Register Now: 17th Symposium on Systems Analysis of Forest Resources, Aug. 27-30!

In two weeks, from August 27 to 31, Professor Sándor Tóth is organizing the 17th Symposium on Systems Analysis in Forest Resources (SSAFR), an international gathering that has been held every couple years since 1975. So far, the symposium has 112 registrants from 23 countries, representing every continent (except the forest-deprived Antarctica)!

Co-sponsored by the Precision Forestry Cooperative, the 2017 SSAFR will be unique in that it will bring together two traditionally disconnected disciplines both working on forest decision support systems: the remote sensing/geospatial informatics community, and operations researchers. The former group is concerned with how to best collect and process data on forests and other resources, whereas the latter tries to optimize resource management given whatever data is available. Despite the obvious feedback and connections between the two groups, so far they have generally operated separately from each other. Working together in this symposium, the two groups will seek to study such questions as how to streamline data collection protocols of competing forest management objectives.

The symposium will be held at the Clearwater Resort in Suquamish, Wash., about an hour outside of Seattle. It’s not too late to register if you’d like to join this impressive international gathering, so learn more and get involved!

A Bird’s-Eye View of Air Pollution

Olivia Sanderfoot, an NSF Graduate Research Fellow and incoming SEFS doctoral student with Professor Beth Gardner’s research group, is the lead author on a paper just published today in Environmental Research Letters, “Air pollution impacts on avian species via inhalation exposure and associated outcomes.” Reviewing nearly 70 years of the scientific literature, the study explores how much we know about the direct and indirect effects of air pollution on the health, well-being, reproductive success and diversity of birds.

Olivia with a stuffed great gray owl (named Wilson) that she uses in her All About Owls lesson at the Madison Audubon Society.

According to Olivia and the paper’s co-author, Professor Tracey Holloway the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, few studies have examined the health and ecological well-being of wild bird populations in the United States—only two since 1950, in fact. In their paper, they identify gaps in research to date on the impacts of air pollution on birds, including air pollution’s effects on the avian respiratory system, reproductive success, population density and species diversity.

“There is a lot of work to be done in this area,” says Olivia, who has been transitioning this summer from her projects at the University of Wisconsin. “Air quality is an ever-changing problem across the globe. There’s a need to look at different types of air pollution and different species all over the world. We have a huge lack of understanding of the levels of pollution birds are even exposed to.”

Learn more about the paper in the official release from the University of Wisconsin, as well as a video abstract Olivia put together for the research. You’ll get to talk to her in person when she arrives in Seattle this coming Thursday, August 18, after wrapping up her summer job as an educator with the Madison Audubon Society. We look forward to welcoming her to our school and community and learning more about her research!

Photo © Olivia Sanderfoot.

Alumni Update: Jorge Tomasevic

Two days ago, we were very excited to hear an update from SEFS alumnus Jorge Tomasevic (’17, Ph.D.), who moved back to his home country of Chile earlier this spring. Jorge, who worked with Professor John Marzluff for his doctoral research, has taken on a position as science coordinator for Centro de Humedales Río Cruces (Cruces River Wetland Center, or CEHUM), a research and conservation center dedicated to produce knowledge, restore ecosystems, raise environmental awareness and promote sustainable wetland management.

“Moving abroad is very challenging,” writes Jorge, “and moving abroad with a whole family is even more challenging. But we are in a very nice place now. We found a nice house to rent. And by nice, I mean small, WARM and cute! It has a backyard, and it’s placed on a very nice area of the city of Valdivia, southern Chile. It’s winter here and it rains a lot. Way more than in Seattle. So, having a wood stove to heat the house is much appreciated. My daughter, Matilda, is loving her school, and Vania is loving this new life. We are all finding our places on this new routine.”

Jorge’s organization was established in 2015 as one of six mitigation measures mandated by court after a trial stemming from the Rio Cruces ecological disaster of 2004. At that time, the company ARAUCO S.A. had polluted the river waters with residues of a pulp mill located upstream of the Rio Cruces Natural Sanctuary. Damaging impacts included massive mortality and emigration of black-necked swans, as well as a series of other effects on the local ecosystems and surrounding communities and their local economies.

