Species (common name, Latin name)
White fir, Abies concolor
The native range of white fir
extends from the mountainous regions of the Pacific coast to central
Over its entire range, white
fir grows in cold, high elevations and in warm-to-hot low elevations.
Precipitation ranges from 890 mm (35 in) to 1900 mm (75 in) or more per year.
Elevations range from a
minimum of 600 m (1,970 ft) in the headwaters of the
No local populations2
The species grows on various
types of terrain, including the extremely steep and unstable slopes of the
geologically young Coast Ranges in northwestern
Plant strategy type/successional stage
Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Lighocarpus densiflorus, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus kelloggii, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla2
May be collected as
Collection restrictions or guidelines
The seed matures in September, up to 3 weeks before seedfall.5
The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored.6
Recommended seed storage conditions
Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 0 to 60 days. Germination occurs at 30D/20N C alternating temperature cycle.4 Sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March.7 Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks.7 Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn.6,8
Soil or medium requirements
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.5
Recommended planting density
9Maximum planting density per acre- 1200
9Minimum planting density per acre- 300
Care requirements after installed
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.5
Normal rate of growth or spread; lifespan
45m by 8m at a fast rate5
H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the
Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of
Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of
container Abies concolor (G&G) Lindl. plants;
William W. 1974. Seed maturity in white fir and red fir.
M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant
7Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948.
8McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985.
Data compiled by (student name and date)