GISP2 Oxygen Isotope Data

General Description

Between 1989 and 1993, the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) collected several ice cores from near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet (7236'N, 3830'W). Two of these were the 200m B core drilled in 1989, and the 3053m D core (drilled from 1989 to 1993) - the longest ice core drilled to date in the northern hemisphere. The D core penetrated the depth of the ice sheet, and allowed the further recovery of some 60-cm of bedrock. The Principal Investigators for the University of Washington's contribution to this multi-university effort were M. Stuiver (Box 351360, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA) and P. M. Grootes (now at Leibniz-Labor, Max Eyth Strasze 11-13 24118 Kiel, Germany) .

About the Data

Listed are the GISP2 d18O sample data sets, measured at the University of Washington's Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, as of March 5, 1999. Above 180m depth the measured samples are from the 1989 B core; below 180m the 1990-1993 D core was used. The timescale (down to 2808 m) includes revisions by D. A. Meese as of September 1994. For further information regarding the timescale please see the official GISP2 timescale, file gisp2age.dat, on the NSIDC's GISP2 data archive at

All d18O values were determined at the Quaternary Isotope Laboratory (M. Stuiver, Box 351360, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA).

The data columns represent:

Depth Top depth of each interval, in meters. Samples are continuous unless specifically noted.
Age Layer count age at the given depth (in yr BP), where 0 BP represents AD 1950 summer to AD 1949 summer. Age corresponds to the top of the interval, unless noted otherwise.
Del 18O Mean d18O value (in per mil) over the interval starting at the indicated top depth. Standard deviation in a single d18O measurement is 0.14 per mil. Multiple measurements (such as in the data sets below) reduce the standard deviation to the 0.05 to 0.1 per mil range.


These references apply to all GISP2 files listed below.

I Stuiver, M. and P. M. Grootes. GISP2 Oxygen Isotope Ratios. Quaternary Research 54/3 (2000), in press.
II Grootes, P.M., and M. Stuiver. Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 10-3- to 105-year time resolution. Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 26455-26470 (1997).
III Stuiver, M., P.M. Grootes, and T.F. Braziunas. The GISP2 d18O climate record of the past 16,500 years and the role of the sun, ocean and volcanoes. Quaternary Research 44, 341-354 (1995).
IV Meese, D.A., R.B. Alley, R.J. Fiacco, M.S. Germani, A.J. Gow, P.M. Grootes, M. Illing, P.A. Mayewski, M.C. Morrison, M. Ram, K.C. Taylor, Q. Yang, and G.A. Zielinski. Preliminary depth-agescale of the GISP2 ice core. Special CRREL Report 94-1, US. (1994).
V Grootes, P.M., M. Stuiver, J.W.C. White, S.J. Johnsen, and J. Jouzel. Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores. Nature 366, 552-554 (1993).

d18O Data Sets

In addition to the general description provided above, notes specific to each individual data set will be found in each data file's header. Reference notations, also found in the file header, refer to the list of references given above.

gisp2_1m.txt 101KB GISP2 1-meter data set (2m to 3040m, -37BP back to >110,000BP)
gisp2_2m.txt 61KB GISP2 2-meter data set (2m to 3040m)
gisp2_1yr.txt 31KB GISP2 1-year data set (2m to 300m, -37BP back to 1133BP)
gisp2_20yr.txt 73KB GISP2 20-year data set (-30BP back to 61,110BP)
gisp2_50yr.txt 19KB GISP2 50-year data set (61125BP back to 100,075BP)
gisp2_measured.txt 664KB Complete GISP2 continuous sample results (2m to 3040m)
gisp2_silty_ice.txt 7KB GISP2 silty ice (3040m to 3053.42m)
gisp2_detail.txt 44KB GISP2 detailed sample results

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All contents (c) 1998,1999 Quaternary Isotope Lab
This page was last modified 12/07/99 by TLS