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A Synoptical Classification of the Lamiales

 

 

Version 2.0

(in progress)

 

 

Compiled by

Richard Olmstead

 

 

With the help of:

D. Albach, B. Bremer, P. Cantino, C. dePamphilis, P. Garnock-Jones, R. Harley, L. McDade, E. Norman, B. Oxelman, J. Reveal, R. Scotland, J. Smith, E. Wallander, A. Weber, A. Wolfe, N. Young, M. Zjhra, and others

 


 

[estimated # species in Lamiales = 22,000]

 

            The goal of this project is to produce a working infraordinal classification of the Lamiales to genus with information on distribution and species richness.  All recognized taxa will be clades; adherence to Linnaean ranks is optional.  Synonymy is very incomplete (comprehensive synonymy is not a goal of the project, but could be incorporated).  Although I anticipate producing a publishable version of this classification at a future date, my near-term goal is to produce a web-accessible version, which will be available to the public and which will be updated regularly through input from systematists familiar with taxa within the Lamiales.  For further information on the project and to provide information for future versions, please contact R. Olmstead via email at olmstead@u.washington.edu, or by regular mail at:  Department of Biology, Box 355325, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA.



Families treated:
Acanthaceae
Avicenniaceae
Bignoniaceae
Byblidaceae
Calceolariaceae
Carlemanniaceae
Gesneriaceae
Lamiaceae
Lentibulariaceae
Linderniaceae
Martyniaceae
Oleaceae
Orobanchaceae
Paulowniaceae
Pedaliaceae
Phyrmaceae
Plocospermataceae
Schlegeliaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Stilbaceae
Tetrachondraceae
Verbenaceae
Veronicaceae
Genera of Lamiales unassigned to family


Acanthaceae (~201/3510) Durande, Notions El m. Bot.: 265. 1782, nom. cons. – Synopsis compiled by R. Scotland & K. Vollesen (Kew Bull. 55: 513-589. 2000); probably should include Avicenniaceae.

 


Nelsonioideae (7/ ) Lindl. ex Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1(1): 10. 8 Dec 1871

Anisosepalum E. Hossain (3) C. Africa

Elytraria Michx. (17) warm & trop. NW & OW

Gynocraterium Bremek. (1) trop. S. Amer.

Nelsonia R. Br. (1) trop. OW

Ophiorrhiziphyllon Kurz (5) SE Asia

Saintpauliopsis Staner (1) trop. Africa

Staurogyne Wall. (140) trop. OW & NW

Thunbergioideae (including Mendoncia) (5/ ) Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 3: 923. Apr-Dec 1834

Anomacanthus R.D. Good (1) Zaire, Angola

Mendoncia Vell ex Vand. (60) trop. Amer. & Africa, Madag.

Meyenia Nees (1) India, Sri Lanka

Pseudocalyx Radlk. (4) trop. Africa, Madag.

Thunbergia Retz.        (90) trop. OW

Acanthoideae (189/ ) Link, Handbuch 1:500. Jan-Aug 1829

Acantheae (21/ ) Dunmort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 23 1829

Acanthopsis Harv. (7) S. Africa

Acanthus L. (30) warm & trop. OW

Achyrocalyx Benoist (4) Madag.

Aphelandra R. Br. (175) Trop. Amer.

Blepharis Juss. (8) OW trop., Medit., S. Africa

Crossandra Salisb. (50) trop. Africa & Asia, Madag., Arabian Penin.

Crossandrella C.B. Clarke (2) trop. Africa

Cynarospermum Vollesen

Cyphacanthus Leonard (1) Columbia

Encephalosphaera Lindau (2) trop. S. Amer.

Geissomeria Lindl. (15) Mex., C. Amer., trop. S. Amer.

Holographis Nees (10) Arid Mexico

Neriacanthus Benth. (4) trop. Amer.

Orophochilus Lindau (1) Peru

Rhombochlamys Lindau (2) Columbia

Salpixantha Hook. (1) Jamaica

Sclerochiton Harv. 12) trop. & S. Africa

Stenandrium Nees (25) warm S. Amer.

Streptosiphon Mildbr.(1) trop. E. Africa

Strobilacanthus Griseb. (1) Panama

Xantheranthemum Lindau (1) Peru

Ruellieae

Ruelliinae (48/ )

Acanthopale C.B. Clarke (150) OW trop.

Aechmanthera Nees(3) Himal.

Apassalus Kobuski (3) SE US, W.I.

Beniocanthus Heine & A. Raynal (2) Madag.

Blechum P. Brown (6) trop. Amer.

Bravaisia DC. (3) trop. Amer.

Brillantaisia P. Beauv. (9) trop. Africa, Madag.

Brunoniella Bremek.(6) New Guinea, Australia

Calacanthus T. Anderson ex Benth.  (1) Indomal.

Clarkeasia J.R.I. Wood

Dischistocalyx T.Anderson ex Benth. (20) Africa

Duosperma Dayton(12) trop. & S. Africa

Dyschoriste Nees (65) warm & trop. NW & OW

Echinacanthus Nees(4) Himal., China

Epiclastopelma Lindau (2) trop. Africa

Eranthemum L. (30 trop. Asia

Eremomastax Lindau

Eusiphon Benoist (3) Madag.

Hemigraphis Nees (90) Asia to New Caledonia

Heteradelphia Lindau (1) W. Africa

Hygrophila R. Br. (25) trop. OW & NW

Ionacanthus Beniost (1) Madag.

Kosmosiphon Lindau (1) trop. W. Africa

Leptosiphonium F. Muell. (10) Papauasia

Louteridium S. Watson (6) Mex. & C. Amer.

Lychniothyrsus Lindau (5) Brazil

Mellera S. Moore (5) warm Africa

Mimulopsis Schweinf. (3) trop. Africa, Madag.

Pararuellia Bremek. (5) Malaysia

Petalidium Nees (35) trop. & S. Africa, Himal., India

Phaulopsis Willd. (20) Afra. Mascarenes, India

Physacanthus Benth. (5) trop. Africa

Polylychnis Bremek. (2) NE S. Amer.

Pseudoruellia Benoist (1) Madag.

Ruellia L. (150) temp. & warm to trop. Amer.

Ruelliospis C.B. Clarke (3) trop. & S. Africa

Sanchezia Ruiz & Pav.(20) trop. Amer.

Satanocrater Schweinf. (4) trop. Africa

Sautiera Decne. (1) Timor

Spirostigma Nees (1) Brazil

Stenosiphonium Nees (3) India, Sri Lanka

Stenothyrsus C.B. Clarke (1) Malaya

Strobilanthes Blume (250) trop. Asia

Strobilanthopsis S. Moore (5) trop. Africa

Suessenguthia Merm. (1) Bolivia

Trichanthera Kunth (2) N. S. Amer.

Trichosanchezia Mildbr. (1) trop. Peru

Zygoruellia Baill. (1) Madag.

Andrographinae (8/ )

Andrographis Wall. ex Nees (20) trop. Asia

Cystacanthus T. Anderson (10) SE Asia

Diotacanthus Benth. (2) Indomal.

Graphandra J.B. Imlay (1) Thailand

Gymnostachyum Nees (30) India to C Malaysia.

Haplanthodes Kuntze (4) India

Indoneesiella Sreem. (2) India

Phlogacanthus Nees (15) Indomal.

Justiciinae (103/ )

Afrofittonia Lindau (1) trop. W. Africa

Ambongia Beniost (1) Madag.

Ancistranthus Lindau (1) Cuba

Angkalanthus Balf.f. (2) Socotra, Transvaal

Anisacanthus Nees (8) SW US, Mex.

Anisotes Nees (19) trop. Africa, Madag.

Anthacanthus Nees (?) Unknown

Aphanosperma T.F. Daniel (1) NW Mex.

Ascotheca Heine (1) trop. W. Africa

Asystasia Blume (70) OW trop.

Ballochia Balf.f. (3) Socotra

Brachystephanus Nees (10) trop. Africa, Madag.

Calycacanthus K. Schum. (1) New Guinea

Carlowrightia A.Gray (23) SW US, Mex, C. Amer.

Celerina Benoist (1) Madag.

Centrilla Lindau (?) Unknown

Cephalacanthus Lindau (1) Peru

Chalarothyrsus Lindau (1) Mex.

Chamaeranthemum Nees(4) trop. Amer.

Chileranthemum Oerst. (2) Mex.

Chlamydocardia Lindau (4) trop. W. Africa

Chlamydostachya Mildbr. (1) trop. E. Africa

Chorisochroa Vollese

Clinacanthus Nees (2) S. China to Malaysia

Clistax Mart. (2) Brazil

Codonacanthus Nees (2) NE India, S. China, Japan

Conocalyx Benoist (1) Madag.

Cosmianthemum Bremek. (8) W. Borneo

Cyclacanthus S. Moore (2) SE. Asia

Cylindrosolenium Lindau (1) Peru

Danguya Beniost (1) Madag.

Dasytropis Urb. (1) E. Cuba

Dichazothece Lindau (1) E. Brasil

Dicladanthera F. Muell. (2) W. Australia

Dicliptera Juss. (150) warm & trop. NW & OW

Ecbolium Kurz (19) trop. & S. Africa, Madag., Socotra, India

Filetia Miq. (8) Sumatra, Indomal.

Fittonia Coem. (2) Peru

Forcipella Baill. (5) Madag.

Glossochilus Nees (2) S. Africa

Graptophyllum Nees (10) Australia, SW Parcific Isl.

Gypsacanthus Lott, Jarmillo & Rzed. (1) Mex.

Harpochilus Nees (3) Brasil

Henrya Nees (2) C. Amer.

Herpetacanthus Nees (10) Panama to Brasil

Hoverdenia Nees (1) Mex.

