I. 100 Papers in Clinical Psychiatry

PSYCHOSIS

DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

BIPOLAR DISORDERS

SUICIDE

    • Harris EC, Barraclough B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 170:205-228
      Meta-analysis finds mental disorders except for mental retardation and dementia increase risk of suicide
    • Gitlin MJ. A psychiatrist’s reaction to a patient’s suicide. Am J Psychiatry; 156:1630-1634
      Discusses the experience of losing a patient to suicide
    • Mann JJ, Apter A, Bertolote J et al. Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review. JAMA 2005; 294:2064-2074
      A comprehensive but biased review of suicide prevention strategies that places too much emphasis on clinical approaches and not enough on means prevention but still worth reading
    • Rosen DH. Suicide survivors. A follow-up study of persons who survived jumping from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridges. West J Med 1975; 122:289-294
      Classic study interviewing survivors of the Golden Gate Bridge attempted suicides argues for suicide barriers. Must read.
    • Stone M, Laughren T, Jones ML et al. Risk of suicidality in clinical trials of antidepressants in adults: analysis of proprietary data submitted to US Food and Drug Administration. BMJ 2009; 339:b2880
      Extensive meta-analysis of clinical trials showing that risk of suicidality is age-related, and antidepressants may reduce suicides in the elderly

ANXIETY DISORDERS, OCD, and PTSD

    • Abramowitz JS, Taylor S, McKay D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Lancet 2009; 374:491-499
      Summarizes cognitive-behavioral and biological aspects of OCD and its treatment
    • Ehlers A, Clark DM. A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Therapy 2000; 38:319-345
      An insightful and extremely useful model for understanding chronic PTSD from the cognitive perspective
    • Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, Cox AL, Engel CC, Castro CA. Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med 2008; 31:453-463
      mTBI is common in OIF Veterans and often highly comorbid with PTSD symptoms
    • Roy-Byrne PP, Craske MG, Stein MB. Panic disorder. Lancet 2006; 368:1023-1032
      Concise overview of panic and its treatment
    • Summerfield D. The invention of posttraumatic stress disorder and the social usefulness of a psychiatric category. Br Med J 2001; 322:95-98
      Provocative discussion of PTSD as a sociopolitical construct

PERSONLITY DISORDERS

    • Groves JE. Taking care of the hateful patient. N Engl J Med 1978; 299:883-887
      Classic paper describes 4 ‘hateful’ patients in the medical setting
    • Macdonald JM. The threat to kill. Am J Psychiatry 1963; 120:125-130
      Excellent paper discusses homicidal ideation, and describes the triad of childhood firesetting, bedwetting and cruelty to animals being linked to later sadistic/antisocial behavior
    • Leichsenring F, Leibing E, Kruse J, New AS, Leweke F. Borderline personality disorder. Lancet 2011; 377:74-84
      Comprehensive review of borderline personality disorder and its treatment. The drugs don’t really work.
    • Vaillant GE. The beginning of wisdom is never calling a patient a borderline; or, the clinical management of immature defenses in the treatment of individuals with personality disorders. J Psychother Pract Res 1992; 1:117-134
      Classic, extremely well written and useful discussion of managing different defenses in difficult patients

EATING DISORDERS

  • Treasure J, Claudino AM, Zucker N. Eating disorders. Lancet 2010; 375:583-93
    Nice overview on biology of eating disorders and review of evidence for different therapies
  • Yager J, Andersen AE. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1481-1488
    Concise summary of management of anorexia nervosa

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION PSYCHIATRY

    • Anton RF, O’Malley SS, Ciraulo DA et al. Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence: the COMBINE study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 295:2003-2017
      Naltrexone is better than acamprosate for alcohol dependence when combined with CBT
    • Arsenault L, Cannon M, Poulton R, Murray R, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. BMJ 2002; 325:1212-1213
      First prospective longitudinal study to establish adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for psychosis
    • Johns A. Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178:116-122
      Reviews the psychiatric complications of cannabis use
    • Khantzian EH. The self-medication hypothesis of addiction. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142:1259-1264
      This psychodynamic view of addiction as self-medication has proved enduring and influential in clinical practice and popular culture despite no supporting evidence
    • Koston TR, O’Connor PG. Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:1786-1795
      Comprehensive overview of withdrawal syndromes and their management
    • Laaksonen E, Koski-Jannes A, Salspuro M, Ahtinen H, Alho H. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial of disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Alcohol Alcohol 2008; 43:53-61
      Disulfiram may actually be better than naltrexone or acamprosate when combined with behavior therapy in alcohol dependence
    • Martensen-Larsen O. Treatment of alcoholism with a sensitising drug. Lancet 1948; 252:1004-1005
      First report of use of Antabuse in the treatment of alcoholism.
    • McKetin R, Lubman DI, Baker AL, Dawe S, Ali RL. Dose-related psychotic symptoms in chronic methamphetamine users: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70:319-324
      First prospective longitudinal study to establish causal relationship and dose-dependence between methamphetamine use and psychosis
    • Project MATCH Research Group. Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: project MATCH three-year drinking outcomes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998 22:1300-1311
      12-step facilitation, CBT, and motivational interviewing are all beneficial in alcoholism, with patient characteristics helping to match best treatment. Angry alcoholics do better with MI.
    • Volkow ND, Swanson JM. Clinical practice: adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1935-1944
      Up-to-date review of adult ADD

CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY

    • Baron-Cohen S. The extreme-male brain theory of autism. Trends Cogn Sci 2002; 6:248-254
      This paper gives a compelling account of autism as the extreme variant of the ‘male brain’
    • Bowlby J. The making and breaking of affectional bonds. I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. An expanded version of the Fiftieth Maudsley Lecture, delivered before the Royal College of Psychiatrist, 19 November 1976. Br J Psychiatry 1977; 130:201-210
      Very readable paper summarizes key findings of attachment theory and its relevance to psychopathology throughout the lifespan
    • Jensen PS, Arnold LD, Swanson JM et al. 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 56:989-1002
      Important ADHD study showed benefits of stimulant treatment did not persist after initial phase of treatment compared with behavior therapy
    • March J, Silva S, Petrycki S et al. Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescences with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:807-820
      TADS study showed combination of CBT and fluoxetine was best treatment for adolescent depression
    • Rutter M, Sroufe LA. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges. Dev Psychopathol 2000; 12:265-296
      The father of child psychiatry outlines the developmental approach to psychopathology
    • Sikich L, Frazier JA, McClellan J et al. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:1420-31
      TEOSS study finds molindone (now defunct) is just as good as the newer drugs in early onset psychotic disorders

GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY

    • Burns A, Jacoby R, Levy R. Psychiatric phenomena in Alzheimer’s disease. IV: Disorders of behavior. Br J Psychiatry 1990; 157:86-94
      Outlines the most common behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer’s from a sample of 178 patients, and finds features of Klüver-Bucy syndrome occur more commonly than is realized
    • Howard RJ, Juszszak E, Ballard CG et al. Donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1382-1392
      Donepezil doesn’t help agitation in context of Alzheimer’s disease
    • Howard RJ, McShane R, Lindesay J et al. Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:893-903
      There is a small functional benefit to donepezil or memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s with no difference between the two and no additional benefit of the combination
    • Inouye SK. Delirium in older persons. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1157-1165
      Nice overview of diagnosis, causes and management of delirium in the elderly
    • McKeith IG, Dickson DW, Lowe J et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2005; 12:1863-1872
      Most recent guidelines for diagnosis and management of LBD
    • Saczynski JS, Marcanonio ER, Quach L, Fong TG, Gross A, Inouye SK, Jones RN. Cognitive trajectories after postoperative delirium. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:30-39
      Reminder that most patients post-delirium do not return to baseline and experience significant decline in cognitive functioning
    • Schneider LS, Tariot PN, Dagerman KS et al. Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1528-1538
      CATIE-AD study compares antipsychotics for Alzheimer’s – they are all as bad as each other and do more harm than good

PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE

    • Appelbaum PS. Assessment of patients’ competence to consent to treatment. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1834-1840
      Definitive review of decisional capacity assessment for clinicians
    • Barsky AJ, Saintford R, Rogers MP, Borus JF. Nonspecific medication side-effects and the nocebo phenomenon. JAMA 2002; 287:622-627
      Describes the nocebo effect as a common occurrence in anxious patients, and a cognitive model for understanding its development
    • Beach SR, Celano CM, Noseworthy PA, Januzzi JL, Huffman JC. QTc prolongation, Torsades de pointes, and psychotropic medications. Psychosomatics 2013; 54:1-13
      Comprehensive up-to-date review on QTc prolongation and psychotropic drugs. Turns out we vastly overestimate the significance of cardiac risk of drugs.
    • Block SD. Psychological issues in end-of-life care. J Palliat Med 2006; 9:751-772
      Comprehensive review of psychological problems and psychiatric disorders at the end-of-life
    • Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1112-1120
      Comprehensive review of serotonin syndrome comparing it to other differentials
    • Eastwood S, Bisson JI. Management of factitious disorders: a systematic review. Psychother Psychosom 2008; 77:209-218
      Systematic review of case reports and series of factitious disorder highlighting bleak prognosis and difficulties keeping these patients engaged in care.
    • Groves JE. Management of the borderline patient on a medical or surgical ward: the psychiatric consultant’s role. Int J Psychiatry Med 1975; 6:337-48
      Practical suggestions on how to manage difficult patients in the medical setting
    • Kayser MS, Kohler CG, Dalmau J. Psychiatric manifestations of paraneoplastic disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2010; 167:1039-1050
      Discusses the emerging field of autoimmune-mediated neuropsychiatric disorders
    • McDermott BE, Feldman MD. Malingering in the medical setting. Psychiatr Clin N Am 2007; 30:645-662
      Detailed review of malingering and its detection
    • Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms and signs in neurology: assessment and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl I): i2-i12
    • Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms and signs in neurology: management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl I): i13-21
      These two papers discuss the assessment and management of conversion disorder including examination maneuvers for eliciting functional neurology
    • Strawn JR, Keck Jr PE, Caroff SN. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:870-876
      Up to date review of neuroleptic malignant syndrome

ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY

    • Anjala AV, Smetana GW. Medical evaluation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1437-1444
      Discusses the medical workup and preparation of patients for ECT
    •  Rose D, Fleischmann P, Wykes T, Leese M, Bindman J. Patients’ perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: systematic review. BMJ 2003; 326:1363
      This user-led study reveals that autobiographical memory problems persist more commonly than is believed
    • UK ECT Review Group. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2003; 361:799-808
      The most comprehensive meta-analysis of ECT for depression showing its efficacy in depressive states

PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS

    • Kendell RE, Cooper JE, Gourlay AJ, Copeland JRM, Sharpe L, Gurland BJ. Diagnostic criteria of American and British psychiatrists. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1971; 25: 123-130
      The UK-US diagnostic study showed American Psychiatrists diagnosed more schizophrenia than their British counterparts in every case, including cases of depression, manic-depressive illness and even personality disorder, establishing importance of reliability in psychiatric diagnosis
    • Murphy JM. Psychiatric labeling in cross-cultural perspective. Science 1976; 191:1019-1028
      This paper describes the concept of madness or mental illness existing across cultures dispelling mental illness as the result of simply labeling deviance or a convenient myth
    • Rosenhan DL. On being sane in insane places. Science 1973: 179:250-258
      This classic study questioned the validity of psychiatric diagnosis by having pseudopatients get admitted to psychiatric hospital who then remained there despite no further reports of symptoms of mental illness!

CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN PSYCHIATRY

    • Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1977; 196:129-36
      This classic paper popularizes the biopsychosocial model and the application of general systems theory to medicine.
    • Kandel ER. A New intellectual framework for psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:457-469
      Kandel suggests firmly rooting medicine of the mind in the biology of the brain
    • Kendler KS. Explanatory models for psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:695-702
      Kendler proposes psychiatric disorders are understood best pluralistically with multiple levels of explanation and biological understanding will not supplant more macro level understanding of disorders but enhance it
    • Szasz T. The myth of mental illness. Am Psychol 1960; 15:113-118
      This classic article of the book with the same title claims because the mind is a metaphor, it cannot be diseased, and thus mental illness is a myth. Szasz prefers to conceive of psychiatric disorders as problems in living. Given the cachet of these views in popular culture, this is essential reading.
II. 5MB Inpatient Syllabus

The following is a list of the articles and handouts created and compiled by Paul Borghesani, M.D., Ph.D. and Sharon Romm, M.D. as a teaching tool for psychiatry residents.

III. Addictions Syllabus

The following articles are on topics basic to addictions psychiatry. They are intended to be a brief review of selected topics for new residents, and to be useful for teaching medical students. The Supplemental readings can be obtained by emailing Athena Wong. Please specify your preference for electronic (pdf) format or hardcopy.Due to copyright and licensing issues, access to these articles is restricted to University of Washington residents, faculty and staff. In order to download and print some of the articles below you will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed. Caution: some of the articles are large files and may take a long time to download by modem. To save large files, right click on the file, select “save as”, and select the desktop as your destination.

SUBSTANCE-INDUCED MENTAL DISORDERS

  1. Ries RK, Goldsmith J, Yuodelis-Flores C. (2009) Substance-Induced Mental Disorders. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine. Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD.

DRUG DIVERSION

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse: Insight Into the Epidemic. Hernandez SH & Nelson LS. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010;88(3):307-317
  2. Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: a systematic review of the literature. Wilens TE et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;47(1):21-31

ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

  1. Larimer ME, Palmer RS, Marlatt GA. Relapse prevention: An overview of Marlatt’s cognitive-behavioral model. Alcohol Res Health. 1999;23:151-160.
  2. Mayo-Smith, MF. (2009) Management of Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine. Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD.
  3. The Role of Biomarkers in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders, 2012 Revision. SAMHSA Advisory. HHS Pub no. (SMA) 12-4686, 2012

CANNABIS DEPENDENCE

  1. Elkashef A, Vocci F, Huestis M et al. Marijuana neurobiology and treatment. Substance Abuse 2008;29(3):17-29.

SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC DEPENDENCE

  1. Dickinson WE & Eickelberg SJ.(2009) Management of Sedative Hypnotic Intoxication and Withdrawal. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine. Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD.