“My job is interesting and challenging, and I’m learning a lot. Very soon we will be opening a call for research proposals, and I will be overseeing the development and results that those projects generate. The main goal is to improve the sustainability of a Ramsar Sanctuary Wetland, right next to Valdivia. I am attaching a photo of the wonderful team that I work with: Ignacio Rodriguez (middle) is the executive director of the Rio Cruces Wetland Center, and Patricia Möller (right) is the environmental education coordinator. In the back is the wonderful wetland we are working to protect: Rio Cruces Natural Sanctuary.”

Great to hear from you, Jorge, and stay in touch!

Photo © Jorge Tomasevic.

Annual Honey Extraction: ’Comb and Get It!

On Friday, July 14, Evan Sugden organized his annual honey extracting event at the UW Ceramics Lab, just north of the UW Farm at the Center for Urban Horticulture. Evan, who teaches “Bees, Beekeeping and Pollination” (ESRM491D) during the summer, says the course hives can produce several hundred pounds of honey, and this year’s bees delivered 450 pounds!

The bees make honey early in the season as Himalayan blackberry blooms, and then they finish the summer as research subjects for the science-based class (up to five bee research projects are run simultaneously). Extraction of the honey, the first harvest, marks the transition of the function of the hives. The second harvest comes with the presentation of research results on the last day of class, August 17, and the public is invited. Students help in the honey harvest, and all the proceeds benefit the beekeeping course and program as part of the UW Farm.

Update: As of August 16, the honey is now bottled and ready to go! The student marketing team has arranged a tabling event and pick-up time for this Friday, August 18, from 2:30 to 4 p.m. on the UW Quad, and you can place your order online (payment at pick up accepted by cash or check). If this pick-up time does not work for your schedule, there will be future events. They acknowledge that distribution is a challenge, but with a little patience you’ll be able to get your delicious UW honey, and maybe also a UW Farm-etched beverage glass. Thank you for your support!

Photos © Evan Sugden and Will Peterman.

 

Interim Director’s Message: Summer 2017

High summer in Seattle: blue skies, cool breezes, roses in the rose garden. How did we get here so fast? Seems like a moment ago I was writing you with “hello,” and now we’ve progressed through winter and spring quarters and are already midway through summer. What’s kept me so busy?

The glorious, redolent rose garden around Drumheller Foundation.

SEFS is a wonderful school and has shown me in a variety of ways just what we are about. My favorite learning spot has been the “SEFS 15 Minutes” opportunities I introduced during faculty meetings. Faculty had mentioned they hungered for in-person conversation about issues affecting our community, and I thought devoting time in faculty meetings for this discussion would be an ideal way for me to learn who and what SEFS is—and for all of us to discern which direction SEFS wants to go with a new director.

At first, I invited faculty attending the January 24 meeting to list up to three issues they wanted to discuss on a card, collected and sorted the issues, and shared the outcome. Next, I met with the SEFS Elected Faculty Council for a probing, hour-long discussion of the main issues facing SEFS, and how best to elicit productive conversation among faculty. I seeded the first “SEFS 15” with: “What questions in environmental and forest sciences would you like to address with your research?” This conversation proved difficult for a number of reasons: The question was stilted, faculty wondered whether to answer for themselves or for SEFS as a whole, and the practice of thinking out loud in faculty meetings was unfamiliar. But the first stumbling try gave way to a soaring second, seeded by a rephrasing of the first question: “What BIG questions do you want to address …?”

With me at the chalkboard recording faculty suggestions, a picture of SEFS emerged with everyone’s contributions, showing a coherent and passionate mission for developing and conveying knowledge about how best to understand, utilize and conserve our landscape environment. I believe we all walked away from that meeting feeling part of a larger whole, enthusiastic about pushing forward. Since then, faculty meetings have dealt with a number of issues, including the value (and description) of “Interest Groups” in SEFS, a Faculty Salary Plan requested by Provost Jerry Baldasty, and finally our searches for five open faculty positions.

Our most recent faculty meeting, held last week as a special session since we are in summer, vibrantly summed the progress we’ve made this year as we discussed our search for a new SEFS Director. In June we hosted three candidates who interviewed and enthused us with their and our visions of the future. This energy, and a wish to be a concerted group sure of its momentum and purpose, shined through a thoughtful discussion that included disagreements, points of information, and gradual agreements. The eve of a leadership change is always an exciting and anxious time, and we could potentially reach a final decision about the next director within a few weeks.