Hypoestes Sol. Ex R.Br. (40) OW trop.

Ichtyostoma Hedren and Vollesen

Isoglossa Oerst. (50) OW trop. & Arabian Penin.

Isotheca Turrill (1) Trinidad

Jadunia Lindau (1) New Guinea

Juruasia Lindau (2) Brazil

Justicia L. (600) trop. & warm temp. NW

Kalbreyeriella Lindau (3) Panama, Columbia

Linariantha B.L. Burtt & Ros.M.Sm. (1) Borneo

Mackaya Harv. (15) Africa

Marcania J.B. Imlay (1) Thailand

Megalochlamys Lindau (3) SW Africa

Megalostoma Leonard (1) C. Amer.

Megaskepasma Lindau (1) Venezula

Mellitacanthus S. Moore (1) Madag.

Metarungia Baden (3) trop. & S. Africa

Mexacanthus T.F. Daniel (1) Mex.

Mirandea Rzed.  (2) Mex.

Monechma Hochst. (60) Africa, India

Monothecium Hochst. (3) trop. Africa, S. India

Odontonema Nees 936) Mex., C. & S. Amer., W. I.

Oplonia Raf. (19) trop. Amer., Africa (extinct?), Madag.

Oreacanthus Benth. (4) C. Africa

Pachystachys Nees (12) trop. Amer.

Pelecostemon Leonard (1) Columbia

Peristrophe Nees (15) trop. OW

Phialacanthus Benth. (5) Himal. to Malay Penin.

Podorungia Baill. (1) Madag.

Poikilacanthus Lindau (6) trop. Amer.

Populina Baill. (2) Madag.

Pranceacanthus Wassh. (1) Brazil

Pseuderanthemum Radlk. (60) trop. OW & NW

Pseudodicliptera Benoist (2) Madag.

Psilanthele Lindau (1) Ecuador

Ptyssiglottis T. Anderson (60) Indomal.

Pulchranthus V.M. Baum, Reveal and Nowicke (4) trop. S. Amer.

Razisea Oerst. (3) C. Amer.

Rhinacanthus Nees (15) trop. OW

Ritonia Benoist (3) Madag.

Rungia Nees (50) trop. OW

Ruspolia Lindau (4) trop. Africa

Ruttya Harv. (3) trop. & S. Africa, Arabian Penin.

Samuelessonia Urb. & Ekman (1) Hispaniola

Sapphoa Urb. (2) Cuba

Schaueria Nees (8) Brazil

Sebastiano-Schaueria Nees (1) Brazil

Spathacanthus Baill. (5) C. Amer.

Sphinctacanthus Benth. (1) NE India to Burma

Stenostephanus Nees (6) S. Amer.

Streblacanthus Kuntze  (6) C. Amer.

Tessmanniacanthus Mildbr. (1) trop. Peru

Tetramerium Nees (28) C. Amer.

Thysanostigma J.B. Imlay (2) Thailand, Malayan Penin.

Trichaulax Vollesen

Trichocalyx Balf.f. (2) Socotra

Xerothamnella C.T. White (2) E. Australia

Yeatesia Small (3) SE US, NE Mex.

Barleriinae (9/)

Barleria L. (250) OW & NW trop.

Barleriola Oerst. (6) W. I.

Borneacanthus Bremek. (6) Borneo

Boutonia DC. (1) Madag.

Chroesthes Beniost (3) China, SE Asia

Crabbea Harv. (12) trop. & S. Africa

Hulemacanthus S. Moore (1) New Guinea

Lepidagathis Willd. (100) warm & trop. NW & OW

Lophostachys Pohl. (15) trop. Amer.

Unplaced within Acanthoideae (20/ )

Acanthostelma Bidgood and Brummitt (1) Somalia

Acanthura Lindau (1) Brazil

Aphelandrella Mildbr. (1) Peru

Camarotea Scott Elliot (1) Madag.

Chlamydacanthus Lindau (4) trop. E. Africa, Madag.

Dolichostachys Benoist (1) Madag.

Golaea Chiov. (1) Somalia

Idiacanthus Leonard

Kudoacanthus Hosok. (1) taiwan

Lankesteria Lindl. (7) trop. Africa, Madag.

Lasiocladus Bojer ex Nees (5) Madag.

Leandriella Benoist (1) Madag.

Morsacanthus Rizzini (1) Brazil

Neuracanthus Nees (20) trop. Africa, Arabian Penin. to India

Perenideboles Ram. Goyena (1) Nicaragua

Pericalypta Beniost (1) Madag.

Sphacanthus Benoist (2) Madag.

Vavara Benoist (1) Madag.

Vindasia Benoist (1) Madag.

Whitfieldia Hook. (10) trop Africa


 


 

Avicenniaceae 1/4-7 Endl., Ench. Bot.: 314. 15-21 Aug 1841 - clearly belongs within Acanthaceae (Olmstead unpubl., McDade, unpubl.)

 

Avicennia (4-7) warm cosmop

 


 

Bignoniaceae (82/~809) Durande, Notions Elm. Bot.: 265. 1782, nom. cons. - Synoptical classification by tribe following Gentry 1980, 1992; Spangler & Olmstead 1999, Zjhra et al. 2003, Lohman 2005, Grose & Olmstead, in prep.; Olmstead et al. unpubl.

 


Bignonieae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 23. 1829 (treatment following L. Lohmann, 2005) (21/367)

Adenocalymma Mart. ex Meisn. (78) trop Am

Amphilophium Kunth (41) trop Am

Anemopaegma Mart. ex Meisn. (41) trop Am

Arrabidaea DC. (69) trop Am

Bignonia L. (28) trop Am (including SE USA)

Callichlamys Miq. (1) trop Am

Ceratophytum Pittier (= Paragonia Bureau)

Clytostoma Miers ex Bureau (= Bignonia L.)

Cuspidaria DC. (16) trop Am

Cydista Miers (= Bignonia L.)

Distictella Kuntze (= Amphilophium Kunth)

Distictis Mart. ex. Meisn. (= Amphilophium Kunth)

Dolichandra Cham. (9) trop Am

Fridericia (= Arrabidaea DC.)

Gardnerodoxa Sandwith (= Neojobertia Baill.)

Glaziova Bureau (= Amphilophium Kunth)

Haplolophium Cham. (= Amphilophium Kunth)

Leucocalantha Barb. Rodr. (= Pachyptera DC. ex Meisn.)

Lundia DC. (13) trop Am

Macfadyena A. DC.( = Dolichandra Cham.)

Macranthisiphon Bureau ex K. Schum. (= Bignonia L.)

Manaosella J.C. Gomes (1) Bolivia and Brazil

Mansoa DC. (11) trop Am

Martinella Baill. (2) trop Am

Melloa Bureau (= Dolichandra Cham.)

Memora Miers (= Adenocalymma Mart. ex Meisn.)

Mussatia Bureau ex Baill. (= Bignonia L.)

Neojobertia Baill. (2) Eastern Brazil

Pachyptera DC. ex Meisn. (4) trop Am

Parabignonia Bureau ex K. Schum. (= Dolichandra Cham.)

Paragonia Bureau (11) trop Am

Perianthomega Bureau ex Baill. (1) SE Brazil, NE Parag. and SE Bolivia

Periarrabidaea A. Samp. (= Paragonia Bureau)

Phryganocydia Mart. ex Bureau (= Bignonia L.)

Piriadacus Pichon (= Arrabidaea DC.)

Pithecoctenium Mart. ex Meisn. (= Amphilophium Kunth)

Pleonotoma Miers (15) trop Am

Potamoganos Sandwith (= Bignonia L.)

Pseudocatalpa A. H. Gentry (= Paragonia Bureau)

Pyrostegia C. Presl (3) trop S Am

Roentgenia Urb. (= Bignonia L.)

Saritaea Dugand (= Bignonia L.)

Spathicalyx J. C. Gomes (= Paragonia Bureau)

Sphingiphila A. H. Gentry (1) Paraguay (tentatively placed here by LL)

Stizophyllum Miers (3) trop Am

Tanaecium Sw (= Bignonia L.)

Tynanthus Miers (17) trop Am

Urbanolophium Melch. (= Amphilophium Kunth)

Catalpeae DC. ex Meisn. (3/12)

Catalpa Scop. (10) E Asia, N Am

Chilopsis D. Don (1) SW US, Mex

Chitalpa (= Catalpa X Chilopsis)

Macrocatalpa (Griseb.) Britton (1) Cuba (~Catalpa)

Oroxyleae Gentry 1980 (4/6)

Hieris Steenis (1) Penang

Millingtonia L.f. (1) SE Asia, Malaysia

Nyctocalos Teijsm. & Binn. (3) Indomalaysia

Oroxylum Vent. (1) Indomalaysia

Old World Spathodea/Coleeae clade (19/~138)

Coleeae Bojer 1837 (5/50)

Colea Bojer ex Meisn. (21) Madagascar, Mascarenes

Ophiocolea H, Perrier (5) Madagascar, Comores

Phyllarthron DC. (15) Madagascar, Comores

Phylloctenium  Baill. (2) Madagascar

Rhodocolea Baill. (7) Madagascar

Old World Spathodea/Coleeae clade unassigned (14/88)

Catophractes D. Don (1) tropical & S Africa

Dinklageodoxa Heine & Sandwith (1) Liberia

Dolichandrone (Fenzl) Seem. (10) E Afr, Indomal, trop. Austral, New Caledonia

Fernandoa Welw. ex Seem. (14) Afr, Mad, S China, SE Asia to Sumatra

Haplophragma Dop. (=Fernandoa)

Heterophragma DC. (2) India, SW Asia

Kigelia DC. (2) tropical Africa

Markhamia Seem. ex Baill. (10) trop Afr & SE Asia

Mayodendron Kurz (= Radermachera)

Newbouldia Seem. ex Bureau (1) tropical W Africa

Perichlaena Baill. (1) Madagascar

Radermachera Zoll. & Moritzi. (17) SE Asia, Malaysia

Rhigozum Burch. (7) trop & S Afr, Ethiop, Somal, Madag

Spathodea P. Beauv. (1) tropical Africa

Stereospermum Cham. (20) trop Afr & Asia

Tecomella Seem. (1) Arabia to W India

New World - Tabebuia /Crescentieae clade (Digitifolieae) (14/~154)

Crescentieae G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 216, 232. 1837-8 Apr 1838 (3/33)

Amphitecna Miers (18) tropical Am

Crescentia L. (6) tropical Am

Enallagma (Miers) Baill. (= Amphitecna)

Parmentiera DC. (9) C Am, NW Columbia

New World - Tabebuia /Crescentieae clade unassigned (11/~121)

Cybistax Mart. ex Meisn. (1)

Ekmanianthe Urb. (2) Cuba, Hispaniola

Handroanthus (34) Neotrop.