STIMULANT DEPENDENCE

  1. Nestler EJ. Neurobiology of cocaine addiction. Science and Practice Perspectives. December 2005:4-10.
  2. Meredith CW, Jaffe C, Ang-Lee KA, Saxon AJ. Implications of chronic methamphetamine use: a literature review. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2005;13:141-154.
  3. Kampman KM. The search for medications to treat stimulant dependence. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice. June 2008:28-35.

OPIOID DEPENDENCE: DETOXIFICATION / METHADONE TREATMENT / BUPRENORPHINE

  1. Tetrault JM, O’Connor PG. Management of Opioid Intoxication and Withdrawal. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD.
  2. Stine SM & Kosten TR. Pharmacological Interventions for Opioid Dependence. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD
  3. Martin J, Zweben JE, Payte JT. Opioid Maintenance Treatment. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD
  4. An Introduction to Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone for the Treatment of People with Opioid Dependence. SAMHSA Advisory. HHS Pub no. (SMA)12-4682, 2012

CLUB DRUGS

  1. Wilkins JN, Danovich I, & Gorelick DA. Management of Stimulant, Hallucinogen, Marijuana, Phencyclidine and Club Drug Intoxication and Withdrawal. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD

TOBACCO DEPENDENCE

  1. Hall SM & Prochaska JJ. Treatment of smokers with co-occurring disorders: Emphasis on integration in mental health and addiction treatment settings. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2009;5:409-31.
  2. Kahler CW, Leventhal AM, Brown RA. Behavioral Interventions in Smoking Cessation. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD

FOCUS ON TREATMENT OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER

  1. Prochaska, JO. Enhancing Motivation to Change. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD
  2. Ries RK, Galanter M, Tonigan JS. Twelve-step facilitation: an adaptation for psychiatric practitioners and patients. In: The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th edition. Edited by Marc Galanter, M.D., and Herbert D. Kleber, M.D.; Arlington, Virginia, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2008
  3. Douaihy A, Daley DC, Marlatt GA, Spotts, CR. Relapse Prevention: Clinical Models and Intervention Strategies. In: Principles of Addiction Medicine (2009) Eds: Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S and Saitz R. 4th ed. ASAM. Chevy Chase, MD
  4. Moeller KE, Lee KC, Kissack JC. Urine drug screening: practical guide for clinicians. Mayo Clin Proc 2008; 83(1):66-76

FOCUS ON TREATMENT OF CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS

  1. Yuodelis-Flores C, Ries RK, Bennett, M. Evidence-Based Practices for Co-occurring Chemical Dependency and Mental Illness. In: McQuistion HL et al (eds), American Association of Community Psychiatrists. Handbook of Community Psychiatry. Springer Science + Business Media, NY, 2012
IV. Consultation Liaison Syllabus

Due to copyright and licensing issues, access to these articles is restricted to University of Washington residents, faculty and staff. In order to download and print some of the articles below you will need to have Adobe Reader installed. To save large files, right click on the file, select “save as”, and select the desktop as your destination.

ANXIETY DISORDERS

DECISIONAL CAPACITY

DELIRIUM

DEMENTIA

HEART DISEASE

HIV

ONCOLOGY

PAIN

PALLIATIVE and END-OF-LIFE CARE

PREGNANCY

PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

SOMATOFORM AND FACTITIOUS DISORDERS

STROKE

TRANSPLANTS

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

MISCELLANEOUS

V. DBT Syllabus
VI. ECT Syllabus

List of ECT Bibliography

Overview

  • Kellner, C. H., R. M. Greenberg, et al. (2012). “ECT in Treatment-Resistant Depression.” Am J Psychiatry 169(12): 1238-1244.
  • American Psychiatric Association. Ethics Primer. Washington DC: APA Press, 2001.

Textbooks

  • Mankad, M. V., Beyer, J. L., et al.  (2010). Clinical Manual of Electroconvulsive Therapy.  Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Publishing.  The core textbook for this rotation.
  • Other texts you might consult for different perspectives:
    Fink, M.  (2008). Electroconvulsive Therapy (second edition).  New York, NY, Oxford University Press.  A more casual text explaining consent, procedures, and indications for ECT.  This book is accessible for patients as well.
  • Scott, A. I. F., Ed. (2005). The ECT Handbook (second edition). London, England, Royal College of Psychiatrists.  Widely available online in PDF format, this text reviews the evidence for most aspects of ECT.

