Beth Gardner


Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (2002-2006)

Ph.D. Natural Resources;  Minors: Biometry, GIS

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (1999-2002)

M.S.  Natural Resources

Allegheny College, Meadville, PA (1995-1999)

B.S.  Mathematics and Environmental Science (double major); magna cum lade



123D Anderson Hall
School of Environmental and Forest Science

University of Washington

Seattle, WA
Email: bg43 [at]


Professional Experience

Gardner, B.,Garner, L., Cobb, D.T., and Moorman, C.E. In Press. Factors affecting occupancy and abundance of the American Alligator at the northern extent of its range. Journal of Herpetology.

Goyert, H.F.,Gardner, B., Sollmann, R., Veit, R.R., Gilbert, A.T., Connelly, E.E., Williams, K. A.   Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a  hierarchical community distance sampling model.  Ecological Applications.

Cove, M.V., Simons, T.R., Gardner, B.,Mauer, A.S., and O’Connell, A.F.  2016. Evaluating nest supplementation as a management strategy in the recovery of the endangered rodents of the Florida Keys: inference from camera traps.  Restoration Ecology.

Sollmann, R.,Gardner, B., Belant, J.L., Wilton, C.M., Beringer, J. 2016. Habitat associations in a recolonizing, low-density black bear population.  Ecosphere.

Balderama, E., Gardner, B., and Reich, B.J.2016. A spatial-temporal double-hurdle model for extremely over-dispersed avian count data.  Spatial Statistics.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B.,Gilbert, A. T., Williams, K., Viet, R.R.  2016. A hierarchical distance sampling model to estimate abundance and covariate associations of species and communities.  Methods in Ecology and Evolution.  7:529-537.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Chandler, R.B., Royle, J.A., and Sillett, S. 2015. An open population hierarchical distance sampling model. Ecology, 96:325-331.

Mollet, P., Kéry, M., Pasinelli, G.,  Royle, J. A., Gardner, B. 2015. Population size estimation for capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) using DNA-based individual recognition and spatial capture-recapture models. PlosOne. 10(6): e0129020.

Hostetter, N.J., B. Gardner, S.H. Schweitzer, R. Boettcher, A.L. Wilke, L. Addison, W.R. Swilling, K.H. Pollock, and T.R. Simons. 2015. Repeated count surveys help standardize multi-agency estimates of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) abundance. The Condor: Ornithological Applications.  117(3): 354-363.

Flanders, N.P., Gardner, B., Winiarski, K.J., Paton, P.W.C., Allison, T., and O’Connell, A.F. 2015. Key seabird areas in southern New England identified using a community occupancy model. Marine Ecology Progress Series.  533:277-290

Sollmann, R., White, A.M., Gardner, B., and Manley, P.N. 2015. Investigating the effects of forest structure on the small mammal community in the Sierra Nevada using capture-recapture models for stratified populations. Mammalia Biology. 80: 247-254.

Bozarth, C.A., Gardner, B., Rockwood, L.L., and Maldonado, J.E.  2015. Using fecal DNA and spatial capture-recapture to characterize a recent coyote colonization. Northeastern Naturalist, 22(1):144-162.

Henry, E.H., Haddad, N.M., Wilson, J., Hughes, P., and Gardner, B.  2015. Point-count methods to monitor butterfly populations when traditional methods fail: a case study with Miami blue butterfly. Journal of Insect Conservation, 1-11.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Chandler, R.B., Royle, J.A., and Sillett, S. 2015. An open population hierarchical distance sampling model. Ecology, 96:325-331.

Royle, J. A., Chandler, R. B., Sollmann, R. and Gardner, B.  2014. Spatial Capture-Recapture. Academic Press, Waltham MA, USA.  pp. 576.

Botero, C.A., Gardner, B., Kirby, K., Bulbulia, J., Gavin, M., and Gray, R.  2014. The ecology of religious beliefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(47): 16784-16789.

Wilton, C.M., Puckett, E.E., Beringer, J., Gardner, B., Eggert, L.S., and Belant, J.L. 2014. Trap array configuration influences estimates and precision of black bear density and abundance.  PLoS ONE 9(10): e111257. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111257

Reich, B.J. and Gardner, B.  2014.  A spatial capture-recapture model for territorial species. Environmentrics.  25(8): 630-637.

Prince, A. P., C. S. DePerno, B. Gardner, and C. E. Moorman. 2014. Survival and home range size of southeastern fox squirrels in North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist. 13(3): 456-462.

Ergon, T. and Gardner, B.  2014. Separating mortality and emigration: modelling space use,dispersal, and survival with robust design spatial capture-recapture data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 5(12):1327-1336.