Godmania Hemsl. (2) tropical Am

Paratecoma Kuhlm. (1) Brazil

Romeroa Dugand (1) Colombia

Roseodendron (2) Neotrop.

Sparattosperma Mart. Ex Meisn. (2) trop. S. Am.

Spirotecoma Baill. ex Dalla Torre & Harms (4) Cuba, Hispaniola

Tabebuia Gomes ex DC. (~70) tropical Am

Zeyheria Mart. (2) Brazil, Bolivia

Tecomeae Endl., Gen. Pl.: 711. Jan 1839 (10/51)

Campsidium Seem. (1) Chile, Argentina

Campsis Lour. (2) E Asia, E US

Deplanchea Vieill. (5) Malaysia, Aust, New Cal

Incarvillea Juss. (16) Himalaya, C to E Asia

Lamiodendron Steenis (1) New Guinea

Pandorea (Endl.) Spach (6) E Malay, Austr, New Cal

Podranea Sprague (1) tropical to S Africa

Tecoma Juss. (12) tropical Am (Andes) to Ariz

Tecomanthe Baill. (5) Malaysia, Austr, NZ

Tecomaria (Endl.) Spach (2) E & S Africa

Tourrettieae G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 215, 231. 1837-8 Apr 1838 (2/4)

Eccremocarpus Ruiz & Pav. (3) Colombia to Chile

Tourrettia Foug. (1) Andes to Mexico

Jacarandeae Seem., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 10: 31. Jul 1862 (2/52)

Digomphia Benth. (3) Guayana highland

Jacaranda Juss. (49) Guatemala/Antilles to Argentina

Bignoniaceae unassigned to more inclusive clade (7/25)

Argylia D. Don (12) Peru, Chile, Argentina

Astianthus D. Don (1) C Am

Barnettia (=Santisukia)

Delostoma D. Don (4) Andes

Neosepicaea Diels (4) N Guinea, Queensl,, Moluccas

Pajanelia DC. (1) Indomalaysia

Pauldopia Steenis (1) NE India to SE Asia

Santisukia Brummitt (2) Thailand

 


 


 

Byblidaceae (Engl. & Gilg) Domin, Acta Bot. Bohem. 1:3. 1922, nom. cons. (1/2)

 

Byblis (2) Aus, New Guinea

 


Calceolariaceae (3/275) (G. Don) R. Olmstead 1999 (Olmstead et al. 1999) (see Molau 1988)

 

Calceolaria L. (240-270 sensu Molau) C to S Am                            Porodittia G. Don (1) Peru

Jovellana Ruiz & Pav. (6) NZ, Chile

 



Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw (1964) (APG II, 2002) (2/5)

 

Carlemannia Benth (3) Indomal

Silvianthus Hook.f. (2) India to SE Asia

 



Gesneriaceae (~135-140/>3000) synopsis compiled by A. Weber, provisional state 1999 (classification after Wiehler & Burtt 1995; modified following J. Smith)


 

Gesnerioideae Link, Handbuch 1: 505. Jan-Aug 1829

Gloxinieae (G. Don) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3: 526. late 1839

Achimenes Pers. (24), mainly Mexico and Central America

Anodiscus Benth. (1), Peru

Bellonia L. (2), Cuba and Hispaniola

Capanea Planch. (11), Peru to Guatemala

Diastema Benth. (>20), Bolivia to Mexico, Venezuala, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Eucodonia Hanst. (2), C and S Mexico

Gloxinia L'Hr.(15), central America and trop. S America

Goyazia Taub. (2), C Brazil

Heppiella Regel (4),  Peru, W Venezuela

Koellikeria Regel (1), C and  trop. S America

Kohleria Regel (>20) , Peru to Mexico, Venezuela, Trinidad, Guianas

Lembocarpus Leeuwenb. (1), Surinam and French Guiana

Monopyle Benth. (>27), Bolivia to Guatemala

Moussonia Regel (11), Mexico to Panama

Niphaea Lindl. (5), Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Peru

Pearcea Regel (incl. Parakohleria Wiehler) (17), eastern slopes of the Andes (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), 1 sp. also on the western slopes (Ecuador)

Phinaea Benth. (>16), Mexico to Peru, Venezuela, Cuba, Haiti

Smithiantha Kuntze (5), C & N Mexico, Guatemala

Solenophora Benth. (> 20), central America

Sinningieae

Paliavana Vand. (8), SE Brazil

Sinningia Nees (>60), throughout the Neotropics

Vanhouttea Lem. (6), SE Brazil

Episcieae

Alloplectus Mart. (>75), throughout the Neotropics (except SE Brazil)

Chrysothemis Decne. (7), Ecuador to Guatemala, C Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela and Lesser Antilles

Cobananthus Wiehler (1), Guatemala

Codonanthe (Mart.)Hanst. (>20), troughout the Neotropics

Codonanthopsis Mansf. (5), Peru to Brazil (Aamazon system)

Columnea L. s. lat.

Bucinellina Wiehler (2) , SW Colombia, NW Ecuador

Columnea L. s. str. (>75), C America, Carrib. Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuala, Guayana Highlands, NE Brazil

Dalbergaria Tussac (>120), Bolivia to Guiana Highlands, Mexico, Greater Antilles

Pentadenia (Planch.)Hanst. (>35), Bolivia to Mexico

Trichantha Hook.f. (>70), Bolivia to Guatemala, Greater Antilles, Guayana Highlands

Corytoplectus Oerst. (15), Bolivia to Panama, coastal Venezuela, Guayana Highlands

Drymonia Mart. (>140), throughout the Neotropics

Episcia Mart. s.l.

Episcia Mart. s str. (9), trop. S America to Nicaragua)

Alsobia Hanst. (2), Mexico and central America

Nautilocalyx [Linden ex] Hanst. (>70), troughout trop. America, except SE Brazil

Nematanthus Schrad. (30), S & SE Brazil

Neomortonia Wiehler (3), central America and W Colombia

Oerstedina Wiehler (3), Central America

Paradrymonia Hanst. (>70), througout the Neotropcis, except SE Brazil

Rhoogeton Leeuwenb. (3), British Guiana

Rufodorsia Wiehler (4), Costa Rica, Panama

Beslerieae

Anetanthus Benth. (2), Peru, Bolivia, C Colombia, SE Brazil

Besleria L. (>200), troughout the Neotropics, esp. Andes of Colombia and Ecuador

Cremosperma Benth. (23), Costa Rica to Andes of Peru

Gasteranthus Benth. (35), S Mexico, central America, SW South America to Bolivia

Reldia Wiehler (5), Panama to N Peru

Resia H.E.Moore (2), Colombia, Venezuela

Tylopsacas Leeuwenb. (1), Guayana Highlands

Napeantheae

Napeanthus Gardn. (>30), troughout the Neotropics

Gesnerieae

Gesneria L. s. lat.

Gesneria L. s. str. (Skog) (46), Carribean islands

Pheidonocarpa L. E. Skog (3), Carribean islands

Rhytidophyllum Mart. (c. 20), Carribean islands

Coronantheroideae

Coronanthereae

Asteranthera Hanst. (1), Chile

Coronanthera C.B.Clarke (11), New Caledonia, one sp. in Solomon Islands

Depanthus S.Moore (2), New Caledonia

Fieldia Cunn. (1), SE Australia

Lenbrassia G.W.Gillett (1), NE Australia

Mitraria Cav. (1), Chile, nearby Argentina

Negria F. Muell. (1), Lord Howe Island (SW Pacific)

Rhabdothamnus Cunn. (1), New Zealand

Sarmienta Ruiz & Pav. (1), Chile

Cyrtandroideae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 963, 1095, 1107. Jun 1835

Epithemateae (= Klugieae) Klugieae Fritsch in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3b): 143. Mai 1893

Cyrtandromoea (11) SE Asia, Mal

Epithema Blume (> 20), S & SE Asia, one sp. in W Africa

Gyrogyne W. T. Wang (1), S China

Loxonia Jack (3), W Malesia (Sumatra, Malay Penins., Borneo)

Monophyllaea R. Br. (32), Malesia (Sumatra to New Guinea, S Thailand and Luzon to Java)

Rhynchoglossum Blume (c. 12), Malesia (India and S China to New Guinea), 1 (or more?) spp. in C America, Columbia, Venezuela