I’m also looking forward to at least one more “SEFS 15” discussion during the school’s annual retreat this September. We will welcome everyone back, from field research, travels to meetings and holiday, and also new graduate students, staff and faculty. We’ll focus our attention on the SEFS Graduate Program, as it is surely the grads who carry out most of the research conducted in SEFS. How best can we select, guide, fund and promote our grads? If we consider their work as the forefront of all of our efforts, we must all work to support their mission.

As always, I welcome your input and look forward to learning more about SEFS every day.

Liz Van Volkenburgh
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences

Introducing the SEFS Shared Genetics Laboratory!

After many months of planning and set-up, room renovations and equipment tweaks, we are very pleased to announce that our new SEFS Shared Genetics Laboratory is fully open and operational in Bloedel 170!

Funded by Professor Laura Prugh, SEFS and a Student Technology Fee grant that alumna Melissa Pingree secured, the newly refurbished lab is designed to focus on non-invasive, low-quality/low-quantity DNA genetic testing from hair, scat, saliva,  water, soil and other collected material that doesn’t require the capture of an animal (though the lab is also capable of handling blood and tissue sampling). It’s equipped with highly specialized technologies, including a droplet digital PCR machine to detect very low levels of DNA, and is open to SEFS graduate and undergraduate students in need of space and equipment for their genetic research, whether they’re exploring bacterial communities in soil, or identifying species through hair samples. While using the equipment is free—dependent on availability—students do have to provide their own supplies.

Several graduate students are already using the lab, including a project that involves swabbing bite marks on killed ungulates to determine predator identification. There’s also a new citizen science project on Vashon Island through the Vashon Nature Center that involves a pilot coyote study to try to isolate quality DNA from scat samples to determine individual identification.

The possibilities range widely, and the best way to see how the lab might support your own research is to contact the lab manager, Kelly Williams. Originally from Upstate New York, Kelly earned a master’s in ecology from Colorado State University, and her graduate research involved developing a method of detecting feral pig DNA in water samples (she just had her paper accepted in PLOS ONE!). In addition to assisting graduate student projects, she is currently training and working with three undergraduate student volunteers this summer to help extract DNA scat samples from Alaska as part of one of Laura’s grants.

If you’d like to learn more about the lab or set up a tour, contact Kelly anytime!

Lab manager Kelly Williams with the PCR workstation.

Alumni Spotlight: Olivia Moskowitz

by Karl Wirsing/SEFS

Shortly after graduating this spring, new SEFS alumna Olivia Moskowitz flew to Chicago to spend a week training for her Chicago Botanic Garden Conservation and Land Management Internship. Through a highly competitive application process, the program matches interns with federal agencies or nonprofit organizations involved in land management work. For Olivia, that meant heading to Idaho Falls, Idaho, earlier this month to begin a five-month assignment—as a full-time employee, paid by the Chicago Botanic Garden—with the U.S. Forest Service.

Olivia at the 2017 SEFS Graduation.

She’ll be working in four different national forests around the region (Caribou-Targhee, Sawtooth, Bridger-Teton and Uinta-Wasatch-Cache), and covering a big mix of projects, from collecting native seeds (like showy fleabane and horsemint) for sage-grouse habitat restoration, to conducting forest inventories, plant population scouting and GPS mapping. Some of her tasks will be completely new to her. Others will feel incredibly familiar, which isn’t surprising considering the number of lab and field experiences Olivia accumulated during her four years as an undergrad!

Olivia, who grew up in the San Francisco Bay Area, wasted no time getting involved in university life when she arrived on campus. In her first year, in fact, she co-founded a student group, Conservation in Style, and organized a highly successful “Conservation Catwalk” to raise money to support wildlife conservation efforts for endangered species, including African elephants, through The Gabby Wild Foundation.

Though no longer involved with that group, she quickly filled her hours by exploring every opportunity as an Environmental Science and Resource Management (ESRM) major. At the end of her sophomore year in 2015, she headed down to Pack Forest to take part in the Summer Crew, a foundational internship experience that entrenched and expanded her interest in forests and field work. “That’s what started it all,” says Olivia, who also minored in Quantitative Sciences. “[Working on that crew] puts you on the right track, and it’s a whole lot of fun.”

