Species (common name, Latin name)

Salix scouleriana (Scouler's willow)

 

 

Various forms of Salix scouleriana (Scouler's willow). (4)

 

State Distributional Map for SASC

Range

S. scouleriana grows from southern Alaska and Yukon east to Manitoba and South Dakota and south through the Cascades and Rockies to California, Arizona, and New Mexico. (1)

 

 

 

Map of Salix scouleriana (Scouler's willow) range. (2)

 

 

Climate, elevation

Grows from the lowlands and foothills to mid-montane elevations.

 

Local occurrence (where, how common)

Very Common in lowlands and foothills to mid-montane elevations.

 

 

 

Habitat preferences

Montane coniferous forest.

 

Plant strategy type/successional stage (stress-tolerator, competitor, weedy/colonizer, seral, late successional)

Fast-growing colonizer that forms dense thickets and a great competitor.

 

Associated species

Abies concolor, Achillea millefolium, Achnatherum occidentale ssp. Actaea rubra,Agrostis stolonifera, Agastache urticifolia, Allium bisceptrum, Alnus incana, Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata, Amelanchier alnifolia, Amelanchier utahensis, Aquilegia formosa, Artemisia arbuscula, Arnica chamissonis, Arnica cordifolia, Arnica fulgens, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Bromus carinatus, Carex geyeri, Carex hoodii, Camissonia tanacetifolia ssp. tanacetifolia, Cercocarpus ledifolius, Claytonia perfoliata, Collomia grandiflora, Cornus sericea ssp. Sericea, Danthonia californica, Deschampsia elongate, Dodecatheon jeffreyi, Elymus elymoides, Epilobium ciliatum ssp. Watsonii, Epilobium glaberrimum, Equisetum arvense, Galium triflorum, Geranium richardsonii, Hesperostipa comata ssp., Hordeum brachyantherum, Hordeum jubatum, Hydrophyllum capitatum, Juniperus occidentalis, Linanthus harknessii, Lomatium triternatum, Lupinus caudatus,Lupinus leucophyllus, Melica bulbosa, Mimulus guttatus, Osmorhiza occidentalis, Pinus ponderosa, Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa, Potentilla biennis, Polygonum douglasii, Potentilla glandulosa, Poa nervosa, Poa palustris, Populus tremuloides, Prunus emarginata, Prunus virginiana, Pseudoroegneria spicata, Ribes aureum, Ribes cereum, Ribes lacustre, Rosa woodsii, Salix exigua, Salix geyeriana, Salix lemmonii, Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra, Scirpus microcarpus, Symphoricarpos albus, Symphoricarpos oreophilus, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius, Urtica dioica.

 

May be collected as: (seed, layered, divisions, etc.)

Seed, spring hardwood or summer softwood stem cuttings. (1)

 

Collection restrictions or guidelines

Cuttings: Hardwood tip cuttings are collected before bud break. Softwood cuttings can be taken any time after flowering. Store cuttings in moist refrigeration. (1)

 

Seeds: The most critical factor in the collection of viable Salix seed is frequent observation of catkin development. It might be preferable to wait until the capsule are almost fully open, but spring winds can disperse the seed very quickly once the capsules reach this stage and much seed can be lost instantly. The female catkins should be placed in paper sacks to capture seed as the capsules open during drying. Seed dispersal usually only takes a few days in a room with dry air and normal working temperatures. If the number of catkins collected forms a layer one or two catkins thick in the sack, the seed will disperse easily without much oversight. If a thick layer of catkins is placed in the sack, frequent turning and mixing of the sack will be required to facilitate uniform drying and seed release. Collection in plastic bags may be acceptable for very brief periods, but the catkins need to be transferred to paper sacks or drying racks as soon as possible to prevent moisture buildup and subsequent decomposition. (3)

 

Seed germination (needs dormancy breaking?)

Sow cleaned seeds immmediately. Surface sow seeds. (3)

 

Seed life (can be stored, short shelf-life, long shelf-life)

1-3 years

 

Recommended seed storage conditions

35 C

 

Propagation recommendations (plant seeds, vegetative parts, cuttings, etc.)

See above

 

Soil or medium requirements (inoculum necessary?)

No inoculum necessary

 

Installation form (form, potential for successful outcomes, cost)

Cuttings more effective and faster establishing.

 

 

Recommended planting density

18

 

Care requirements after installed (water weekly, water once etc.)

Water weekly depending on weather and plant size. Reduce watering frequency in late September to early October to promote hardening-off. (3)

 

Normal rate of growth or spread; lifespan

Large shrub but often a small tree with a single, upright trunk and round crown reaching up to 25 feet in height. (4)

 

Sources cited

 

1. Wick, Dale; Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Hosokawa, Joy; Lapp, Joyce. 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Salix scouleriana Barratt. ex Hook. plants (3 L containers); Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 12 May 2005). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery. 

 

2. USDA Plants Database; accessed 12 May 2005. Found at: http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_profile.cgi&symbol=SASC

 

3. Dreesen, David. 2003. Propagation protocol for production of container Salix scouleriana Barratt plants (One Gallon Tree Pot, 4x4x14); Los Lunas Plant Materials Center, Los Lunas, New Mexico. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 12 May 2005). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.

 

4. Dendrology fact sheet at Virginia Tech; accessed 12 May 2005. Found at: http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=568

 

 

Data compiled by (student name and date)

 

Nick Ostrovsky 7/09/05