Stauranthera Benth. (5-8), NE India and S China over Malesia to New Guinea

Whytockia W. W. Sm. (6), S China, Taiwan

Didymocarpeae Endl., Gen. Pl.: 716. Jan 1839

Acanthonema Hook.f. (2), trop. W Africa

Allocheilos W.T.Wang (2), S China

Allostigma W.T.Wang (1), S China

Ancylostemon Craib (11), C & S China

Anna Pellegr. (3), S China

Beccarinda Kuntze (c. 8),  NE India, Burma, S China, Hainan, Vietnam, Sumatra

Boea [Comm. ex] Lam.(17), S China, NE India, N Thailand, Vietnam, Philipp. Sulawesi, Sumbawa, Flores, Ne Guinea, Solomon Islands, Bismarck and Lousiade Archipelago

Boeica C.B.Clarke (9), NE India, Bangla-desh, Burma, S China, Malaysia

Bournea Oliv. (2), SE China

Briggsia Craib (21), C & S China

Briggsiopsis K.Y.Pan (1), S China

Calcareoboea H.W.Wu (1), S China

Cathayanthe Chun (1), S China

Championia Gard. (1), Sri Lanka

Chirita D.Don (>130), S China to Borneo

Chiritopsis W.T.Wang (8), S China

Colpogyne B.L.Burtt (1), Madagascar

Conandron Sieb. & Zucc. (1), China, Taiwan, Japan

Corallodiscus Batalin (17), India, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, C & S China

Dayaoshania W.T.Wang (1), S China

Deinocheilos W.T.Wang (2), S China

Deinostigma [W.T.Wang ex] Z.Y.Li (8), W Malesia

Didymocarpus Wall. (c. 80), S China to Malay Peninsula and Sumatra

Didymostigma W.T.Wang (1), SE China

Dolicholoma D.Fang & W.T.Wang (1), SE China

Gyrocheilos W.T.Wang (4), S China

Haberlea Friv. (2), Balkan Peninsula

Hemiboea C.B.Clarke (21), C & S China, N Vietnam, Taiwan, Japan

Hemiboeopsis W.T.Wang (1), S China

Henckelia Spreng. (Didymocarpus p.p., Loxocarpus, Platyadenia) (c. 180), from S India and Sri Lanka troughout Malesia to New Guinea

Hexatheca C.B.Clarke (3), Borneo

Hovanella A.Weber & B.L.Burtt (Didymocarpus p.p.) (2), E & C Madagascar

Isometrum Craib (13), C China

Jancaea Boiss. (1), Greece

Lagarosolen W.T.Wang (2), S China

Leptoboea Benth. (4), NE India, Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, S China

Linnaeopsis Engl. (3), E Africa

Metabriggsia W.T.Wang (2), S China

Metapetrocosmea W.T.Wang (1), S China

Nodonema B.L.Burtt (1), trop. W Africa

Opithandra B.L.Burtt (9), S China, Japan

Orchadocarpa Ridl. (1), Malay Peninsula

Oreocharis Benth. (27), C & S China, N Vietnam, Thailand

Ornithoboea [Parish ex] C.B.Clarke (11), S China to N Malay Peninsula

Paraboea (C.B.Clarke) Ridl. (>80), Malesia (Sumatra to New Guinea, S Thailand to Borneo)

Paraisometrum W.T.Wang (1), S China

Petrocodon Hance (1), China

Petrocosmea Oliv. (27), S China, NE India, Burma, Thailand Vietnam

Phylloboea Benth. (1), Burma

Platystemma Wall. (1), Nepal, SW China

Primulina Hance (1), S China

Pseudochirita W.T.Wang (1), S China

Ramonda Rich. (3), Iberian (Pyrenees) and Balkan Peninsula

Raphiocarpus Chun (Didissandra p.p.) (11), China, Vietnam

Rhabdothamnopsis Hemsl. (1), S China

Ridleyandra A.Weber & B.L.Burtt (Didissandra p.p.) (c. 23), Malay Peninsula, Borneo

Saintpaulia H.Wendl. (>20), E Africa

Schizoboea (Fritsch) B.L.Burtt (1), W, C & E Africa

Streptocarpus Lindl. (>130), Africa, Madagascar, Comoro Islands

Tengia Chun (1), S China

Tetraphyllum [Griff. ex] C.B.Clarke (2-3), NE India, Bangladesh, Thailand, ?Burma

Thamnocharis W.T.Wang (1), S China

Trachystigma C.B.Clarke (1), W Africa

Tremacron Craib (7), S China

Trisepalum C.B.Clarke (15), S China, Burma, Thailand, N Malay Peninsula

Trichospreae

Aeschynanthus Jack (c. 150), S China, Nepal, S India, Sri Lanka, throughout Malesia to New Guinea, Solomon Islands

Agalmyla Blume (>50), Malesia

Loxostigma C.B.Clarke (7 or more), NE India, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, Burma, S China, N Vietnam

Lysionotus G.Don (c. 30) from N India and Nepal to Thailand, Vietnam, S China, S Japan

Micraeschynanthus Ridl. (1, doubtful), Malay Peninsula

Cyrtandreae

Cyrtandra J.R. & G.Forst. (>450), Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, S Thailand, Taiwan, troughout Malesia to the Pacific and Hawaiian Islands

Rhynchotechum Blume (12), SE Asia, position somewhat uncertain, eventually to Didymocarpeae

Sepikaea Schltr. (1), New Guinea, probably to be included in Cyrtandra

Genera of uncertain position:

Sanango Bunting & Duke (1), C America, eastern slopes of the Andes (Ecuador and Peru), included in Gesnerioideae-Gesnerieae by Wiehler (1994), but position still doubtful

Titanotrichum Soler. (1), S China, Taiwan, S Japan (accomodated in a monotypic tribe, Cyrtandroideae-Tiitanotricheae, by W.T.Wang)

 


 


 

Lamiaceae (= Labiatae)  ( ~252/6700) Genera by subfamily and tribe (after Cantino et al. 1992, 1997, Wagstaff et al. 1997, Olmstead, unpubl. ; Cantino pers. comm.).  Nomenclature follows Cantino et al 1997; 1998. 


 

Teucrioideae (26/~1000)

Aegiphila Jacq. (125-150) trop Am

Ajuga L.  (40-50) mainly Eurasia

Amasonia L.f. (8) trop Am

Amethystea L. (1) Asia

Cardioteucris (= Rubiteucris) Kudo (2) China

Caryopteris Bunge (7) E Asia

Clerodendrum L. 400-500 trop/subtrop

Cyclonema  (= Rotheca)

Discretitheca  1 Nepal

Eplingia  (= Trichostema) L. (17) Mexico

Faradaya F. Muell. (3-18) Indomal/Austral/Polynes

Glossocarya Wall. ex Griff. (9-13) Australia/Indomal/SE Asia

Hosea Ridl. (1) Indomal

Huxleya Ewart (1) Australia

Isanthus  (= Trichostema) N Am

Kalaharia  (= Clerodendrum) Africa

Karomia Dop. (9) Afr/Mad/Viet Nam

Kinostemon  (= Teucrium) China

Monochilus Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (2) Brazil

Oncinocalyx F. Muell. (1) Australia

Oxera Labill. (20) New Caledonia, Vanuatu

Pseudocaryopteris  3 S China, India, SE Asia

Rotheca  50-60 Afr/Mad/Ind Ocean/S Asia/Indomal

Rubiteucris  2 E Asia

Schnabelia Hand.-Mazz. (5) China

Spartothamnella Briq. (3) Australia

Tetraclea  (2) S. N.Am

Teucridium Hook.f. (1) New Zealand

Teucrium L. (200) worldwide mostly temp

Trichostema L. (17-19) N Am/Bahamas

Tripora  1 E Asia

Lamiina ()

Scutellarioideae Prantl, Text-Book Bot.: 293. 1 Mar-15 Apr 1880. (5/372)

Harlanlewisia  (= Scutellaria) Ecuador

Holmskioldia Retz. (1) Himal

Perilomia  (= Scutellaria) S Am

Renschia Vatke (1) Africa

Salazaria  (= Scutellaria) SW US

Scutellaria L. (350) worldwide

Tinnea Kptschy & Peyr. (19) Africa

Wenchengia C.Y. Wu & S. Chow (1) China

Clebrookeina

Marrubiina (~56/1090)

Achyrospermum Blume (10) Old World trop

Acrotome Benth. ex Endl. (8) trop and S. Africa

Ajugoides Makino (1) Japan

Alajja Ikonn. (3) C Asia/Afghan/W Himalaya

Ballota L. (35) Europe/Medit/W.Asia

Bostrychanthera Benth. (1) China

Brazoria Engelm. & A. Gray (2) S US

Chaiturus  (~ Leonurus) Ehrh. ex Willd. (1) W Eur to C As

Chamaesphacos Schrenk ex Firsh. & C.A. Mey. (1) Iran/Afghanistan

Chelonopsis Miq. (13) Kashmir/Tibet/E Asia

Colquhounia Wall. (3) Himalaya/SW China

Craniotome Rchb. (1) Himalaya

Eremostachys Bunge (5+) Eur - C.Asia

Eriophyton Benth. (1) Himalaya

Galeobdolon  (= Lamium) W Eur/Iran

Galeopsis L. (10) temp Eurasia

Gomphostemma L. (30) SE Asia/Malaysia

Haplostachys (A. Gray) W.F. Hillebr. (6) Hawaii

Harmsiella  (= Otostegia)

Hypogomphia  4 C Asia/Afghan

Isoleucas O. Schwartz (1) Arabia

Lagochilus Bunge (35) C.As - Iran/Afghan.

Lagopsis Bunge (4) (=Marrubium?) Siberia/Japan

Lamiophlomis  (=Phlomis)

Lamium L. (41) N.Af/Eurasian

Lasiocorys  (= Leucas) trop S Af/Socotra/Arab

Leonotis (Pers.) R. Br. (40) trop, S Af; 1 pantrop

Leonurus L. (4) temp Eurasia

Leucas R. Br. (150) Afr/Arabia/Indomal.