Working in Pack Forest with Stephen Calkins, a fellow intern on the 2015 Summer Crew.

Olivia came back energized in the fall and started working with SEFS doctoral student Matthew Aghai on his dissertation research. She had reached out to Matthew earlier in her sophomore year, and now he was able to bring her in as a lab tech. She started attending weekly lab meetings with Professor Greg Ettl and taking trips down to Pack Forest, the Cedar and Tolt River watersheds, and Cle Elum. She completed the rest of her research at the Center for Urban Horticulture overseeing and collecting data for Matthew’s greenhouse studies. “It was a lot of fun and really intense, but also probably the most valuable experience I’ve gotten,” she says. (Her research there would eventually lead to a sub-study for her capstone project this spring, “The effects of varying light and moisture levels on the growth and survival of 12 Pacific Northwest tree species.”)

Last summer, Olivia then got to work with Professor Charlie Halpern on his long-running Demonstration of Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO) study, looking at how different patterns of harvesting trees have long-term effects on the landscape. That study took her down to the Umpqua National Forest in Oregon, near Crater Lake, and also to parts of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest in southern Washington.

Most recently, this past quarter Olivia worked with Professor Ernesto Alvarado’s Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory doing a fire-risk assessment report for Washington State Parks out in Spokane. She got to spend several weekends out in the field, as well as plenty of time in the lab working on GIS, writing reports and data entry. “It was great to be a part of something directly useful, and hopefully applied,” she says. She also enjoyed the exposure to how state government works, and getting to meet stakeholders involved in the project at different levels.

Measuring leaf area of destructively sampled seedlings for her capstone project.

Those hands-on research experiences opened doors for Olivia to get some high-level presentation experience, as well. In spring 2016 she presented preliminary results of her capstone research at the 10th IUFRO International Workshop on Uneven-aged Silviculture in Little Rock, Ark., and this May, as part of her Mary Gates Research Scholarship, she gave an oral presentation at the 2017 UW Undergraduate Research Symposium. She will also be presenting twice this summer—first in July at the Forest Regeneration In Changing Environments conference in Corvallis, Ore., and then in September at the IUFRO 125th Anniversary Congress in Freiburg, Germany.

Throughout these many side projects, of course, has been a steady stream of memorable classes. “I’ve made it a point to take as many ESRM classes as I can, which has resulted in very packed schedules,” she says. Among her favorites—and there are many, she says—were Professor Emeritus Tom Hinckley’s Spring Comes to the Cascades, and then Professor Jerry Franklin’s ESRM 425 field trip down in Oregon, Fire-Prone Ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest.

Now, at the end of her four years at SEFS, Olivia has some advice and encouragement for other students getting started in the program. “Get involved, and don’t be afraid to put yourself out there,” she says. “It was pretty scary to reach out to Matthew and Greg [Ettl] and know you want to get involved, but not what your role would be. But when you talk to the professors, they’ve been so helpful and encouraging, they take the whole scariness away from the process. I don’t think a lot of students realize that undergraduate research is available to them. I think it set the stage for the rest of my life, and my experience certainly wouldn’t have been as wonderful and fruitful as it’s been.”

Good luck, Olivia, and stay in touch!

Graduation photo © Karl Wirsing/SEFS; Pack Forest pic © Olivia Moskowitz; lab shot © Matthew Aghai.

Photo Gallery: Pack Forest Summer Crew Gets Underway!

On June 19, four SEFS undergrads began a nine-week internship at Pack Forest as part of the long-running Summer Crew. For the rest of summer quarter, these students—Nicole Lau, Xin Deng, Brian Chan and Joshua Clark—will be involved in a set of diverse projects while receiving hands-on field training in sustainable forest management in the 4,300 acres of Pack Forest. Graduate students Kiwoong Lee, Matthew Aghai and Emilio Vilanova, as well as Forester Jeff Kelly and Professor Greg Ettl, will be working with the interns as they develop skills from forest mensuration to species identification, tackling projects from repairing roads and trails to assisting with research installations, and also taking some field trips.

It’s a tremendous, hallowed experience in SEFS history, and you can check out some great photos from their first couple weeks of work!

Photos © Emilio Vilanova.

