HIV in the Correctional Setting

The NW AETC is dedicated to the training needs of health care providers in the correctional setting. Our program offers a variety of training opportunities specific to correctional staff members:

  • Annual HIV in Corrections Conference
  • Didactic seminars and lectures
  • On-line video trainings
  • Preceptorship program for medical providers
  • Clinical consultation
  • Technical assistance

Please contact Lara Strick for more information.

Upcoming Events

2016 HIV/AIDS Care in the Correctional Setting Conference

These annual conferences bring together providers in the Northwest region to discuss topics relevant to providing HIV care in the Corrections setting. The 12th annual conference will be Saturday, April 30, 2016 in Kennewick, Washington from 8:45 am to 4:45 pm. Registration is free for healthcare providers working with justice populations. Register here

Registration closes April 25 or when capacity is reached.

For people NOT working in a correctional facility or with recently incarcerated populations, the registration fee is $50. Please register first and then

For questions, please contact Aric Lane (206)543-3319.

2015 HIV/AIDS Care in the Correctional Setting: Conference Presentations

Corrections Preceptorship

This two-day educational program is a prison-based preceptorship for health care providers working in corrections. Preceptees will observe and work with an HIV expert preceptor in a Washington State prison for one day and then spend one day in a large urban HIV clinic. Preceptorships will be designed to meet the specific needs of individual trainees based on their current level of experience and practice settings.  Preceptors will focus on the care and treatment of HIV-infected patients within the context of a comprehensive, continuum of care model.  A combination of didactic and experiential instruction will include: HIV risk assessment, HIV testing strategies, diagnosis of primary HIV and opportunistic infections, therapeutic interventions (i.e., drug treatment regimens including managing side effects, salvage therapies, and adherence strategies), release planning, prevention with positives and confidentiality. Instruction will also include strategies for effectively addressing patients' psychosocial needs related to mental health and substance abuse issues.  Participants will observe at least 4 HIV-infected patient work-ups under the guidance of the preceptor.

Continuing education credits are available as well.

For more information please see our Corrections Preceptorship page.

Corrections Resources

The following is a collection of select presentations from past HIV in Corrections Conferences held across the Pacific Northwest. Each video is about 1 hour in length. Be aware that some of the videos can take several minutes to load, depending on your connectivity.

FREE Online Continuing Education

Avaliable in December 2011, the New York and New Jersey AETC will publish: Hepatitis C Treatment Update: Free Self-Study Booklet for Correctional & Community Settings.

Clinical Care Options has put together a free (registration required) 2 hours CE video course that address HIV and HCV in Correctional Settings: Opportune Time: Identifying and Managing HCV and HIV in Correctional Settings.

Offender Education

Albany Medical College, Communicable Diseases: Are You at Risk?

Basic Information about HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and Tuberculosis


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HIV in Corrections Reference List

HIV Statistics in Corrections

Maruschak, LM. HIV in prisons, 2001-2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.  December 2009.  Revised 1/28/10.  Report No. NCJ 228307.

Begler EM, Bennani Y, Forgione L, et al. Undiagnosed HIV infection among New York City jail entrants, 2006: results of a blinded serosurvey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.  2010;54:93-101.

Spaulding AC, Seals RM, Page MJ, et al. HIV/AIDS among inmates of and releases from US correctional facilities, 2006: declining share of epidemic but persistent public health opportunity. PLoS One.  2009;4:e7558.

Solomon L, Flynn C, Muck K, et al. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C among entrants to Maryland correctional facilities.  J Urban Health.  2004;81:25-37.

Rich JD, Macalino G, Merchant RC, Salas C, Marcussen P, et al.  HIV seroprevalence of adult males incarcerated for a sexual offense in Rhode Island, 1994-1999. J Amer Med Assoc.  2002;288:164-5.

HIV Risk Behaviors In and Out of Corrections

Khan MR, Doherty IA, Schoenbach VJ, Taylor EM, et al.  Incarceration and high-risk sex partnerships among men in the United States. J Urban Health.  2009;86:584-601.

Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Pendo M, Loughran E, et al. Highly active antiretroviral therapy use and HIV transmission risk behaviors among individuals who are HIV infected and were recently released from jail. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:661-6.

Valera P, Epperson M, Daniels J, et al.  Substance use and HIV-risk behaviors among young men involved in the criminal justice system. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse.  2009;35:43-47.

Rosen DL, Shcoenbach VJ, Wohl DA, et al.  Characteristics and behaviors associated with HIV infection among inmates in the North Carolina prison system. Am J Public Health.  2006;96:1123-30.

White MC, Tulsky JP, Estes M, Jamison R, et al.  Health and health behaviours in HIV-infected jail inmates, 1999 and 2005. AIDS Patient Care STDS.  2008;22:221-31.

Margolis AD, MacGowan RJ, Grinstead O, Sosman J, et al. Unprotected sex with multiple partners: implications for HIV prevention among young men with a history of incarceration. Sex Transm Dis.  2006;33:175-80.

Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, McKaig R, Golin CE, et al. Sexual behaviors of HIV-seropositive men and women following release from prison. International J of STD & AIDS.  2006;17(2):103-8.

Altice FL, Marinovich A, Khoshnood K, et al. Correlates of HIV infection among incarcerated women: implications for improving detection of HIV infection. . J Urban Health. 2005;82:312-26.

McClelland GM, Teplin LA, Abram KM, Jacobs N. HIV and AIDS risk behaviours among female jail detainees: implications for public health policy. Am J Public Health.  2002;92:818-25.

Clarke JG, Stein MD, Hanna L, et al.  Active and former infection drug users report of HIV risk behaviors during periods of incarceration. Subst Abuse.  2001;22:209-16.

Wohl AR, Johnson D, Jordan W, Lu S, et al.  High risk behaviors during incarceration in African American men treated for HIV at three Los Angeles public medical centers. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.  2000;24:386-392.

Altice FL, Mostashari F, Selwyn PA, et al.  Predictors of HIV infection among newly sentenced male prisoners. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retroviral.  1998;18:444-53.

Stevens J, Zierler S, Cram V, Dean D, Mayer KH, De Groot AS.  Risks for HIV infection in incarcerated women. 1995;4(5):569-77.

Lachance-McCullough M, Tesoriero J, Sorin M, Lee C.  Correlates of HIV seroprevalence among male New York State prison inmates: Results from the New York State AIDS Institute Criminal Justice Initiative. J Prison and Jail Health.  1993;12:103-34.

HIV Testing in Corrections

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Routine HIV Screening During Intake Medical Evaluation at a County Jail — Fulton County, Georgia, 2011–2012. June 21, 2013; 62(24);495-497

Michelle VanHandel, MPH, John F. Beltrami, MD, Robin J. MacGowan, MPH, Craig B., Borkowf, PhD, and Andrew D. Margolis, MP. Newly Identified HIV Infections in Correctional Facilities, United States, 2007. American Journal of Public Health, Published online ahead of print March 8, 2012.

Strick LB, MacGowan RJ, Margolis A, Belcher L.  HIV screening of male inmates during prison intake medical evaluation –- Washington, 2006-2010. MMWR. June 24, 2011; 60(24):811-3.

CDC HIV testing implementation guidance for correctional settings. January 2009.

Shrestha RK, Sansom SL, Richardson-Moore A, French PT, et al.  Costs of voluntary rapid HIV testing and counseling in jails in 4 states – advancing HIV prevention demonstration project, 2003-2006. Sex Trans Dis.  2009;36(Suppl 2):S5-S8.

Beckwith CG, Rich JD, Flanigan TP, Poshjus M, et al. Routine jail-based HIV testing – Rhode Island, 2000-2007. MMWR.  June 25, 2010; 59(24):742-5.

MacGowan R, Margolis A, Richardson-Moore A, Wang T, et al.  Voluntary rapid human immunodefiency virus (HIV) testing in jails. Sex Transm Dis.  2009;36(2 Suppl):S9-13.

Harawa NT, Bingham TA, Butler QR, Dalton KS, et al. Using arrest charge to screen for undiagnosed HIV infection among new arrestees: A study in Los Angeles County. J Correctional Health-Care.  2009;15:105-17.