Loxocalyx Hemsl. (2) China

Macbridea Elliott ex Nutt. (2) SE US

Marrubium L. (30) Eur/Medit

Melittis L. (1) Eur - Iran

Metastachydium Airy Shaw ex C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li (1) C. Asia

Microtoena Prain (25) Himalaya-W China

Moluccella L. (4) Medit - NW India

Notochaete Bent. (1) Himalaya

Otostegia Benth. (20) SE trop Af - C Asia

Panzerina Sojak (6) Siberia/Mongol

Paralamium Dunn (1) SW China

Paraphlomis Prain (8) E Asia/Malaysia

Phlomidoschema (Benth.) Vved. (1) Iran-W Himalaya

Phlomis L. (100) C Asia/China

Phyllostegia Benth. (25) Tahiti/Hawaii

Physoleucas  (= Leucas) Arabia

Physostegia Benth. (12) N Am

Prasium L. (1) Medit

Pseuderemostachys Popov (1) C Asia

Pseudomarrubium Popov (1) C Asia ?

Roylea Wall. ex Benth. (1) Himalaya

Sideritis L. (100) N temp Old world/Macarones

Stachyopsis Popov & Vved. (3) C Asia

Stachys L. (300) temp World-wide

Stenogyne Benth. (25) Hawaii

Sulaimania Hedge & Rech.f. (1) Pakistan

Suzukia Kudo (2) Ryukyus/Taiwan

Synandra Nutt. (1) E US

Thuspeinanta T. Durand (2) C Asia/Iran/Afghan

Warnockia  1 S US

Wiedemannia Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (3) SW Asia

Colebrookeina genera of uncertain placement

Anisomeles R. Br. (13) OW trop, Mad, Indom, Aus

Colebrookea Sm. (1) India

Comanthosphace S. Moore (5) E Asia

Epimeredi  (= Anisomeles)

Eurysolen (or Lamioideae?) Prain (1) SE Asia and Malaysia

Eusteralis  (= Pogostemon) 96 temp Asia/Aus

Leucosceptrum Sm. (3) Himal., China

Pogostemon Desf. (71) Indomalaysia

Rostrinucula Kudo (2) E Asia

Holocheila (Kudo) S. Chow (1) China (= Teucrieae?)

Prostantheroideae (16/239) Leurss., Handb. Syst. Bot. 2: 1014, 1016. Sep 1882 (14/238)

Chloantheae (9/99) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2: 1132. 1-16 Mai 1876

Chloanthes R. Br. (4)  Australia

Cyanostegia Turcz. (5) Australia

Denisonia (=Pityrodia)

Dicrastylis J.L. Drumm. ex Harv. (26) Australia

Hemiphora (F. Muell.) F. Muell. (1) Australia

Lachnostachys Hook. (6) Australia

Mallophora Endl. (2) Australia

Newcastelia F. Muell. (12) Australia

Physopsis Turcz. (2) Australia

Pityrodia R. Br. (41) Australia

Westringieae Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 182. Sep 1830. (7/140)

Cryphia (= Prostanthera)

Eichlerago  1 (= Prostanthera) Australia

Hemiandra R. Br. (7) Australia

Hemigenia R. Br. (40) Australia

Microcorys R. Br. (16) Australia

Prostanthera Labill. (45) Australia

Westringia Sm. (30) Australia

Wrixonia  1 Australia

Symphorematina (3/24)

Congea Roxb. (7) SE Asia & W. Malaysia

Sphenodesme Jack (14) SE Asia & W. Malaysia

Symphorema Roxb. (3) Indomal

Nepetoideae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 3: 752. Apr-Dec 1834. (/)

Mentheae Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 48. 1827. (/)

Acanthomintha A. Gray (3) W. US

Acinos (= Clinopodium)

Agastache Gronov. (22) N. Amer.

Blephilia Raph. (3) E N Am

Bystropogon L'Her. (10) Macaronesia

Calamintha (= Clinopodium)

Cedronella Moench (1) Macaronesia

Chaunostoma Donn.Sm. (1) C. Amer.

Cleonia L. (2) W Medit.

Clinopodium L. (100) N World temp Eurasia

Conradina (6) SE US

Coridothymus (= Thymbra) Rchb.f. (unknown) Uncertain

Cuminia Colla (1) Juan Fernandez Isl.

Cunila Royen ex L. (15) N/S Am

Cyclotrichium (Boiss.) Manden. & Scheng. (6) SW Asia to Iran

Dicerandra Benth. (8-9) SE US

Diodeilis (= Clinopodium)

Dorystaechas Boiss. & Heldr. ex Benth. (1) W Asia

Dracocephalum L. (46) Eurasia, N. Amer.

Drepanocaryum Pojark. (1) C Asia

Eriothymus (Benth.) Rchb. (1) Brazil

Euhesperida Brullo & Furnari (1) Libya & Cyrenaica

Gardoquia (= Clinopodium)

Glechoma L. (10) temp. Eurasia

Glechon Spreng. (6) Brazil, Paraguay

Gontscharovia Boriss. (1) C Asia

Hedeoma Pers. (38) SW N. Amer. & S. Amer.

Hesperozygis Epling (8) Mex. to Brazil

Hoehnea Epling (4) S Brazil to N Argentina

Horminum L. (1) S Europe

Hymenocrater Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (12) SW Asia

Hyssopus L. (5) S Europe & Medit. to C Asia

Kudrjaschevia Pojark. (4) C Asia

Kurzamra Kuntze (1) temp. S. Amer.

Lallemantia Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (5) Turkey to C Asia & Himal.

Lepechinia Willd. (55) warm N. Amer. & S. Amer., Hawaii

Lophanthus Adans. (2) unknown

Lycopus L. (14) N temp

Marmoritis Benth. (5) Pakistan to China

Meehania Britton (2) E Asia, E US

Melissa L. (3) Europe to Iran & C Asia

Mentha L. (25) temp. OW

Meriandra Benth. (2) Ethiopia, Himal.

Micromeria Benth. (90) temp. Europe, Canary Isl., W.I.

Minthostachys (Benth.) Spach (12) W S. Amer.

Monarda L. (20) N Am, Mex

Monardella Benth. (20) W N. Amer.

Neoeplingia Ramam., Hiriart & Medrano (1) Mex.

Nepeta L. (250) Eurasia & N Africa

Obtegomeria (1) N S Am

Origanum L. (36) Eurasia

Pentapleura Hand.-Mazz. (1) Kurdistan

Perovskia Kar. (7) NE Iran to NW India

Piloblephis Raf. (1) SE US

Pitardia Batt. ex Pit. (2) NW Africa

Pogogyne Benth. (6) W N. Amer.

Poliomintha A. Gray (7) SW N. Amer.

Prunella L. (4) N temp. Eurasia & NW Africa

Pycnanthemum Michx. (17-21) E N Am

Rhabdocaulon (Benth.) Epling (7) trop. S. Amer.

Rhododon Epling (1) SC US

Rosmarinus L. (2) Medit.

Saccocalyx Coss. & Durieu (1) NW Africa

Salvia L. (900) OW & NW temp regions

Satureja L. (30) OW & NW temp. & warm regions

Schizonepeta (Benth.) Briq. (3) temp. Asia

Stachydeoma Small (1) SE US

Thymbra L. (4) Medit. & S Europe to SW Asia

Thymus L. (350) temp. Eurasia

Xenopoma (= Clinopodium)

Zataria Boiss. (1) Iran, Afghanistan

Zhumeria Rech.f. & Wendelbo (1) Iran

Ziziphora L. (25) Medit. to C Asia

Ocimeae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 22. 1829 (52/1458)

Acrocephalus Benth. (= Platostoma)

Aeollanthus Mart. ex Spreng. (43) trop. & warm Amer.

Alvesia Welw. (3) trop. Africa

Anisochilus ()

Asterohyptis Epling (3) Mex.

Basilicum Moench (7) OW trop. to Australia

Becium (= Ocimum) Lindl. (10) trop. Africa

Benguellia G. Taylor (1) Angola

Capitanopsis S. Moore (2) Madag.

Capitanya Schweinf. ex Gurke (1) E Africa

Catoferia (Benth.) Benth. (4) C. Amer.

Ceratanthus (= Platostoma) F. Muell. ex G. Taylor (10) SE Asia, Malayasia

Dauphinea Hedge (1) Madag.

Endostemon N.E. Br. (17) trop. & S Africa to India

Englerastrum (= Plectranthus) Briq. (20) trop. Africa

Eriope Kunth ex Benth. (30) trop. & warm S. Amer.

Eriopidion (= Eriope) Harley (1) Venezula, Brazil

Erythrochlamys (= Ocimum) Gurke (5) trop. E Africa

Fuerstia T.C.E. Fr. (6) trop. Africa

Geniosporum (= Plectranthus) Wall. ex Benth. (25) trop. Africa, Madag., SE Asia

Hanceola Kudo (3) China

Haumaniastrum P.A.Duvign. & Plancke (23) trop. Africa

Hemizygia (Benth.) Briq. (28) trop. & S Africa

Holostylon Robyns & Lebrun (3) trop. Africa

Hoslundia Vahl (2) trop. Africa

Hypenia (Mart. ex Benth.) Harley (24) warm & trop. Amer.

Hyptidendron Harley (16) warm & trop. Amer.

Hyptis Jacq. (300) warm & trop. Amer., OW trop.

Isodictyophorus (= Plectranthus) Briq. (1) W Africa

Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach (96) warm & trop. Asia & Africa

Leocus ()

Marsypianthes Mart. ex Benth. (6) trop. Amer.