2017 Pack Forest Summer Crew

What’s in a Game?

by Karl Wirsing/SEFS

This spring, a team of five graduate students at the University of Washington Information School, or iSchool, took the first steps in developing a video game designed to preserve the language and culture of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation in northeastern Washington. Their goal is to harness the power of digital media for social good, engaging tribal youth as stewards in preserving their traditions and history—all while playing a game.

The project, “Digital Captíkʷɬ/Storytelling,” came together last year through a diverse collaboration including Professors Dan and Kristiina Vogt at SEFS, members of the Colville, graduate students at SEFS (especially Isabel Carrera Zamanillo), Dr. Nancy Maryboy, president and founder of the Indigenous Education Institute, and Phil Fawcett, program coordinator for iSchool capstones. The key piece on the technical side of building the game, though, involved recruiting five master’s students from the iSchool to tackle the first phase of development for their capstone project: Rajat Sethi, Allen Snider, Ian Durra, Akshay Singh and Elton Sequeira.

The Project
“Most games designed to reflect indigenous people reflect the values of the game developers and not necessarily the people whose story is being told,” says Kristiina, who helped co-author a book with Dan in 2013, The River of Life: Sustainable Practices of Native Americans and Indigenous Peoples. For this game, though, the students and project partners took the opposite approach.

“In a matter of a few months, these students were able to take a Colville story and turn it into a game you could play on your cell phone,” says Kristiina.

The Colville consist of 12 individual tribes with traditional territories that at one time extended across the Pacific Northwest, including British Columbia, Idaho and Oregon. To build a game that draws from their authentic indigenous stories, language and history, Kristiina and Dan engaged Colville language experts and fluent speakers, tribal elders, musicians, artists and other cultural contributors. As a result, the Colville provided all content for the game’s story and actively participated in the process by reviewing, providing feedback and consultation, and ultimately giving final approval of the concept.

“We are trying to teach the language to people of all ages of our population,” says Rodney Cawston, director of the Colville language program and one of the project partners. “Our stories teach us a lot about our culture, and electronics seemed like a great way to connect with youth. It’s a pretty exciting process.”

Rodney collected and sent the students several stories to consider, and they narrowed it to one chapter of a story as an achievable scope. The team wanted to develop a game—eventually available as an app on smartphones—that would be relatively easy to play, fit into the adventure genre with linear storytelling and interactive puzzles, and that had an elegant design and color palette. The students even had tribal musicians, artists and native tribal language speakers collaborating and advising them (with the future goal of continuing these collaborations, and to have Colville youth build additional games from stories they write).

“I’m looking at a lot of other games, and almost none of them partners with tribes like this from the beginning,” says Nancy Maryboy, who is also an affiliate faculty member with SEFS. “That’s really significant, and why this project is noteworthy. They’re letting the tribe take the lead with their stories. Their own music. Their own art. It will really have the Colville look.”

The Capstone Team
The initial phase of game development this spring involved building a prototype to demonstrate, as a proof of concept, that a traditional story could be transcribed into a game that captures the attention of tribal youth ages 9 to 15. The iSchool students, who graduated this June, each brought a particular skillset and interest to that task—and all were drawn to the potential value of the game to the Colville community.

The project team (left to right): Rajat Sethi, Akshay Singh, Allen Snider, Ian Durra and Elton Sequeira.

“When we first interacted with these students, we found partners who were equally excited about collaborating with a tribe and taking on the challenge of transcribing a tribal story to build the first prototype language game,” says Kristiina. “The student group was an amazing mix of technological skills and genuine interest to mix language learning into a game, contribute something back to society and learn more about Native American communities.”

That was very much the case with Rajat, who has a background in computer science and back-end development. He graduated with a master’s of science and information technology, and the capstone was the cornerstone of his degree. “I wanted to do something with social value and give back to the community,” he says. “What’s really important is that the game feels and reflects their culture and language, and that it really belongs to them.”

Allen, who came from a liberal arts background in classics and linguistics, brought a slightly different yet complementary perspective to the team. “It’s really exciting for a convergence of interests,” he says. “I studied linguistic concepts, techniques for teaching and pedagogy, and this project has been really engaging. I had wanted to do some kind of language-learning capstone, so it fit beautifully.”