Efficacy

  • Pagnin, D., V. de Queiroz, et al. (2004). “Efficacy of ECT in depression: a meta-analytic review.” J ECT 20(1): 13-20.  A review of trial data, including sham trials, supporting the use of electroconvulsive therapy for depression.
  • Dombrovski, A. Y., Mulsant B. H., et al. (2005). “Predictors of remission after electroconvulsive therapy in unipolar major depression.”  J Clin Psychiatry 66(8): 1043-1049.  Patients with more chronic depression, dysthymia, or medication resistance appear less likely to respond to unilateral ECT.

Medical Screening for ECT

  • Tess, A. V. and G. W. Smetana (2009). “Medical evaluation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.” N Engl J Med 360(14): 1437-1444.

Procedure & Practice

  • Swartz, C. M. and A. I. Nelson (2005). “Rational electroconvulsive therapy electrode placement.” Psychiatry (Edgmont)2(7): 37-43.  An illustrated review of common (and esoteric) ECT electrode placements.
  • Mayur, P. (2006). “Ictal electroencephalographic characteristics during electroconvulsive therapy: a review of determination and clinical relevance.” J ECT 22(3): 213-217.  A review the clinical relevance of various EEG characteristics during ECT.
  • Sackeim, H. A., J. Prudic, et al. (2008). “Effects of pulse width and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy.” Brain Stimul 1(2): 71-83.  This RCT demonstrates that the use of ultrabrief pulse (0.3ms) reduces adverse effects while preserving efficacy.
  • Tew, J. D., Jr., B. H. Mulsant, et al. (2002). “A randomized comparison of high-charge right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy in older depressed patients who failed to respond to 5 to 8 moderate-charge right unilateral treatments.” J Clin Psychiatry 63(12): 1102-1105.  Among patients without improvement with an initial course of unilateral ECT, switching to high-charge unilateral ECT (450% above seizure threshold) is as effective as bilateral ECT.  We typically optimize unilateral ECT before switching to bilateral ECT.

Anesthesia

  • Reves, J. G., P. S. A. Glass, et al. (2010). Intravenous Anesthetics. Miller’s anesthesia. R. D. Miller. Philadelphia, PA, Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier: 719-768.  From the seminal anesthesia text, this chapter describes the basics of induction agents used in ECT.
  • Hooten, W. M. and K. G. Rasmussen, Jr. (2008). “Effects of general anesthetic agents in adults receiving electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review.” J ECT 24(3): 208-223.  A review of the comparative evidence among the large variety of induction agents appropriate for use in ECT.
  • Naguib, M. and C. A. Lien (2010). Pharmacology of Muscle Relaxants and Their Antagonists. Miller’s anesthesia. R. D. Miller. Philadelphia, PA, Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier: 859-911.  Further reading on the pharmacology and use of muscle relaxants including succinylcholine.

Augmentation Strategies

  • Loo, C., B. Simpson, et al. (2010). “Augmentation strategies in electroconvulsive therapy.” J ECT 26(3): 202-207.  Some procedural techniques may enhance efficacy for treatment refractory patients or for those with poor seizure quality.
  • Loo, C. K., A. Kaill, et al. (2010). “The difficult-to-treat electroconvulsive therapy patient – Strategies for augmenting outcomes.” J Affect Disord 124(3): 219-227.  A similar review to above with additional focus on treatment strategies, including antidepressants, studied to improve ECT outcomes.  There is not strong evidence underlying most augmentation strategies.

Cognitive Impairment

  • Hausner, L., M. Damian, et al. (2011). “Efficacy and cognitive side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in depressed elderly inpatients with coexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia.” J Clin Psychiatry 72(1): 91-97.  Regardless of baseline cognition, elderly patients’ MMSE scores improve by 6 weeks after ECT – reflecting the significant cognitive symptoms of depression and the transient, reversible nature of ECT-induced cognitive side effects.

After the Index Series: Continuation & Maintenance

  • Frederikse, M., G. Petrides, et al. (2006). “Continuation and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of depressive illness: a response to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence report.” J ECT 22(1): 13-17.  The authors review the administration of and evidence for maintenance ECT in response to a NICE report questioning the treatment’s utility.
  • Sackeim, H. A., Haskett, R. F., et al.  (2001). “Continuation Pharmacotherapy in the Prevention of Relapse Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.”  JAMA 285(10): 1299-1307.  This RCT imparts the importance of aggressive pharmacotherapy after response to an index ECT series.