Mesona (= Plectranthus) Blume (3) Asia, Malaysia

Neohyptis (= Plectranthus) J.K. Morton (1) Angola

Nosema (= Plectranthus) Prain (6) SE Asia, Malaysia

Ocimum L. (150) temp. & trop. OW

Octomeron (= Plectranthus) Robyns (1) trop. Africa

Orthosiphon Benth. (40) OW trop.

Peltodon Pohl (5) Brazil, Paraguay

Perrierastrum Guillaumin (1) Madag.

Platostoma P. Beauv. (5) OW trop.

Plectranthus L'Her. (200) warm & trop. OW

Puntia Hedge (1) C Somalia

Pycnostachys Hook. (37) trop & S Africa, Madag.

Rabdosiella (= Plectranthus) Codd (2) S Africa, N India

Rhaphiodon Schauer (1) Brazil

Solenostemon (= Plectranthus) Thonn. (10) trop. Africa

Symphostemon (= Plectranthus) Hiern (2) Angola

Syncolostemon E. Mey. (10) SE Africa

Tetradenia Benth. (9) trop. Africa, Madag.

Thorncroftia N.E. Br. (3) Transvaal

Elsholtzieae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 971. Jun 1835 (6/57)

Collinsonia L. (4) E N Am

Elsholtzia Willd.(35) OW trop.

Keiskea Miq. (5) Asia

Mosla (Benth.) Buch.-Ham. ex Maxim. (10) E Asia, Malaysia

Perilla L. (6) India to Japan

Perillula Maxim. (1) Japan

Lavanduleae Caruel in Parl., Fl. Ital. 6: 53. Sep 1884 (1/30)

Lavandula L. (30) Atlantic isl., Medit. to Somalia & India

Sabaudia (= Lavandula) Buscal. & Muschl. (2) NE & SE trop. Africa

Nepetoideae genera of uncertain placement

Bovonia Chiov. (1) Zaire

Heterolamium C.Y. Wu (1) China

Ombrocharis Hand.-Mazz. (1) China

Viticoideae (3/260)

Petitia Jacq. (2) W.I.

Pseudocarpidium Millsp. (8) W.I.

Teijsmanniodendron Koord. (14) SE Asia, Malaysia

Vitex L. (250) temp. & trop. NW & OW

 

Uncertain affinity within family

Acrymia Prain 1 Malaysia

Adelosa Blume  1 Madagascar

Archboldia  E. Beer & H.J. Lam (1) New Guinea

Callicarpa  L. (140) warm & trop. NW & OW

Cornutia  L. (12) trop. Am

Cymaria  Benth. (2-3) SE Asia, Indomal.

Garrettia  H.R. Fletcher (1) SE Asia, Indomal.

Geunsia (=Callicarpa)

Gmelina  L. (35) SE Asia, Indomal., Africa, Mascarenes

Hymenopyramis Wall. ex Griff. (6) India, SE Asia

Neorapinia Moldenke (1) New Caledonia

Paravitex H.R. Fletcher (1) SE Asia

Peronema Jack (1) SE Asia/Indomal.

Petraeovitex Olive (8) Indomal /Pac.Is/Phillipines

Premna 200 trop/subtrop Af/Asia/Aust

Pseudochamaesphacos  ?

Pygmaeopremna (= Premna?)

Tectona L.f. (3) trop. Asia

Tsoongia Merr. (1) SE Asia

Viticipremna Lam. (5) Indomal., Australia

 


 


 

Lentibulariaceae Rich. in Poit. & Turpin, Fl. Paris 1: ed. fol. 23, ed. qu. 26. 1808, nom. cons.  (4/310)  See Mller et al. 2004.


 

Byblis (2) Aus, New Guinea

Genlisea A. St.-Hil. (21) trop Am, trop & S Af, Mad

Pinguicula L. (74) Am, Medit, circumbor

Utricularia L. (215) cosmop, esp trop


 


 


Linderniaceae (Rchb.) Borsch, K. Mller, & Eb. Fisch. (13/~194)

 

Artanema D. Don (4) trop Afr, Asia

Chamaegigas Dinter (1) Namibia

Craterostigma Hochst. (9) Yemen, trop & S Af, Ind

Crepidorhopalon Eb. Fisch. (28) trop & S Af, Mad

Hartliella Eb. Fisch. (4) C Af (Congo, Katanga)

Hemiarrhena Benth. (1) Qland (= Lindernia?)

Legazpia Blanco (1) SE As, Micrones, N Guin (= Torenia?)

Lindernia All. (~100) Eur, trop Af, Mad, SE As, N, C, & C. Am.

Picria Lour. (1) Indomal. (= Curanga)

Pierranthus Bonati (1) SE As

Schizotorenia T. Yamaz. (2) SE As  (= Lindernia?)

Scolophyllum T. Yamaz. (2) SE As (= Lindernia?)

Torenia L. (40) SE As, Af, Mad


 


 

Martyniaceae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 130. 1847, nom. cons. (4/17) (sensu H.-D. Ihlenfeldt, pers. comm.)


 

Craniolaria L. (3) S. Am.

Ibicella Van Eselt. (3) warm and trop. Am

Martynia L. (1) Mex

Proboscidea Schmidel (10) warm Am


 

 


 

Oleaceae Hofmanns. & Link Fl. Portug. 1:62. 1809.  (25/600+)       provided by Eva Wallander (eva.wallander@systbot.gu.se) 6/14/00

Comments: Note that Dimetra and Nyctanthes now, without doubt, belong to Oleaceae (not Verbenaceae). The subfamilies Jasminoideae and Oleoideae have been abandoned because Jasminoideae is paraphyletic. The Oleoideae is monophyletic but now recognised as tribe Oleeae, with its former tribes as subtribes.


 

Fontanesieae

Fontanesia (1-2) SW Asia (and Sicily) and China

Forsythieae

Abeliophyllum Nakai (1) Korea

Forsythia (11) E Asia and SE Europe (1 sp.)

Jasmineae

Jasminum (200+) Tropical and subtropical parts of the Old World

Menodora (22) Subtropical North America, central and S South America, and S Africa

Myxopyreae

Dimetra (1) Thailand

Myxopyrum (4) Tropical SE Asia

Nyctanthes (2) Tropical and subtropical SE Asia

Oleeae

Ligustrinae

Ligustrum (45) Temperate to tropical parts of the Old World, except Africa

Syringa (20) Mainly subtropical parts of Eurasia

Schreberinae

Comoranthus (3) Madagascar and the Comores

Schrebera (4) Tropical parts of Africa and India

Fraxininae

Fraxinus (50) Mainly temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere

Oleinae

Chionanthus (100) Tropical and subtropical Africa, America, Asia, and Australia

Forestiera (15) Subtropical North America, West Indies, and N South America

Haenianthus (3) West Indies

Hesperelaea (1, extinct) Mexico

Nestegis (5) New Zealand and Hawaii (1 sp.)

Noronhia (41) Madagascar

Notelaea (12) Australia and Tasmania

Olea (40+) Tropical and subtropical parts of the Old World

Osmanthus (30) Subtropical parts of E Asia and North America (1-2 spp.)

Phillyrea (2) Mediterranean region to W Asia

Picconia (1) Macaronesia

Priogymnanthus (2) South America

 


 


 

Orobanchaceae Vent., Tabl. Rgne Vg. 2:292. 1799, nom. cons. (65/1538) Synoptical classification following Young et al. 1999, Olmstead et al. 2001, Wolfe et al. 2005, Bennett & Mathews, unpubl., and D. Nickrent, pers. comm.

 


Orobanchaceae sensu stricto

Boschniakia (4) Himal, N Asia, NW N Am

Cistanche (16) Med, Ethiopia, India, to W China

Conopholis (2) E US to Panama

Diphelypaea (2?) Asia

Epifagus (1) E N Am

Kopsiopsis (2) W N Am (= Boschniakia)

Mysorrhiza (= Orobanche)

Orobanche (100-150) temp & warm N Hemisphere

Xylanche  (2) Himal to Taiwan (= Boschniakia)

New World hemiparasite plus Pedicularis clade

Agalinis (40) trop & warm Am

Adenostegia (= Cordylanthus)

Castilleja (200) most W N Am, also E N Am, Euras, C Am, Andes

Clevelandia (1) Baja Ca (= Castilleja)

Cordylanthus (18) W N Am

Esterhazya (5) Bolivia, Brazil

Gentrya (= Castilleja)

Gerardia (= Agalinis)

Lamourouxia (28) Mex to Peru

Macranthera (1) SE US

Ophiocephalus (1) Baja Ca (= Castilleja)

Orthocarpus (9) W Am

Pedicularis (350) N hemisphere, 1 sp in Andes

Phtheirospermum (7) E As

Seymeria (25) S N Am

Triphysaria (5) W N Am

Africa/SW Asia clade

Aeginetia L. (3) Indomal, E As

Alectra (40) Africa/Asia

Buchnera (100) warm O&NW (16 NW)

Cycnium (15) warm AF (~Escobediea)

Escobedia (6) trop Am

Graderia (5) Af & Socotra

Harveya (40) trop & S. Af, Mascarenes

Hyobanche (7) S Af

Melasma (20) trop Af, Am

Radamaea (5) Madagascar

Sopubia (60) trop OW to S Af

Stellularia (= Buchnera)

Striga (~40) OW trop to S Af

Vellosiella (3) Brazil (~Melasma)

Xylocalyx (5) Somalia, Socotra

Cyclocheilaceae

Asepalum (1) NE & E Af

Cyclocheilon (3) NE Af

Nesogenaceae

Nesogenes A. DC. (8) E Afr, Mad, India, Pac Is

European clade

Bartsia (60) Eur, Af mt, Andes (not mono- Bennett&Mathews)

Bellardia (1) Med

Bungea (2) SW As to China

Euphrasia (~170) N temp, Malaysia, NZ, S Am (only Eurasia? Nickrent)

Fistularia (= Rhinanthus)

Lathraea (7) Eurasia

Macrosyringion (= Odontites)

Melampyrum (35) N temp

Odontites (30) W & S Eur to W As

Orthantha (= Odontites)

Parentucellia (2) Med & SW As

Rhynchocorys (6) S Eur to Iran

Rhinanthus (45) N hemisphere, esp Eur

Siphonidium (= Euphrasia)

Tozzia (1) Alps, Carpathanians

Orobanchaceae placed in tree, but unassigned to above clades

Brandisia (13) Burma China

Cymbaria (4) Eurasia

Lesquereuxia (1) E Medit (= Siphonostegia?)

