Approach

Two sets of breakout sessions will be convened - the first deals with "stressors", those factors that may change as in-stream tidal energy systems are installed, operated, or decommissioned. The second focuses on "receptors" or those elements of the ecosystem where significant concern exists.

Stressors

Session Name Elements of Stressor Participants
S1 Presence of devices: static effects

Stressors related to stationary components of tidal energy devices (i.e., foundation and support)
  • Addition of hard substrates to energetic, scoured environments
  • Implications of different foundations and support structures: piles, gravity bases, compliant moorings
  • Implications of different power take-off approaches: diffusing ducts
  • Foundation and support structure wake and scour potential
  • Disturbances during installation of device
  • Surface expression of devices
  • Sharon Kramer (chair), HT Harvey
  • Anna Kagley, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • Craig Collar, Snohomish Public Utility District
  • Ginny Eckert, University of Alaska - Fairbanks
  • Jim McCleave, University of Maine
  • Julia Parrish, University of Washington
  • Melanie Spring Harris, NOAA Fisheries, Headquarters, Habitat Conservation
  • Sam Johnston, Hydro Acoustic Technology, Inc.
  • Simon Courtenay, Dept. Fish and Oceans
  • Wayne Palsson, WA Dept. Fish And Wildlife
S2 Presence of devices: dynamic effects

Stressors related to moving components of tidal energy devices (i.e., rotors or foils)
  • Rotating blades and potential for strike
  • Regions of low pressure surrounding rotor
  • Rotor wake
  • Sue Barr (chair), OpenHydro
  • Alison Agness, NOAA Fisheres - Northwest Region, Protected Resources
  • Bob Thresher, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Brad Hanson, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • David Ainsworth, Marine Current Turbines
  • Fred Goetz, Army Corp of Engineers
  • Glenn Cada, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Greg Ruggerone, Natural Resource Consultants
  • Gayle Zydlewski, University of Maine
  • Joanna Smith, The Nature Conservancy
  • Mary Ann Adonizio, Verdant Power
  • Kurt Fresh, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
S3 Chemical effects

Chemicals potentially introduced into the marine environment
  • Diffusion or flaking of anti-fouling paints or coatings
  • Leakage of lubricants
  • Chemical contaminants associated with deployment (fluid for directional drilling, additional vessel traffic and deployment gear)
  • Gary Gill (chair), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • David Baldwin, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • Dave Young, OR Environmental Protection Agency
  • Heather Trim, People for Puget Sound
  • Layna Goodman, US Navy
  • Paul Jacobson, Electric Power Research Institute
  • Richard Anderson, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Scott Redman, Puget Sound Partnership
S4 Acoustic effects

Noise associated with device installation and operation
  • Sources of noise from device operation and installation
  • Noise propagation
  • Ambient noise
  • Peter Dahl (chair), University of Washington
  • Bob McClure, BioSonics
  • Bruce Mate, Oregon State University
  • Dominic Tollit, Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)
  • Jim Thomson, University of Washington
  • Kit Rawson, Tulalip Tribe
  • Peter Browne, HDR, Inc.
  • Simon Geerlofs, Department of Energy
  • Tina Wyllie-Echeverria, Wyllie-Echeverria Associates
S5 Electromagnetic effects

Electromagnetic fields generated by device operations
  • EMF from device power train
  • EMF from subsea cables
  • Gouri Bhuyan (chair), Powertech Labs
  • Andrew Gill, Cranfield University
  • Adrianus Kalmijn, Scripps (UCSD)
  • Alicia Bishop, NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Region, Hydropower Division
  • Greg McMurray, Pacific Energy Ventures
  • Jerry Johnson, University of Alaska - Fairbanks
  • Kate Savage, NOAA Fisheries - Alaska Region, Protected Resources
  • Markus Horning, Oregon State University
  • Mirko Previsic, re vision consulting
  • Stephen Kajiura, Florida Atlantic University
S6 Energy removal

Far-field stressors associated with removal of energy from the marine environment
  • Changes to transport, range, mixing as consequence of extraction
  • Barotropic and baroclinic effects
  • Consequences of ebb/flood power extraction asymmetry
  • Scott Couch (chair), University of Edinburgh
  • Andrea Balla-Holden, US Navy
  • Charles (Si) Simenstad, University of Washington
  • Graham Savidge, University of Queens
  • Harper Simmons, University of Alaska - Fairbanks
  • Mitsuhiro Kawase, University of Washington
  • Monty Worthington, Ocean Renewable Power Company
  • Neil McMahon, Alaska Energy Authority
  • Scott James, Sandia National Laboratories
S7 Cumulative effects

Overall effect of tidal energy installations
  • Synergy of individual stressors to create cumulative stress
  • Effect of energy removal from more than one location within a marine system
  • Ranking of each individual stressor (acute and chronic stress)
  • Jenny Norris (chair), European Marine Energy Center
  • Graham Daborn, Acadia University
  • Ian Boyd, Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)
  • Jim Brennan, Washington Sea Grant
  • Joe Breen, Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA)
  • Pat Livingston, NOAA Fisheries - Alaska Region, Science Center
  • Skip Albertson, WA Dept. of Ecology
  • Sue Saupe, Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Committee
  • Tom Mumford, WA Dept. Natural Resources

