Most of our formatting standards come directly out of the Chicago
Manual of Style, but we summarize some of them here for your
You may cite works with either standard bibliographic references at the end of the article, or with footnote references, but not with both. See the Chicago Manual of Style for detailed information; much of it is accessible on our Resources Page. Examples of reference types are shown below.
- Journal article: Yablo, Stephen. 1992. Mental Causation. Philosophical Review 101:245-80.
- Book: Scheffler, Samuel. 1992. Human Morality. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Article in a book: Houck, John W. 1992. Stories and Culture in Business Life. In A Virtuous Life in Business: Stories of Courage and Integrity in the Corporate World, edited by Oliver F. Williams and John W. Houck, 129-38. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
- Citations are made within the text, enclosed in
parentheses, like so: (Yablo 1992, 248-52). The author's name may be
omitted if it is clearly implied by context.
- Note the
distinction between 'Yablo 1992', which refers to a work, and 'Yablo
(1992)', which is a reference to Yablo the person, followed by a
parenthetical reference to one of Yablo's works.
- A list of references should be titled 'references' and placed at the end of the article.
- Journal article: Stephen Yablo, "Mental Causation," Philosophical Review 101 (1992): 245-80.
- Book: Samuel Scheffler, Human Morality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 25-30.
- Article in a book: John W. Houck, "Stories and Culture in Business Life," in A Virtuous Life in Business: Stories of Courage and Integrity in the Corporate World, ed. Oliver F. Williams and John W. Houck (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992), 129-38.
- For repeated references, do not use 'op. cit.' - use a short title instead (e.g., Yablo, "Mental Causation").
- You may use 'ibid.' (not italicized) where appropriate.
you make many references to a single work, you may (and are encouraged
to) give bibliographic information in a footnote at the first such
reference, and then, for subsequent references, give page numbers only,
in parentheses, directly within the text.
- Abbreviations: Most abbreviations - including 'i.e.' and 'e.g.' - should be spelled out and rendered in English.
- Emphasis: Use italics, not underlining.
- Greek: In most cases, Greek text should be transliterated.
- Quotation marks:
Use double quotation marks for quoted material within the text, and for
irony and other literary purposes. Use single quotation marks for
quoted material within a quotation and to mention linguistic expressions and definitions.
- Spelling: Use American spelling. You may retain British spelling in direct quotes.
- Use italics, not underlining, for book and journal titles.
- For well-known cities, omit state/country name from facts of publication.
- Omit the abbreviations 'p.' and 'pp.' for page numbers.