اللولاية ليأخد كم فوتغراف و لما رجع صارت ساعه ٨
05
.
فحالاً مشينا من الرمادي قاصدين نصف درب هيت فسقنا الكروان
06
.
ساعه ٨ و ساعه ٩ وصلنا على اليمين في مكان به كم نخله مقدار ٣٠
07
.
واحده وهدا المكان يسموه بستان ابو اجحيش Ajhaysh: A tribe of the Al BuJamel/BuKamil confederation. و من هنا بدينا
08
.
نمشي بين التلول و الاوعار و الارض جميعها حصو و عرب هده
09
.
الاماكن يسموها عرب الدليم al-Dulaym: [D'laym] A Sunnī tribe of Iraq made up of both nomadic and sedentary populations inhabiting a large area in the Jazīra along the Euphrates from Fallūjah to al-Ḳāʾim. و على اليسار فتنا تلول تسمى الطاش
10
.
و ساعه ٤٥‪,‬١١ فتنا في وسط وادي طييق كثير و هدا اول وادي
11
.
فتناه و اسمه وادي اعكبهAkbah: Alexander writes the name of this "valley" as اعكبه [a-'-k-b-h] which we believe refers to the rocky ridge called al-ʿOḳoba that forms one side of this valley [wādī]. [Musil, ME, 32 and 158] مال ويس القرَّني و ممشاه مقدار ١٥ دقيقة
12
.
و لما طلعناه فتنا على اليمين ايمام ويس القرَّني Imam Wais al-Qarrani: Musil mentions "the little shrine of al-Imâm al-Uwîs" who is likely Alexander’s Wais al-Qarrani. [ME, 33] و هنا لحقنا عربي
13
.
اختيار يطلب صدقه لصاحب الايمام فعطيناه شيء و الآن بدينا نمشي
14
.
بين رمول يابسه و الهواء الذي قتلنا هذا الصباح في الدرب
15
.
الى هنا قل لله الحمد و في ساعه -,×١ بعد الظهر وصلنا على شاطي
16
.
الفرات مكان الذي نخيم به الى غداً و هدا المكان يسموه شريعة
17
.
ابو رايات Shariat Abu Rayat: [Şarīʿat Abū Rayāt] Musil describes this place as "…the farm and khan of Abu Rajjāt, where there are several small ponds filled with water from the Euphrates." A şarīʿa is a pond or watering hole or the flat land surrounding a pond. [ME, 32] و لما نزلنا الحمول و نصبنا الخييم على حافي الشاطي رأيناه
18
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مكان للغاية لطيف و مبهج و يشبه شواطي كراره Gerara: [Gherara, Gherrarah, Gherareh] In the late nineteenth century, Gerara was the name of a garden on the Tigris river bank to the southeast of Baghdad. The garden was private property, walled, and frequented by local and foreign dignitaries such as Nawwab Ahmad Agha, who owned the gardens during Joseph Mathia's lifetime. [JMS-MM30:131,132] لكن كثير الطيف و احسن
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و الخضار دايرنا و الكرود Jerd: Waterlifts [kard, pl. kurūd/kroud, also cherd/çerd]. A kind of waterlift that employs a draft animal going down an inclined path pulling a rope over a pulley. The pulley is on top of an upright pole and the rope is attached to a cow skin or goatskin sack or bucket that draws water from the river and empties it on land. The kard of Mesopotamia resembles the sakya of Egypt. قبالنا في داك الصوب و الهواء صار ايضاً
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كثير بارد و نسيم عال و هده اول مره نزلنا في هكدا مكان هكدا
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حسن لكن وقت الغروب كثير بق بدي يعض و النكرص
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ايضاً اتعس و على ما يبان أن هده الليله ستكون
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ملعونة مثل ما لازم

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01
نيسان ٢١
صباح بارد و هو غربي لطيف لكن ليلة التي انقضت
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كانت متعسه لأن الحشرات و النجرص قتلني كل الليل و ما
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قدرت انام قطعيا و هكذا قمت الصباح من دون غفي فبعد
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ان شربنا الجاي تهيئنا للمشي فحضر الكروان و انا ركبت الحصان
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مع الضابطيه و رحت قدام الجميع بنصف ساعه لأن ممشي التخت كثير
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تقيل فتركنا منزلنا اي ابو الرايات ساعه ٧ متقبلين نحو الهيت
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هيت
ففي ساعه ١٠ وصلنا على وادي كبير ما بين جبال كلها من صخر المرمر و كان
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دخولنا به بين طلعات و نزلات و هده اول مره شفت هكدا مكان
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جميع الارض كانها وصله واحده مرمر تلمع و نضيفه كانها ممسوحه و تزلق
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بها الرجل اخيراً بعد نصف ساعه