Plant Data Sheet
Black Twinberry or Bearberry Honeysuckle, Lonicera involucrata Banks ex Spreng. var. involucrata
(*There is another variety ledebourii,
which is not as widespread but found mostly in
Widely distributed across much of North America from Alaska south to California and Mexico, east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, and irregularly to Michigan and Quebec.
From sea level to subalpine zone in moist and wet soils. Main limiting factor is moisture.
Local occurrence (where, how common)
Relatively common in wetlands, riparian habitats, thickets, and moist forest or woodland clearings .
Moist or wet, heavy soils such as those near lakes but can succeed in any fertile soil. Open sun best, but shade ok
Plant strategy type/successional stage (stress-tolerator, competitor, weedy/colonizer, seral, late successional)
Long-lived competitor. Has high seedling vigor and moderate growth rate, but low seed abundance and no vegetative spread.
May be collected as: (seed, layered, divisions, etc.)
Collection restrictions or guidelines
Collect fruit in August or when it turns black and extract seeds by maceration in water. Seed is tan at maturity. Keep fruits in plastic bags under refrigeration until cleaned.
Seed germination (needs dormancy breaking?)
Cold stratification required 2-6 months. Preparation recommended: give 48-hour water or soak seeds in water 12 hours prior to cold-moist stratification.
Seed life (can be stored, short shelf-life, long shelf-life)
Up to 15 years.
Recommended seed storage conditions
1-3 C in sealed containers for long-term storage.
Propagation recommendations (plant seeds, vegetative parts, cuttings, etc.)
Cuttings, bare root, or container plants grown from seed or cuttings.
Seed: Sow seeds as soon as ripe in cold frames. When seedlings are large enough, plant directly into permanent positions in late spring or early summer.
Cuttings: Collect hardwood cuttings .5 inch in diameter and at least 10 inches long with 5 or more nodes, between November and mid-January before any sign of budbreak.. Treat with rooting powder. Plant in flats in greenhouse and water until roots develop. Transplant to containers in about 50 days.
Soil or medium requirements (inoculum necessary?)
Fine to medium textured moist soils.
Installation form (form, potential for successful outcomes, cost)
Plants grown from seed or cuttings.
Recommended planting density
2700-11,000 per acre.
Care requirements after installed (water weekly, water once etc.)
Normal rate of growth or spread; lifespan
Moderate growth rate and long lifespan (20 or more years).
Esser, Lora L. 1995. Spiraea douglasii. In:
Department of Agriculture, U.S. ForestService, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (2003, April). Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ April 23, 2003].
Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of containerLonicera involucrata (Rich.) Banks. ex Spreng. var. involucrata Banks. ex Spreng. plants (172 ml conetainer);
, West Glacier, Glacier National Park . In: Native Plant Network. URL:http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed Montana 23 April 2003). (ID): Moscow , Universityof Idaho , Collegeof Natural Resources ForestResearch Nursery.
C.L., A Cronquist, M. Ownbey,
and J.W. Thompson. 1964.
Vascular Plants of the
Jacobsen, A.L. 2001. Wild Plants of Greater
Kruckeberg, A.R. 1982. Gardening with
Spurr, Joy. 1978. Wild Shrubs – Finding and
Growing Your Own. Pacific Search Press,
DeBell, D.S. USDA Forest Service Silvics of North America, Agricultural Handbook 654, Volume 2: Hardwoods, Populus
USDA, NRCS. 2002.
The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov).
Young, Betty. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Lonicera
involucrata (Richards) ssp. ledebourii (Esch.) Zebel plants (Deepot 40);
, Golden Gate National Parks . In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed San Francisco, California 23 April 2003). (ID): Moscow , Universityof Idaho , Collegeof Natural Resources ForestResearch Nursery.
Young, Betty. 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Lonicera involucrata Banks ex Spreng. plants (Deepot 40); Golden Gate National Parks,
. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed San Francisco, California 23 April 2003). (ID): Moscow
, Universityof Idaho , Collegeof Natural Resources ForestResearch Nursery.
Data compiled by: Marlo Mytty,