Receptors

Session Name Elements of Receptor Participants
R1 Physical Environment: Near-field

The physical environment within a few device diameters from a device (e.g., 100m)
  • Water quality (nutrients, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, etc.)
  • Basic productivity
  • Seabed composition and sediment
  • Jim Thomson (chair), University of Washington
  • Adrianus Kalmijn, Scripps (UCSD)
  • Bob Thresher, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Gary Gill, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Gouri Bhuyan, Powertech Labs
  • Graham Savidge, University of Queens
  • Jerry Johnson, University of Alaska - Fairbanks
  • Layna Goodman, US Navy
  • Neil McMahon, Alaska Energy Authority
  • Peter Dahl, University of Washington
R2 Physical Environment: Far-field

The physical environment far from a device (e.g., > 100m)
  • Near-shore environments
  • Gravitational circulation
  • Water quality (nutrients, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, etc.)
  • Basic productivity
  • Mitsuhiro Kawase (chair), University of Washington
  • Andrea Balla-Holden, US Navy
  • David Baldwin, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • Harper Simmons, University of Alaska - Fairbanks
  • Mirko Previsic, re vision consulting
  • Scott Couch, University of Edinburgh
  • Scott James, Sandia National Laboratories
  • Skip Albertson, WA Dept. of Ecology
R3 Habitat

Habitat in the vicinity of tidal energy device deployments
  • Changes in benthic habitat nearfield (hardening of soft bottom)
  • Changes in extent and quality of nearshore habitat due to changes in tidal range
  • Effects on nearshore habitat due to cable crossing/drilling
  • Changes in pelagic habitat nearfield and farfield
  • Tom Mumford (chair), WA Dept Natural Resources
  • Charles (Si) Simenstad, University of Washington
  • Craig Collar, Snohomish Public Utility District
  • Dave Young, OR Environmental Protection Agency
  • Glenn Cada, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Graham Daborn, Acadia University
  • Heather Trim, People for Puget Sound
  • Peter Browne, HDR, Inc.
  • Simon Geerlofs, Department of Energy
R4 Fish: Migratory

Migratory fish in the vicinity of tidal energy device deployments
  • Potential for disruption of migratory pathways
  • Kurt Fresh (chair), NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • Andrew Gill, Cranfield University
  • Anna Kagley, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • Fred Goetz, Army Corp of Engineers
  • Jim Brennan, Washington Sea Grant
  • Jim McCleave, University of Maine
  • Kit Rawson, Tulalip Tribe
  • Pat Livingston, NOAA Fisheries - Alaska Region, Science Center
  • Richard Anderson, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Sam Johnston, Hydro Acoustic Technology, Inc.
R5 Fish: Resident

Resident fish in the vicinity of tidal energy device deployments
  • Potential for attraction or displacement of resident fish
  • Wayne Palsson (chair), WA Dept. Fish And Wildlife
  • Bob McClure, BioSonics
  • Greg Ruggerone, Natural Resource Consultants
  • Mary Ann Adonizio, Verdant Power
  • Melanie Spring Harris, NOAA Fisheries, Headquarters, Habitat Conservation
  • Sharon Kramer, HT Harvey
  • Simon Courtenay, Dept. Fish and Oceans
  • Stephen Kajiura, Florida Atlantic University
  • Tina Wyllie-Echeverria, Wyllie-Echeverria Associates
R6 Marine mammals and seabirds

Interactions of marine mammals and seabirds with tidal energy device deployments
  • Marine mammal foraging, transit, and haul out
  • Diving seabirds
  • Markus Horning (chair), Oregon State University
  • Alison Agness, NOAA Fisheres - Northwest Region, Protected Resources
  • Brad Hanson, NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Region, Science Center
  • Bruce Mate, Oregon State University
  • David Ainsworth, Marine Current Turbines
  • Dominic Tollit, Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)
  • Gayle Zydlewski, University of Maine
  • Joanna Smith, The Nature Conservancy
  • Joe Breen, Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA)
  • Julia Parrish, University of Washington
  • Kate Savage, NOAA Fisheries - Alaska Region, Protected Resources
  • Monty Worthington, Ocean Renewable Power Company
R7 Ecosystem interactions

Importance of interactions at the ecosytem/food chain level
  • Changes in water quality which affect phytoplankton growth
  • Ripple up the food chain due to changes in base
  • Changes in sediment transport, causing changes in benthic food webs
  • Synergy of direct stressors on organisms and changes in food supplies
  • Greg McMurray (chair), Pacific Energy Ventures
  • Alicia Bishop, NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Region, Hydropower Division
  • Ginny Eckert, University of Alaska - Fairbanks
  • Ian Boyd, Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)
  • Jenny Norris, European Marine Energy Center
  • Paul Jacobson, Electric Power Research Institute
  • Scott Redman, Puget Sound Partnership
  • Sue Saupe, Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Committee
  • Sue Barr, OpenHydro