Flanigan TP, Beckwith CG.  Routine HIV testing in jails is critical for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in men. Clin Infect Dis.  2008;47(10):1366

Beckwith CG, Atunah-Jay S, Cohen J, et al.  Feasibility and acceptability of rapid HIV testing in jail. AIDS Patient Care & STD.  2007;21(1):41-7.

MacGowan RJ, Eldridge GD, Sosman JM, et al.  HIV counseling and testing of young men in prison. J Correctional Health-care. J Correctional Health-care.  2006;12(3):203-13.

Liddicoat RV, Zheng J, Internicola J, et al. Implementing a routine, voluntary HIV testing program in a Massachusetts county prison. J Urban Health.  2006;83:1127-31.

Desai AA, Latta TE, Spalding A, Rich JD, Flanigan TP. The importance of routine HIV testing in the incarcerated population: The Rhode Island experience. AIDS Educ Prev.  2002;14(Suppl B):45-52.

Hoxie NJ, Vergeront JM, Frisby HR, Pfister BS, et al.  HIV Seroprevalence and the acceptance of voluntary HIV testing among newly incarcerated male prison inmates in Wisconsin.Am J Public Health.  1990;80(9):1129-31.

HIV Transmission in Corrections

Taussig J, Shouse RL, LaMarre M, Fitzpatrick L, et al.  HIV transmission among male inmates in a state prison system --- Georgia, 1992-2005. MMWR. April 21, 2006; 55(15):421-6.

Macalino GE, Vlahov D, Sanford-Colby S, Patel S, Sabin K, Salas C, Rich JD. Prevalence and incidence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among males in Rhode Island prisons. Am J Public Health.  2004;94:1218-23.

Jafa K, McElroy P, Fitzpatrick L, et al.  HIV transmission in a state prison system, 1988-2005. PLoS One.  2009;4:e5416.

HIV Care in Corrections

Baillargeon J, Giordano TP, Harzke AJ, Spaulding AC, et al.  Predictors of reincarceration and disease progression among released HIV-infected inmates. AIDS Patient Care STDs.  2010;24(6):389-94.

Pai NP, Estes M, Moodle EE, Reingold AL, Tulsky JP.  The impact of antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV infected patients going in and out of the San Francisco county jail. PLoS One.  2009;4(9):e7115.

Springer Sa, Friedland GH, Doros G, et al.  Antiretroviral treatment regimen outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners. HIV Clinical Trials.  2007;8:205-12.

Wohl DA,  Stephenson BL, Golin CE, Kiziah N, et al.  Adherence to directly observed antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected prison inmates. Clin Infect Dis.  2003;36(12):1572-76.

Babudieri S, Aceti A, D’Offizi GP, et al.  Directly observed therapy to treat HIV infection in prisoners. JAMA.  2000;284:179-80.

Baillargeon J, Borucki MJ, Zepeda S, Jenson HB, et al.  Antiretroviral prescribing patterns in the Texas prison system. Clin Infect Dis.  2000;31:1476-81.

Effect of Release on HIV

Baillargeon J, Giordano TP, Rich JD, Wu ZH, et al.  Accessing antiretroviral therapy following release from prison. JAMA.  2009;301(8):848-57.

Baillargeon JG, Giodano TP, Harzke AJ, Rich JD, Paar DP.  Enrollment in outpatient care among newly released prison inmates with HIV infection. Public Health Rep.  2010;125 (Suppl 1):64-71.

Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, Golin CE, Tien HC, et al.  Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals. Public Health Rep. 2005;120(1):84-8.

Springer SA, Pesanti E, Hodges J, Macura T, et al.  Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: reincarceration and the lack of sustained benefit after release to the community. Clin Infect Dis.  2004;38(12):1754-60.

Harzke AJ, Ross MW, Scott DP.  Predictors of post-release primary care utilization among HIV-positive prison inmates: a pilot study. IDS Care.  2006;18:290-301.