Application in Certain Populations

  • Feske, U., B. H. Mulsant, et al. (2004). “Clinical outcome of ECT in patients with major depression and comorbid borderline personality disorder.” Am J Psychiatry 161(11): 2073-2080.  This cohort study suggests depressed patients with borderline personality disorder, even compared to those with other personality disorders, are not as treatment responsive to ECT.
  • Anderson, E. L. and I. M. Reti (2009). “ECT in pregnancy: a review of the literature from 1941 to 2007.” Psychosom Med 71(2): 235-242.  This systemic review notes ECT to be highly efficacious and safe for pregnant women and fetuses.
  • Stoppe, A., M. Louza, et al. (2006). “Fixed high-dose electroconvulsive therapy in the elderly with depression: a double-blind, randomized comparison of efficacy and tolerability between unilateral and bilateral electrode placement.” J ECT22(2): 92-99.  This randomized trial suggests high-dose right unilateral and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy to be similarly effective for elderly patients with depression.
  • Regenold, W. T., D. Weintraub, et al. (1998). “Electroconvulsive therapy for epilepsy and major depression.” Am J Geriatr Psychiatry6(2): 180-183.  Patients often ask whether ECT can precipitate further seizures: in fact, the opposite may be true.  This case report and review describes ECT’s use for the treatment of complex-partial seizures.
  • Dolenc, T. J. and K. G. Rasmussen (2005). “The safety of electroconvulsive therapy and lithium in combination: a case series and review of the literature.” J ECT 21(3): 165-170.  A case series questions the traditional teaching that lithium must be discontinued prior to ECT.
VII. Inpatient Syllabus
VIII. Inpatient Consult-Liaison Psycho-Oncology: A Curriculum for Psychiatry R2s
IX. Integrative Health in Psychiatry Curriculum

Course Director: Lorin Boynton, M.D.

The following is a list of the articles and handouts created and compiled by Lorin Boynton, M.D. and Katherine Babington, M.D. as a teaching tool for psychiatry residents.

INTEGRATIVE HEALTH IN PSYCHIATRY CURRICULUM

Introduction to Integrative Health/Complementary & Alternative Medicine:

Mind-Body Medicine:

Naturopathy/Botanicals/Herbals:

Musculoskeletal Medicine:

Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine:

Nutrition:

Self Care:

X. Miscellaneous Reading
XI. Perinatal Psychiatry Bibliography

Epidemiology of depression during pregnancy:

Depression and antidepressants:

Nonpharmacologic interventions for depression:

  • Dimidjian S, Goodman S (2009). Nonpharmacologic intervention and prevention strategies for depression during pregnancy and the postpartum. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52: 498-515.
    Review of only randomized controlled trials – hence methodologically sound. Includes review of trials of traditional (Interpersonal therapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy and supportive therapy) and novel (light therapy, nutritional therapy, acupuncture, massage, omega 3 fatty acids) non pharmacologic interventions. In addition, discusses prevention strategies (interventions during pregnancy to prevent the development of postpartum depression).
  • Stuart, S (2012) Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression. Clinical Psychol and Psychother, 19:134-140.
    An overview of interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression describing the structure of interpersonal psychotherapy and its adaptations for postpartum depressed women. Modifications for the assessment phase and variations in the tactics of interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression are described.
  • Brandon AR, Freeman MP (2011). When She Says “No” to Medications: Psychotherapy for Antepartum Depression. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 13:459-466.
    Summary of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Partner Assisted Therapy (PAT) for antepartum depression. Includes a list of strong patient indicators for making IPT a first line treatment, and information on specific CBT models for use during pregnancy.
  • Sockol LE, Epperson CN, Barber JP (2011). A Meta-Analysis Of Treatments For Perinatal Depression. Clinical psychology review, 31: 839-849.
    Meta-analysis of 27 studies of pharmacologic and psychological interventions for treatment of perinatal depression. Includes depression during pregnancy and in the first 12 months postpartum. Reports effect sizes of various treatments.

Anxiety disorders during pregnancy and postpartum:

Bipolar disorder and its treatment during pregnancy and postpartum:

Psychosis and treatment:

  • Galbally, M., Snellen, M., & Power, J. (2014). Antipsychotic drugs in pregnancy: a review of their maternal and fetal effects. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 5(2), 100-109.
    A recent review of that includes available information on most first generation and second generation antipsychotics for use during pregnancy among women with schizophrenia and other severe and persistent psychotic disorders.
  • Doucet, S., Jones, I., Letourneau, N., Dennis, C. L., & Blackmore, E. R. (2011). Interventions for the prevention and treatment of postpartum psychosis: a systematic review. Archives of women’s mental health, 14(2), 89-98.
    Information specific to postpartum psychosis.
  • Miller, L. (2010). Psychotherapy for Pregnant Women with Schizophrenia. Current Women’s Health Reviews, 6:39-43.
    Description of flexible psychotherapy (including techniques of psychoeducation, motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, social cognition training and social skills training) as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy and psychosocial rehabilitation for pregnant women with Schizophrenia. Guidelines for evaluation, forming a therapeutic alliance and handling issues specific to pregnancy such as physical changes of pregnancy, prenatal care, pregnancy related anxieties and prior custody loss. Has useful illustrative case examples.