Carrillo-Rubio, E., Kéry, M., Morreale, S.J.,Gardner, B., Sullivan, P. J., Cooch, E.G., and Lassoie, J.P. 2014. Use of Multispecies Occupancy Models to Evaluate the Response of Bird Communities to Forest Degradation Associated with Logging. Conservation Biology, 28: 1034–1044. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12261

Dunn, D.C., Boustany, A. M., Roberts, J.J., Brazer, E., Sanderson, M., Gardner, B. and Halpin, P.N.  2014.  Empirical move-on rules to inform fishing strategies: a New England case study. Fish and Fisheries, 15: 359–375. doi: 10.1111/faf.12019

Martin, J., Edwards, H.H.,  Bled, F.,  Fonnesbeck, C., Dupuis, J.A.,  Gardner, B.,  Koslovsky, S. M.,  Ward-Geiger,L. I.,  Carmichael, R.H., Fagan, D.E., Ross, M.A., Aven, A.M., and Royle, J.A. 2014. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91683. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091683

Bowling, S. A., Moorman, C.E., DePerno, C.S., and Gardner, B.  2014. Influence of landscape composition on Northern Bobwhite population response to field border establishment. Journal of Wildlife Management. 78(1):93-100

Raabe, J. K., Gardner, B. and Hightower, J. E.  2014. A spatial capture – recapture model to estimate fish survival and migration patterns from linear telemetry arrays. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 71(1):120-130.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Chandler, R.B., Shindle, D.B., Onorato, D.P.,  Royle, J.A. , O’Connell, A.F.  2013. Using multiple data sources provides density estimates for endangered Florida panther.  Journal of Applied Ecology. 50(4):961-968.

Bolker, B., Gardner, B., Maunder, M.,  Berg, C.,  Brooks, M.,  Comita, L., Crone, E., Cubaynes, S., Davies, T., de Valpine, P., Ford, J., Gimenez, O., Kéry, M., Kim, E.,  Lennert-Cody, C.,  Magnusson, A., Martell, S. Nash, J., Nielsen, A., Regetz, J., Skaug, H.,  Zipkin, E. 2013.  Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 4(6):501-512.

Chen, G., Kéry, M., Plattner, M., Ma, K. and Gardner, B.  2013. Imperfect detection is the rule rather than the exception in plant distribution studies.  Journal of Ecology. 101:183-191.

Mattsson B.J., Zipkin E.F., Gardner B., Blank P.J., Sauer J.R., and Royle, J.A. 2013. Explaining Local-Scale Species Distributions: Relative Contributions of Spatial Autocorrelation and Landscape Heterogeneity for an Avian Assemblage. PLoS ONE. 8(2): e55097. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055097

McGowan, C.P., and Gardner, B.  2013. Evaluating methodological assumptions of catch-curve survival estimation for un-marked precocial shorebird chicks. Waterbirds.  36(1): 82-87.

Moorman, C.E.,   Plush, C. J., Orr, D. B.,  Reberg-Horton, C., and Gardner, B. 2013. Small mammal use of field borders planted as beneficial insect habitat.  Wildlife Society Bulletin.  37(1):209-215.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Parsons, A.W., Stocking, J.J., McClintock, B.T., Simons, T.R., Pollock, K.H., and O’Connell, A.F.  2013. A spatial mark-resight model augmented with telemetry data. Ecology.  94:553-559.

Martin, J., Edwards, H.H., Burgess, M.A., Pervival, H.F., Fagan, D.E., Gardner, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J.G., Ifju, P.G., Evers, B.S., and Rambo, T.J.  2012.   Estimating distribution of hidden objects with drones: from tennis balls to manatees.  PLoSONE. 7(6): e38882. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.00388

Noss, A.J., Gardner, B., Maffei, L., Cuéllar, R., Montano, R., Romero-Munoz, A., Sollmann, R. and O’ Connell, A.F. 2012. Assessment of density estimation methods for animal populations with camera traps in the Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco landscape.  Animal Conservation. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00545.x

Wegan, M.T., Curtis, P.D., Rainbolt, R.E., and Gardner, B. 2012. Temporal sampling frame selection in DNA-based capture mark-recapture investigations.  Ursus 23(1):42–51.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B. and Belant, J.L. 2012.  How does spatial study design affect density estimates from spatial capture-recapture models?  PLoSONE 7(4): e34575. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034575

Oppel, S., Meirinho, A., Ramírez, I., Gardner, B., O’Connell, A.F., Louzao, M. 2011. Comparison of five modelling techniques to predict the spatial distribution and abundance of seabirds.  Biological Conservation

Golovin, D., Krause, A., Gardner, B., Converse, S.J., and Morey, S. 2011. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning. Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-11

                  *Winner of the Outstanding Paper Award

Martin, J., Royle, J.A., Mackenzie, D.I., Edwards, H.H., Kéry, M, and Gardner, B. 2011. Accounting for non independent detection when estimating abundance of organisms with a Bayesian Approach.  Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2: 595–601.

Sollmann, R., Furtado, M.M., Gardner, B., Hofer, H., Jácomo, A.T.A.,  Tôrres, N.M., and Silveira, L. 2011. Sex matters: Estimating jaguar density in central Brazil accounting for gender-specific detection and movement using spatially explicit capture-recapture models. Biological Conservation, 144(3):1017-1024.