HIV Release Planning

Wohl DA, Scheyett A, Golin CE, White B, Matuscewski J, et al.  Intensive case management before and after prison release is no more effective than comprehensive pre-release discharge planning in linking HIV-infected prisoners to care: a randomized control trial. AIDS Behav.  2011;15(2):356-64.

Springer SA, Chen S, Altice FL.  Improved HIV and substance abuse treatment outcomes for released HIV-infected prisoners: the impact of buprenorphine treatment. J Urban Health.  2010;87:592-602.

Wang EA, White MC, Jamison R, Goldenson J, et al. Discharge planning and continuity of health care: findings from the San Francisco County Jail. Am J Public Health.  2008;98:2182-4.

Smith-Rohrberg D, Mezger J, WaltoN M, Bruce RD, Altice Fl.  Impact of enhanced services on virologic outcomes in a directly administered antiretroviral therapy trial for HIV-infected drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.  2006;43:S48-53.

Rich JD, Hlomes L, Salas C, Macalino G, et al. Successful linkage of medical care and community services for HIV-positive offenders being released from prison. J Urban Health.  2001;15:581-5.

Kim JY, Rich J, Zeller S, et al. Successful community follow-up and reduced recidivism of HIV-positive women prisoners. Journal of Correctional Health Care.  1997;4:1-9.

Vigilante KC, Flynn MM, Affleck PC, et al.  Reduction in recidivism of incarcerated women through primary care, peer counseling, and discharge planning. Journal of Women’s Health.  1999;8:409-15.

Flanigan TP, Kim JY, Zierler, S, Rich JD, et al.  A prison release program for HIV—positive women: linking them to health services and community follow-up. International J of STD & AIDS.  2006;17(2):103-8.

Conklin TJ, Lincol T, Flanigan TP.  A public health model to connect correctional healt-care with communities. Am J Public Health.  1998;88:1249-50.

Skolnick AA. Correctional and community health care collaborations. JAMA.  1998;279:98-9.

Springer, S, Spaulding, A. Public Health Implications for Adequate Transitional Care for HIV-Infected Prisoners: Five Essential Components. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;53(5):469-79.


Prendergast T, Hwang B, Alexander R, Charron T, et al.  Prendergast T, Hwang B, Alexander R, Charron T, et al. Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates – California, 1995-1996. MMWR.  February 05, 1999; 48(04):79-82.

Kinlock TW, Gordon MS, Schwartz RP, Fitzgerald TT. Developing and implementing a new prison-based buprenorphine treatment program. J Offender Rhabil.  2010;49:91-109.

Kinlock TW, Gordon MS, Schwartz RP, Fitzgerald TT, et al.  A randomized clinical trial of methadone maintenance for prisoners: results at 12 months postrelease. J Subst Abuse Treat.  2009;37:277-85.

Magura S, Lee JD, Hershberger J, et al.  Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance in jail and post-release: a randomized clinical trial. Drug Alcohol Depend.  2009;99:222-30.

Milloy MJ, Kerr, T, Buxton J, et al.  Dose-response effect of incarceration events on nonadherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(May 1):1215-21.

Commentary by Flanigan TP, Beckwith CG.  The intertwined epidemics of HIV infection, incarceration, and substance abuse: A call to action. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(May 1):1201-3.

HIV Web Study

HIV InSite


Beckwith CG, Zaller ND, Fu JJ, Montague BT, Rich JD.  Opportunities to diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV in the criminal justice system. J Acquir Infect Dis.  2010;55(Suppl 1):S49-55.

Spaulding A, Stephenson B, Macalino G, Ruby W, et al.  Human immunodeficiency virus in correctional facilities: a review. Clin Infect Dis.  2002;35(3):305-12.

Springer SA, Altice FL.  Managing HIV/AIDS in correctional settings. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep.  2005;2(4):165-70.

De Groot AS.  HIV infection among incarcerated women: epidemic behind bars. AIDS Read.  2000;10(5):287-95.

Okie S.  Sex, drugs, prisons, and HIV. NEJM.  2007;356:105-8.

Hammett TM.  HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases among correctional inmates: Transmission, burden, and an appropriate response. Am J Public Health.  2006;96:974-8.

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