Linnaea borealis Twinflower
L. borealis is a circumboreal species, that occurs south to
Shoreline up to timberline
Local occurrence (where, how common)
occurs in several grassland and many hardwood and
coniferous forest types. In western
Partial shade; open or dense forest; shrub thickets; boggy or rocky shorelines
Plant strategy type/successional stage (stress-tolerator, competitor, weedy/colonizer, seral, late successional)
L. borealis is described as a pioneer species which spreads through the surface ash layer devoid of humus following a fire. Also described as a facultative seral species.
Monticola, Thuja plicata and Rhamnus purshiana.
May be collected as: (seed, layered, divisions, etc.)
Division, cuttings, seeds
Flowers from June to Sept., and seeds mature in 36 days.
Seed germination (needs dormancy breaking?)
L. borealis does not set very much seed, and its germination rate is about one in thirty. This makes propagation from seed, though it should be attempted as a parallel technique, prohibitive as a basic nursery approach to this species.
Seed life (can be stored, short shelf-life, long shelf-life)
Does not persist in seedbanks.
Air dry the seeds, and plant in fall.
Propagation recommendations (plant seeds, vegetative parts, cuttings, etc.)
Easy to propagate by division from young, rooted sections of runner, carefully detached from parent plants. Can also be grown from hardwood cuttings. If planting seeds in the spring, cold stratify for 60 days.
Soil or medium requirements (inoculum necessary?)
Installation form (form, potential for successful outcomes, cost)
Seed: germination rate is about one in thirty.
Divisions are most successful.
Care requirements after installed (water weekly, water once etc.)
Less than 10cm tall. Very slow to establish; it takes seedlings about thirteen years to bloom. Vegetative reproduction by stolons is the primary method of regeneration. First produces stolons at 5-10 years of age. It is reported to spread as much as a 30 cm (1 ft) per year in lowland revegetation sites.
Leigh, M. 1999. Grow You Own Native
Landscape. Native Plant Salvage Project ; WSU
Pojar, J. and A. MacKinnon. 1994. Plants of the