Lindenbergia (15) Himal to trop Afr/Asia

Monochasma (4) E As

Schwalbea (1) E US

Siphonostegia (3) Med & E As

Genera not sampled in phylogenetic studies and unassigned for that reason.

Buchnereae (25/352)

Aureolaria (11) E US, Mex

Buttonia (3) trop & S Af

Centranthera (9) China to Australia

Gerardiina (2) trop & S. Af

Leptorhabdos (1) Cauc, Iran, C As, Himal

Micrargeria (4) trop Af, India

Nothochilus (1) Brazil

Physocalyx (2) Brazil

Rhamphicarpa (6) trop & S Af, India, Austral

Rhaphispermum (1) Madag (=Pseudomelasma?)

Silviella (2) Mex

Tetraspidium (1) Madagascar

Orobancheae (15/210)

Christisonia (17) SW China, SE As

Gleadovia (6) W Himal, W. China

Mannagettaea (3) W China to E Siberia

Necranthus (1) Turkey

Phacellanthus (1) E As

Phelypaea (4) Medit

Platypholis (1) Japan

Tienmuia (1) E China (~Phacellanthus)

Rhinantheae (21/944)

Omphalotrix (1) NE As

Unassigned:

Ancistrostylis (1) Laos

Brachystigma (1) SW US

Cycniopsis (3) trop Africa

Dasistoma (1) E N Am

Ghikaea (1) trop Africa

Hedbergia (1) trop Africa

Leucosalpa (3) Madagascar

Madgalenaea (1) SE Brazil

Micrargeriella (1) trop E Africa

Nothobartsia (1) Medit

Parastriga (1) trop Africa

Petitmenginia (2) S China, SE Asia

Pseudobartsia (1) China

Pseudomelasma (1) Madagascar

Pseudosopubia (7) trop Africa

Pseudostriga (1) SE Asia

Pterygiella (3) China

Sieversandreas (1) Madagascar

Spirostriga (1) California to Baja Ca

Thunbergianthus (2) Africa

Vellosiella (3) Brazil

Zizangia (1) China


 

 


Paulowniaceae Nakai J. Jap. Bot. 24:13, 1949.  (1/6)

 

Paulownia Siebold & Zucc. (6) E Asia

 


 

Pedaliaceae R.Br. Prodr. 519.  1819. nom.cons. (13/70) (sensu H.-D. Ihlenfeldt, pers. comm.. 2001)


 

Pedalioideae (of Pedaliaceae s.l.) 12/70

Ceratotheca (5) trop and S. Af.

Dicerocaryum (3) S. trop. Af.

Harpagophytum (2) S. Af. Madagascar

Holubia (1) S. Af.

Josephinia (4) Kenya to Somalia

Linariopsis (2-3) W and SW trop Af.

Pedaliodiscus (1) E Af

Pedalium (1) OW trop P. murex edible

Pterodiscus (13) trop and S. Af.

Rogeria (4) Brazil, trop and S. Af.

Sesamothamnus (6) trop Af.

Sesamum (19) OW trop. And S. Af.

Uncarina (13) Madagascar

 


 


 

Phrymaceae Shcauer in DC. Prodr. 11:520. 1847. nom. cons. (11/195) 


 

Berendtiella (4) C Am

Dodartia (1) S Russia, W As

Elacholoma (1) C Aus

Glossostigma (6) Aus, NZ, Af, Ind

Hemichaena (1) C Am

Lancea (2) Tibet, China

Leucocarpus (1) trop Am

Mazus (20) E & SE As, Indomal, Aust

Mimulus (150) Am, Asia, S Af

Peplidium (7) Aus, Ind, Af

Phryma (2) E Asia, E N Am

 


 


 

Plocospermataceae Hutch. Fam. Fl. Pl. ed. 3 469. 1973. (1/1) 

 

Plocospermum (1) Mex, Guatemala

 


 

Schlegeliaceae (A.H. Gentry) Reveal  Phytologia 79:74.  1996.  (3/20) formerly of Bignoniaceae and may still be close


 

Gibsoniothamnus (7) Mexico to C Am

Schlegelia (12) tropical Am

Synapsis (1) Cuba

Thomandersia Baill. (6) trop Af

 


 


 

Scrophulariaceae Durande  Notions Elm. Bot.: 265.  1782.  (52/1681) Synoptical classification by tribe. Following Wettstein (1891), Barringer (1993), Olmstead et al. 2001, Kornhall et al., 2001, 2004, Oxelman et al. 2005.


 

Aptosimeae (4/44)

Anticharis (14) Af to Mal

Aptosimum (20) Africa

Peliostomum (7) trop & S Af

Stemodiopsis (3) Africa

Buddlejaceae (5/~110)

Buddleja (98) Neotrop (63) S Af (10) As (25)

Chilianthus (?) ?

Emorya (2) Tex., Mex.

Gomphostigma (2) S. Af.

Nicodemia (=Buddleja?)

Freylinieae (4/8)  (Barringer 1993)

Antherothamnus (1) C & S Af

Freylinia (4) trop & S Af

Manuleopsis (1) SW Afr

Phygelius (2) S Africa

Hemimerideae (7/134)

Alonsoa Ruiz & Pav. (16) trop Am, S Af

Colpias (1) S Africa

Diascia (38) S Af

Diclis (10) trop & S Af, Mad

Hemimeris (4) S Af

Nemesia (65) trop & S Af

Schistanthe (?) ?

Leucophyleae (3/17)

Capraria (4) warm Am

Eremogeton (1) Mex, Guat

Leucophyllum (12) SW N Am

Manuleeae (28/566) (Hilliard 1994)

Agathelpis Choisy (2) SW Cape

Barthlottia (1) Madag

Chenopodiopsis (3) S Af

Cromidon (12) S Af

Dischisma (11) SW Cape to Namibia

Glekia (1) S Af

Globulariopsis (7) S. Af

Glumicalyx (6) S&SE Af

Gosela (1) S Af

Hebenstretia (25) trop & S Am

Jamesbrittenia (83) S Af

Limosella (11) cosmop

Lyperia (6) S Af

Manulea (73) S Af

Manuleopsis (1) SW Af

Melanospermum (6) S Af

Microdon (7) SW Cape

Phyllopodium (26) SW Cape

Polycarena (17) SW Cape

Pseudoselago (28) west S Af

Reyemia (2) S Af

Selago (190) trop & S Af

Sphenandra? (= Sutera)

Strobilopsis (1) S Af

Sutera (49) S Af

Tetraselago (4) S Af

Trieenia (9) SW Cape

Walafrida (?) Madag, S Af

Zaluzianskya (55) W S Af

Myoporeae (4/236) sensu Chinnock, in press

Androya (1) Madagascar (Oxelman et al. 1999)

Bontia L. (1) W. Ind., trop S. Am.

Calamphoreus Chinnock (1)

Diocirea Chinnock (4) Austral

Eremophila R. Br. (214) Austral. (1 NZ)

Glycocystis Chinnock (1) Austral

Myoporum Sol. Ex Forster (30) Austral., NZ, Pac. Is., E. Asia

Pentacoelium Zucc. (1) Austral

Scrophularieae (4/564)

Antherothamnus (1) C&S Af

Celsia (= Verbascum)

Oreosolen (3) Himalaya

Scrophularia (200) N temp to trop Am

Staurophragma (= Verbascum)

Verbascum (360) Euras, E Af

Teedieae (3/6)  (G. Don; Barringer 1993)

Oftia (3) S Af

Ranopisoa (1) Madag (~ Oftia)

Teedia (2) S Af

Unassigned

Androya (1) Mad

Camptoloma (3) Canaries Ethiopia Arabia

Cheilophyllum (8) W Indies

Dermatobotrys (1) S. Af


 


 

Stilbaceae (11/39) Synoptical Classification by tribe.  (Bremer et al. 1994; Olmstead et al. 2001; Oxelman, unpubl.; Goldblatt, pers. comm.)


 

Stilbeae 7/28

Campylostachys (1) SW Cape

Eurylobium (2) SW Cape

Euthystachys (1) S Af

Nuxia (15) S Arabia to trop Af, Masc, S Af.

Retzia (1) Cape

Stilbe (6) SW and S Cape

Xeroplana (2) SW and S Cape

Bowkerieae (Barringer 1993) 3/7

Anastrabe (1) S Africa

Bowkeria (5) S Africa

Ixianthes (1) S Africa

Hallerieae 1/4

Halleria (4) trop & S Africa, Madag

 


 


 

Tetrachondraceae 2/3 (Oxelman et al. 1999)


 

Polypremum (1) warm Am.

Tetrachondra (2) Patagonia, N.Z.


 


 

Verbenaceae (~35 gen/980 spp) modified from Atkins (2004).