Like Allen, Ian came from a liberal arts background, and he describes himself as a “hybrid player” with interests in comparative literature and computer science. His focus was helping as a go-between, translating Colville language concepts into the game platform. “We turned the story into a quest with an adventure,” he says. “You have a choice of three animals, and you’re then guided by other animals along the way, like a fish that teaches you the word for how to swim, and you have to choose the correct verb to get across the river. Not everything is language. We have Colville landscapes, music—it’s an immersive experience, and you learn as much about the culture as you do about the language.”

Creating that balance between a game that is entertaining and educational was one of the core tensions of the project. They want players to go into a state of flow, and to play repeatedly, reinforcing words and themes in the game while keeping players engaged. “It’s been a huge, complex project,” says Rajat, “really challenging technically, creatively and managerially.”

At the same time, that challenge is a big part of what attracted the students. “When I first heard about this project, I knew it would be difficult,” says Akshay, who moved to the United States from India in 2015 to start his graduate program. “But it will make me feel really happy and satisfied with the work, which is really important to me.”

The story they translated is called smiʔnáp sxʷuys, or Bullfrog Travels – Story 1. (It is the property of the CCT Language Program and Okanogan Language Program.)

Throughout the project, the students had to draw on and learn a wide range of skills, including data visualization, user interface design, systems and application software development, web application development and also game development, which was not initially a strength of anyone on the team. “We didn’t have much game-development experience, so we were learning and implementing at the same time,” says Elton, who worked for three years as a software developer before joining the iSchool.

The Delivery
Juggling a steep learning curve and sensitivity to the stories and stakeholders with the Colville, the students knew they wouldn’t be able to deliver a final product by the end of the quarter. Yet they carefully navigated and delivered on some of their most complex challenges, including developing a game concept that captures an authentic Colville experience. “This game is still a prototype,” says Kristiina, “but it successfully retained the perspectives of the Colville through an iterative process with Colville artists and language experts.”

The project has also set the stage for future collaborations between SEFS and the iSchool. “In the last few years, many of the SEFS capstone students who have worked with me wanted to do research on some aspect of environmental sustainability,” says Dan Vogt. “During that same time period, I’ve had the chance to know and work with some iSchool capstone students. I knew if we could get a group of iSchool capstone students working with a group of SEFS students, we could really get some fantastic products. So in the near future I’m hoping to see some potential synergy from the merger of the technologies of iSchool with the environmental resource expertise from SEFS.”

To that end, this team has provided an impressive technology foundation and springboard for the next capstone students to pick up and keep developing (check out a one-minute promotional video for more visuals of what they produced). In fact, they won an award at the iSchool capstone night for the incredible progress they made—progress that has the potential to spark similar projects elsewhere.

A bigger long-term objective with this game, after all, is to create a model that other tribes can use to build games for their own communities. “These students are building a digital presentation of tribal culture and language, more permanent than oral tradition,” says Phil, who guided the students throughout the process as their capstone advisor. “We want to nail the process down so we can propagate it for other tribes.”

That’s a noble goal, and these five students might have found a way to make the process fun—all while training tribal youth to preserve their cultures for generations to come!

Members of the project team (clockwise from top left): Dan Vogt, Ian Durra, Akshay Singh, Allen Snider, Elton Sequeira, Phil Fawcett, Rodney Cawston, Michele Seymour, Nancy Maryboy and Kristiina Vogt.

2017 SEFS Graduation: Photo Gallery!

Last Friday, June 2, we honored and celebrated our graduates at the 2017 SEFS Graduation in Kane Hall! SEFS alumnus Brian Kertson (’10, Ph.D.) delivered a rousing keynote (exhorting everyone, among other bits of great advice, to get a dog), Melissa Pingree gave the graduate student address, and Rachel Yonemura spoke on behalf of the undergraduates. We eagerly welcome the Class of 2017 into our ever-growing alumni family, and we can’t wait to see and hear about their next steps. Please join us in congratulating this enormously talented bunch of graduates!

In case you missed the ceremony and reception on Friday, or if you want to spot yourself in the crowd, check out a gallery from the morning—with all photos available to download! (Also, we weren’t able to include every photo in the gallery, so if you had your photo taken on Friday but don’t see it here, reach out to Karl Wirsing to see if he has it on hand.)

Photos © Karl Wirsing/SEFS.