Reppucci J., Gardner, B.*, and Lucherini, M. 2011.  Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes. Journal of Mammalogy. 92(1):140-147.

Saracco, J.F., Royle, J.A., DeSante, D.F., and Gardner, B. 2011. Spatial modeling of survival and residency and application to the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. Journal of Ornithology.  DOI 10.1007/s10336-010-0565-1

Royle, J. A., Magoun, A.J., Gardner, B., Valkenburg, P., and Lowell, R.E.  2011.  Density estimation in a wolverine population using spatial capture-recapture models. Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(3):604-611.

Kéry, M., Gardner, B., Stoeckle, T., Weber, D., and Royle, J.A. 2011. Spatial capture-recapture density estimation using DNA-sampled data in rare and elusive animals. Conservation Biology, 25(2): 356-364.

Gardner, B., Reppucci J., Lucherini, M. and Royle, J.A.  2010. Spatially-explicit inference for open populations: Estimating demographic parameters from camera-trap studies.  Ecology, 91(11): 3376-3383.

Royle, J.A., and Gardner, B.  2010. Hierarchical spatial capture-recapture models for estimating density from trapping arrays.  pp. 163-190  in O'Connell, A., Nichols, J.D., and Karanth, K.U.(eds.) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, New York.

Kéry, M., Gardner, B., Monnerat, C. 2010. Predicting species distributions from checklist data using site-occupancy models. Journal of Biogeography, 37:1851-1862

Saracco, J.F., Royle, J.A., DeSante, D.F., and Gardner, B. 2010. Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities. Ecology, 91:1885‐1891.

Zipkin, E.F., Gardner, B., Gilbert, A.T., O’Connell, A.F., Royle, J.A., and Silverman, E.D. 2010. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics. Oecologia, 163(4): 893-902.

Gardner, B., Royle, J.A., Wegan, M.T., Rainbolt, R.E., and Curtis, P.D. 2010. Density estimation based on hair snare data for black bears.  Journal of Wildlife Management. 74(2):318-325.

Gardner, B., Royle, J.A., and Wegan, M.T. 2009. Hierarchical models for estimating density from DNA mark - recapture studies.  Ecology. 90(4), 1106-1115.

Gardner, B., Sullivan, P.J., Morreale, S.J., and Epperly, S.P. 2008.  Spatial statistical analysis of bycatch data:  patterns of sea turtle bycatch in the North Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 65: 2461–2470

Gardner, B., Sullivan, P.J., Epperly, S.P., and Morreale, S.J. 2008. Hierarchical modeling of bycatch rates of sea turtles in the western North Atlantic.  Endangered Species Research.  Available Online at:

Gardner, B. and Sullivan, P.J. 2004. Spatial and temporal stream temperature prediction: modeling non-stationary temporal covariance structures. Water Resources Research, 40: W01102.

Rivas, A.L., Smith, S.,  Sullivan, P.J., Gardner, B., Aparicio, J.P., Hoogesteyn, A.L., and Castillo-Chávez, C. 2003. Identification of geographical factors associated with early spread of foot-and-mouth disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64, 1519-1527.

Gardner, B., Sullivan, P.J., and Lembo Jr., A.J. 2003. Predicting stream temperatures: geostatistical model comparison using alternative distance metrics.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 60: 344-351.

Stepp, P.L. & Gardner, B. 2001.  Ten Years of Demographics: Who Debates in the United States.  Argumentation and Advocacy, 38, 69-82.

Stepp, P.L. & Gardner, B. 2001. How well are we doing: Has the sexual harassment policy in CEDA debate worked? Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 22, 22-40.

2016 - present   Assistant Professor, School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, UW

2011 – 2015      Assistant Professor, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, NCSU

2007 – 2010      Postdoctoral Researcher, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, USGS


Selected Grants

Complete list available upon request.

Wildlife Management Institute. Title: Mapping the Distribution, Abundance and Risk Assessment of Marine Birds in the Northwest Atlantic.  PIs: Beth Gardner, Brian Reich.  2012-2013, $115,000

USFWS.  Title: Assessing Endangered Marsh Rabbit and Wood Rat Habitat Use and Feral Cat Populations Using Photographic, Video, and RFID Capture-Recapture Data.  PIs: Ted Simons, Beth Gardner, Allan O'Connell. 2011 – 2016.  $289,050

DOE.   Title: Modeling wildlife densities and movements across temporal and spatial scales on the mid- Atlantic continental shelf. PIs: David C. Evers, Beth Gardner, Richard Veit, Ari Freidlaender, David Johnston, Iain Stenhouse. 2011-2015, $4.5 million ($235,182 to NCSU).

National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Working Group, Title: Evaluating and improving open source software for nonlinear statistical modeling in ecology.  PIs: Mark Maunder, Beth Gardner, Ben Bolker. 2011. 

Tagging blue fin tuna with my colleague Andre Boustany off the coast of NC.