Psychotropic drugs and lactation:

  • Fortinguerra F, Clavenna A, Bonati M (2009). Psychotropic Drug Use During Breastfeeding: A Review of the Evidence. Pediatrics, 124, e547-e556.
    Literature review of use of various classes of psychotropic medications during breastfeeding. Classifies psychotropics as compatible, to be used with caution or contraindicated with breastfeeding.
  • di Scalea, T. L., & Wisner, K. L. (2009). Antidepressant medication use during breastfeeding. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology, 52(3), 483.
    More in-depth information on use of specific antidepressants during breastfeeding, not available in the Fontiguerra et al paper.

Substance use:

  • Bhuvaneswar C, Chang G. (2009). Substance Use in Pregnancy. In B. S. Brady KT, Women and Addiction: a Comprehensive Handbook (pp. 432 – 452).
    New York, NY: Guilford Press. A chapter that reviews epidemiology and consequences of substance use in the perinatal period, covering alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, opioids and cocaine. Includes clinical approaches to treating substance abuse during pregnancy.
  • Davis KJ, Y. K. (2012, January). Making Lemonade out of Lemons: A Case Report and Literature Review of External Pressure as an Intervention With Pregnant and Parenting Substance-Using Women. J Clin Psychiatry, 73(1), 51-56.
    An interesting discussion of explicit pressure (warnings, requirements, mandates, incarceration, loss of child custody), and implicit pressure (threat of child welfare intervention) and their effectiveness in increasing rates of treatment retention and completion for pregnant / postpartum substance abusing women.

Maternal psychological distress and infant temperament:

  • Waxler E, Thelen K, Muzik M (2011). Maternal Perinatal Depression-Impact on Infant and Child Development. European Psychiatric Review, 7(1), 41-47.
    A representative overview of this extensive topic with information on the impact of antenatal depression on the fetus and the neonate and the effect of postpartum depression on parenting, attachment and infant temperament.

Pregnancy Loss:

  • Kersting, A. (2012). Complicated grief after perinatal loss. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 14(2), 187-194.
    A brief review describing the factors unique to grief after prenatal loss, and risk factors for complicated grief reaction after pregnancy loss and termination. While recognizing the methodological problems that exist in the literature on this topic, does make recommendations on grief interventions after prenatal loss.
  • Frost M, C. J. (1996). The psychological sequelae of miscarriage: a critical review of the literature. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 54-62.
    A review of the less discussed topic of miscarriage and its consequences. Begins with a brief description of the psychology of pregnancy and goes on to describe separately the psychological and psychiatric effects of miscarriage.

ADDITIONAL READING:

  • Brandon, A. (2011). Ethical Barriers to Perinatal Mental Health Research and Evidence-Based Treatment: An Empirical Study. AJOB Primary Research, 2, 2-12.
    Background on the current environment for research on evidence based treatment of psychiatric illness during pregnancy and lactation. Offers perspective on the reasons for the frustrating lack of evidence based treatment guidelines for psychiatric disorders in the perinatal period.
  • Light, A., Obedin-Maliver, J., Sevelius, J., & Kerns, J. (n.d.). Transgender Men Who Experienced Pregnancy After Female-to-Male Gender Transitioning. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1120-1127.
  • O’Grady JP, R. M. (1989). Pseudocyesis: a modern perspective on an old disorder. Obstetrical and gynecological survey, 44(7), 500-511.
    An outline of the neurophysiology and psychology of pseudo pregnancy. Summarizes some interesting history of the disorder, then goes on to describe the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Wiegartz P, G. K. (2009). The Pregnancy and Postpartum Anxiety Workbook. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.
    An excellent patient resource, but also a good overview for practitioners who would like to work on CBT with their patients, as it details modifications to techniques such as deep breathing, specific to pregnancy and the postpartum period.
  • Eds Sam Tyano, M. K. (2010). Parenthood and mental health. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell. Parenthood and mental health a bridge between infant and adult psychiatry.
    Book with an interesting life span approach, hence less emphasis on treatments. Extends beyond the perinatal period into several topics on parenting. Also has an informative chapter on assessing parental competency – the legal aspects.

OTHER RESOURCES:

  • www.reprotox.org – A comprehensive compilation of the evidence base for the risks to fetus of specific drugs during pregnancy and lactation. Starts with a short paragraph summarizing the risks, then goes on to list experimental animal studies, clinical trial reports, longer term effects of in utero exposure and safety in lactation. This can be accessed through micromedix for each individual drug.