 

Casselieae (4/25)

Casselia 12 trop Am

Ghinia 7 trop Am

Parodianthus  2 Argentina

Tamonea 4-5 trop Am

Citharexyleae (6/108)

Baillonia  1 S.Am

Citharexylum  70 trop Am

Duranta  30 Carib./S.Am

Recordia  1 Bolivia

Rehdera  3 C.Am

Rhaphithamnus  2 Chile/Juan Fern.

Verbenoxylum 1 Brazil

Petreeae (2/12)

Petrea  11 (Rueda 94 only 11) trop Am

Xolocotzia  1 Mexico

Priveae (3/22)

Castelia (=Pitraea) 

Dipyrena  1 temp S Am

Pitraea (~Priva) 1 S Am

Priva  20 trop/subtrop Af/Am

Lantaneae (12/497)

Acantholippia  6 arid S.Am

Aloysia 37 New World

Bouchea  9 trop Am

Burroughsia (= Lippia) 2 SW N Am.

Chascanum  23 Af/Mad./Arab./Ind.

Diostea  3 S Am

Gonyostachyum (~Lippia, Sanders 2001)

Lampaya  3 S. Am deserts

Lantana  150 trop Am/trop; S Af

Lippia  200 trop Af/Am

Nashia  7 Bahamas/Cuba

Neosparton  4 temp. S.Am

Riedela (~Lippia, Sanders 2001)

Phyla (~Lippia) 15 trop Am

Stachytarpheta  65 trop Am/trop/Af

Xeroaloysia 1 Argentina

Verbeneae (6/311)

Glandularia ~50 S Am/N Am, Mex

Hierobotana  1 Ecuador/Peru

Junellia  57 S. Am.

Stylodon  1 SE US (= Verbena)

Urbania  2 Chile

Verbena  ~200 mostly New World

Svensonia (~Chascanum) 4 E.Af/India

Ubochea (~Stachytarpheta) 1 C Verde I

Unplaced to tribe (2/2-3)

Coelocarpum  1 Socotra/Madagascar

Saccanthus (1-2) Bolivia

 

 



 

Veronicaceae (= Plantaginaceae in APGII) (104/1819)  Synoptical classification by Tribe.  Following Wettstein (1891), Barringer (1993), Olmstead et al. 2001, Oxelman et al. 1999, Oxelman et al. 2005; Albach et al. 2005.


 

Angelonieae (5/39)

Angelonia (25) trop Am

Basistemon (8) trop Am

Melosperma (1) Chile

Monopera (2) S. Am

Monttea (3) Chile

Antirrhineae 27/326 (Sutton 1988)

Acanthorrhinum (1) N Af

Albraunia (3) SW Asia

Anarrhinum (8) Medit. SW Asia

Antirrhinum (20 Sutton - Medit; 36 Thompson Medit, W N Am)

Asarina (1) SW Europe

Chaenorrhinum (21) Medit.

Cymbalaria (9) W Europe to Iran

Epixiphium (1) SW N Am (~ Maurandya)

Galvezia (4) coast Peru, Ecuador, Galap.

Gambelia (4) SW N Am (~Antirrhinum)

Holmgrenanthe (1) SW Nam

Holzneria (2) SW Asia

Howelliella (1) SW N Am (~ Antirrhinum)

Kickxia (46) Med to SC&SW Asia

Linaria (150) Euras, Medit

Lophospermum (8) N&C Am

Mabrya (5) SW N Am

Maurandella (1) SW N Am (~Maurandya)

Maurandya (2) Mex C Am

Misopates (7) Medit, Cape Verde, Is Ethiop India

Mohavea (2) SW US

Neogaerrhinum (2) (~Antirrhinum)

Nuttalanthus (4) N Am temp S Am (~Linaria)

Pseudorontium (1) SW N Am (~Antirrhinum)

Rhodochiton (3) Mex (~Lophospermum)

Sairocarpus (13) SW US (~ Antirrhinum)

Schweinfurthia (6) NE Af to India

Callitricheae 2/18

Callitriche (17) Cosmop

Hippuris (1) Cosmop

Cheloneae 8/318

Brookea (3) Borneo

Chelone (4) E N Am

Chionophila (2) W N Am

Collinsia (20) N Am

Keckiella (7) N Am

Nothochelone (1) W N Am

Pennellianthus (1) NE As

Penstemon (275) N Am

Tonella (2) W US

Uroskinnera (3) Mex C Am

Digitalideae 3/24

Digitalis (19) Med, Eur, C As

Erinus (2) N Af, Pyrren, Alps

Isoplexis (3) Macaronesia

Globularieae 2/24

Globularia (22) Cape Verde Eur W As

Poskea (2) Somolia Socotra

Gratiolieae 25/271

Achetaria Cham. & Schltdl. (5) trop Am

Adenosma R. Br. (15) China, Indomal, Aus

Allocalyx? (=Monocardia?)

Amphianthus? (=Bacopa)

Artenema (4) OW trop

Bacopa (56) warm esp Am

Benjaminia (1) trop Am

Bryodes (3) Mascaren

Bythophyton? (1) Indomal

Conobea (7) Am

Dintera (1) trop Af

Dizygostemon (1) Brazil

Dopatrium (7) trop As, Aus

Encopella (1) Cuba

Geochorda (=Bacopa)

Gratiola (20) temp, trop mts

Hemianthus (=Micranthemum)

Hemisiphonia (=Micranthemum)

Herpestis (=Bacopa)

Hydrotriche? (4) Mad

Ildefonsia (=Bacopa)

Leucospora (=Stemodia?)

Limnophila (37) OW trop

Mecardonia (10) warm Am (~Bacopa)

Micranthemum (14) Am, WI

Microcarpaea (=Peplideum)

Monocardia (=Bacopa?)

Morgania (= Stemodia)

Otacanthus (4) Brazil

Psammetes (1) trop W Af

Schistophragma? (2) Am (~Leucocarpus)

Scoparia (20) trop Am

Stemodia (55) OW & NW trop

Tetraulacium (1) Brazil

Trapella (1-2) E. As.

Zenkerina? ()

Hemiphragmieae 1/1

Hemiphragma (1) Himal

Plantagineae (3/285)

Aragoa (8) Andes

Bougueria (1) Andes (= Plantago)

Littorella (3) 1 each in N Am, S Am, Eur

Plantago (273) cosmop

Russelieae 2/54

Russelia (52) Cuba, Mex to Columbia

Tetranema (2) Mex Guatem

Sibthorpieae 2/6

Ellisiophyllum (1) India to Japan, New Guinea

Sibthorpia (5) trop & S Am, Macaron, Eur, Afr mts

Veroniceae 21/400 (see Albach et alo. 2004)

Besseya (7) N Am (= Veronica)

Botryopleuron (=Veronicastrum)

Calorhabdos (=Veronicastrum)

Chionohebe (6) Aus, NZ (= Veronica)

Cochlidiosperma (= Veronica)

Derwentia (10) SE Aus (= Veronica)

Detzneria (1) New Guin (= Veronica)

Falconeria (=Kashmiria)

Hebe (95) NZ, Fr Polynes, S Am (= Veronica)

Heliohebe (5) NZ (= Veronica)

Kashmiria (1) Himal

Lagotis (20) Eur to W China

Neopicrorhiza (2) E Himal (= Picrorhiza)

Odicardis (2) Cauc, E Afr (= Veronica)

Oligospermum (= Veronica)

Paederota (2) S Eur

Paederotella (1-3) As Minor, Cauc (= Veronica)

Parahebe (30) N Guin,ea NZ (= Veronica)

Picrorhiza (3) W Himal

Pseudolysimachion (19) temp/subtemp Euras (= Veronica)

Scrofella (1) China

Synthyris (9) W N Am (= Veronica)

Veronica (s.s. = 180; s.l. = 450) N temp or cosmop temp

Veronicastrum (20) NE As, NE Am

Wulfenia (3) SE Eur, Turk

Wulfeniopsis (2) Afghan Nepal

Veronicaceae unassigned to tribe 3/53

Campylanthus (15) Macaron NE Af Arabia

Lafuentea (2) Spain Morocco

Ourisia (36) Andes (20), NZ (15), Tasm (1)



 

Genera of Lamiales unassigned to family:


 

Lithophytum  (1) Mexico

Limnophila (37) OW tropics

Peltanthera (1) Costa Rica to Bolivia

Rehmannia (9) E As

Sanango (1) Ecuador Peru (Gesneriaceae?)

Wightia (2) SE Asia epiphytes becoming trees

Excluded from Acanthaceae (possibly Schlegeliaceae)

Thomandersia Baill. (6) trop Af

Excluded from Gesneriaceae (J. Smith, V. Savolainen p.c.)

Cubitanthus Barringer (1), Brazil

 



 

 

 

 

Acknowledgments:

P. Cantino (Lamiaceae)

E. Norman (Buddlejaceae, Sanango, Peltanthera)

P. Garnock-Jones (New Zealand Scrophulariaceae s.l.)

B. Oxelman (unpubl. Results in Buddlejaceae, Scrophulariaceae s.l.)

J. Reveal (nomenclature and misc.)

A. Weber (Gesneriaceae)

J. Smith (Gesneriaceae)

R. Harley (Lamiaceae)

P. Goldblatt (Scrophulariaceae s.l.; esp. S. Africa)

D. Albach (Veroniceae and Veronicaceae/Plantaginaceae)

Eva Wallander (eva.wallander@systbot.gu.se) (Oleaceae)

R. Scotland (Acanthaceae)

B. Bremer (scroph tribe Manuleeae, including former Selagineae)

H.-D. Ihlenfeldt (Pedaliaceae, Martyniaceae, Trapellaceae)

D. Mabberley (Lamiaceae)

L. Lohmann (Bignoniaceae)

D. Nickrent (Orobanchaceae)

D. Albach (Veronicaceae)

 


 

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