PATIENT RESOURCES:

XII. Recommended Reading List

General Textbooks

  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-V (5th edition). Washington DC: APA Press, 2013 (Note: we recommend that you purchase the full text. The Program will provide you with the abbreviated “Quick Reference”.)
  • American Psychiatric Association. Ethics Primer. Washington DC: APA Press, 2001.
  • Bernstein CA, Levin Z, Poag M, Rubinstein M. On Call Psychiatry. 3rd edition. WB Saunders, 2006.
  • Bhat P, Dretler A, Gdowski M, Ramgopal R, Williams D. Manual of medical therapeutics. 35th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins, 2016.
  • Gabbard GO. Psychodynamic Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 5th edition. Washington DC: APA Press, 2014.
  • Galynker, II. Talking to families about mental illness: what clinicians need to know. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.
  • Hamilton, RJ (Ed). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2017 Classic Shirt-Pocket Edition. 31st edition. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2016.
  • Kahl L, Hughes H. The Harriot Lane Handbook. 21st edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017.
  • Robertson J, Shilkofski N (eds.) The Harriet Lane Handbook: A Manual for Pediatric House Officers. 17th edition. 2005.
  • * Sadock BJ, Sadock VA (eds.) Kaplan and Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. 4th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2017.
  • Schatzberg AF, Cole JO, DeBattista C. Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 8th edition. American Psychiatric Association, 2015.
  • Shea SC. Psychiatric Interviewing: The Art of Understanding: A practical guide for psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, social workers, nurses, and other mental health professionals. 3rd edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016.
  • Stahl SM. Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. 4th edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Stahl SM. Essential Psychopharmacology: The Prescriber’s Guide. 6th edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

*For a more comprehensive text, we recommend:

  • Sadock BJ & Sadock VA. (eds.) Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

Or

  • Tasman A, Maj M, First MB, Kay G, and Lieberman JA. Psychiatry. 4th edition. Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.

The Psychotherapy Texts used in our Psychotherapy Training Program are provided by the program:

  • Barlow DH. Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: a step-by-step treatment manual. 5th edition . New York: Guilford Press, 2014.
  • Cabaniss DL. Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a clinical manual. 2nd edition. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
  • Gabbard GO. Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: a basic text. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub, 2010.
  • Hope AD. Heimberg RG, & Turk CL. Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach Client Workbook. 2nd edition (Treatments That Work). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Hope AD, Heimberg RG, & Turk CL. Managing Social Anxiety, Therapist Guide. 2nd Edition: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach (Treatments That Work). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Maroda, KL. Psychodynamic Techniques: Working with Emotion in the Therapeutic Relationship. New York, Guilford Press, 2012.
  • McCullough, L et al. Treating Affect Phobia: A Manual for Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. New York, Guilford Press, 2003.
  • Safran JD. Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapies. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2012.
  • Winston, A. Rosenthal, Richard; Pinsker, Henry. Introduction to Supportive Psychotherapy/Learning Supportive Psychotherapy. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2011.
  • Wright, JH, Basco, MR & Thase ME. Learning cognitive-behavior therapy: an illustrated guide. 2nd edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub, 2017.

Specialized Textbooks

  • American Psychiatric Association. The Practice of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Recommendations for Treatment, Training, and Privileging. 2nd edition. Washington DC: APA Press, 2001.
  • Appelbaum and Gutheil. A Clinical Handbook of Psychiatry and the Law. 4th edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
  • Blazer DG, Stefferns DC. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry. 4th edition. Washington DC: APA Press, 2009.
  • Kaufman DM. Clinical Neurology for Psychiatrists. 6th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Sanders, 2006.
  • Lowinson J, Ruiz P, Millman, and Langrod (eds). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. 4th edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004.
  • Martin A, Volkmar FR, Lewis M (ed.). Lewis’ Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Comprehensive Textbook. 4th edition. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
  • Shorter E. A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
  • Wise MG and Rundell JR. (eds). The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry: Psychiatry in the Mentally Ill. 2nd edition. Washington DC: APA Press, 2002.
XIII. Religion, Spirituality, and Culture Curriculum

Course Director: Lorin Boynton, M.D.

The following is a list of the articles and handouts created and compiled by Lorin Boynton, M.D. as a teaching tool for psychiatry residents.

RELIGION, SPIRITUALITY AND CULTURE IN PSYCHIATRY CURRICULUM

Religion and Spirituality in Psychiatry: An Overview:

Discerning Healthy Spirituality from Psychopathology:

Spiritual Issues at the End of Life:

Culturally Competent Care:

Narrative in Psychiatry:

Caring for Refugees:

Working with Interpreters:

An Exploration of Culture:

Who is this Individual:

Spiritual Psychotherapy:

Religious and Spiritual Issues in Patient Care-Transference, Counter-Transference and More:

Relationship Centered Care

Religion and Spirituality in Psychiatric Care

Cultural Psychiatry