1

u‑ npf. indefinite or unspecified possessive prefix to inalienable nouns. ‑‑‑utoh ʘma ‑‑‑ughwus ʘma For further examples of u‑ see bets (under refl); daghe (under ‑daghe); ke1 (under ‑k); tsl (under mom2).

e‑ npf. indefinite or unspecified possessive prefix when preceded by possessive prefix. ‑‑‑Udoo neka loohte. ʘem For further examples of e‑ see lii4; zets (under ‑zedz); tu1 (under clf-mot); toh (under ‑toh); tsn2 (under ‑tsn).

u‑1 ppf. indefinite or unspecified object of postposition prefix; u deletes before a vowel. For example(s) for u‑1 see te1 (under koohte).

u‑: ‑‑‑Uktsidlii. ʘma ‑‑‑Shw ughghdinda. ʘma ‑‑‑Wooh ukunyah.

: ‑‑‑Indh. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo edh. ʘma For further example(s) of see khs (under mom).

u‑ ~ ‑ ~ e()‑ ~ a()‑ vpf. indefinite or unspecified direct object prefix, also indefinite/unspecified subject prefix but rare in that function. preserved only before a vowel, deleted after a vowel and before a consonant; i‑ ‑‑> e() and u‑ ‑‑> a(); word-initially, u‑ before a consonant.

u‑: ‑‑‑Ughhcht. ‑‑‑Udhą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Udukwus. ‑‑‑Hǫ, d utsidooghii. ʘma

: ‑‑‑Naints. ‑‑‑Hǫ, siįįh nnainą̀h. ʘma

e()‑: ‑‑‑Nedsla. ʘma ‑‑‑Neghdla. ʘma

a()‑: ‑‑‑Aįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas ghǫh lhaghalelh. ʘma ‑‑‑Nadastse. ʘma ‑‑‑Louie dowa nasehtę. ʘma For further examples of a()‑ see įį4 (under n#O‑h‑įį); d1 (under d-D‑); dgh (under pf).

-d‑ vpf. ‑‑‑Kud udoo tinaduget. ʘma For further example(s) of -d‑ see yah (under yah‑).

2

vsf. imperative; optional, rare. ‑‑‑Nukhinii joo shw udughghdahd. ʘma

a classify food

mom

h

ǫ

alh

h

per

ah

ah

alh

ah

O‑d‑a v. (clf-mot) This root is not distinct from ‑ą1 for some speakers, who use ‑ą1 instead of ‑a.

per ‑‑‑Ustsudzii kdustah. Sutehm th kdustah. ‑‑‑Tlįį utsun kdutah.

mom ‑‑‑Utsn tun kundinth. Utsigǫ̀ kundinth. Ugwt joo kundinth. ‑‑‑Utsn tun kundastǫ. ‑‑‑Nukhinii uyii udughdhth. ‑‑‑Nnatsidoothii. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii joo utsn kayniizų. Utsn nididtalhe. ʘma For further example(s) of mom see zs1 (under kwzs).

yi-nu#d-D‑a v. (mom) ‑‑‑Sukwzs th wutseh tse yinudoosthii. ‑‑‑Tse yinutsidoothii.

O‑d-h‑D‑ǫ v. (s mom) ‑‑‑Mukeh utsidhtǫ. ‑‑‑Tsutsudzii mukeh tsidhtǫ.

mkh utsidhtǫii n.

muth utsidhtǫii n.

ą1 classify compact

mom

ą̀h

ǫ

ąlh

ą̀h

cont

ą

ǫ

ą̀lh

ą̀

per

ąh

ąh

ąlh

ąh

neu

ǫ

ǫ̀

ǫ̀lh

ǫ̀

cust

ąh

 

prog

ąlh

 

O‑ą v. (clf-mot) The compact object class consists of singular three-dimensional objects (like hat, shoe, folded shirt, pillow, piece of food, book, trap, rolled up fishnet, medal, empty bucket, sack of potatoes), kicker (boat engine), abstract objects (like a job), liquids (like water). [PA *a: handle compact object (KL)] [cf. ‑a classify food. Innovative nasalization split the PA root into two in KwTs. The oral vowel root is preserved in classify food (but see grammatical note with that entry).]

prog ‑‑‑Nadalh ii tlǫh nuyaąlh. ʘma ‑‑‑Nuts tsaąlh. ʘma ‑‑‑Nutseytsaąlh. ʘma ‑‑‑Mitseytsaąlh. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii intsudzii tlįį ch ghinąlh. Tehm th kinąh. ‑‑‑Louie ts yaąlhzǫh udoo khudii la khwd yyniiǫ. Khgd la khwd yyniiǫ. ʘma

per ‑‑‑Kwtah ksąh. ʘma ‑‑‑Ustsudzii ksąh. ‑‑‑Kyaąh. ‑‑‑Udoo tselh ksąh. Bes zǫh dstę.

mom ‑‑‑Udutseh knuną̀h. ‑‑‑Diid tudsǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Kunudidasąlhe. ‑‑‑Khikeh tulasgus nniiǫ. ‑‑‑Gat yiih liblii joo dutsusǫ. ‑‑‑Yus tnǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mudzǫh too meynǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Muchwę̀ yudzǫh kneǫjh. ʘma ‑‑‑Sul ghoosą̀hii. For further example(s) of mom see 1 (under ).

cust ‑‑‑Sinii la wd wusąh. Ya kayghniizųda, go wusąh. ʘma

k#n‑ą v. (per) impf only. ‑‑‑Kninąh. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii ts gle tah zǫh ute. Kninąh. ʘma ‑‑‑Knusahzǫh udoo khudii la khwd zehkhę ʘma

‑ts‑t‑nu#O‑d‑ą v. (gh mom) ‑‑‑Mitstnaydiną̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Khǫhd mitstnaydiisǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Sinii joo Sharon tstnudiisǫ. ʘma

ts‑nu#O‑d-D‑ą v. (gh mom) ‑‑‑Nutsahd tsindintą̀h. ‑‑‑Sutsahd tsindastǫ.

ts#O‑gh‑ą v. (gh mom) ts in closed syllable, or before n or gh; otherwise ts or ts. ‑‑‑Ktsnayghiiǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Knutssighiiǫ, ktsnusighiiǫ.

ti-ts#O‑gh‑ą v. (,n mom) rarely ti-ts.... ‑‑‑Udoo titsnighsą̀h. Nitseslii. ʘma ‑‑‑Titsighdiinąlhǫ?

pf with 0‑marked object. (1s titsghniisǫ, 2s titsghniin‑, 3s titsghnii‑, 1p titsightsinii‑, 2p titsghnah‑, 3p ) ‑‑‑Titsghniisǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Titsghniinǫ‑ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Shirley titsghniinǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Titsightsiniiǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Titsghnahǫ‑ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Tanya titsghniiǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Shirley titsghniiǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii Edna Mary titsghniiǫ. ʘma

pf with object prefix. ‑‑‑Titsnighniisǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya kida titssighninǫa? ʘma ‑‑‑Edna titsnighniǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Titssighniǫ. ‑‑‑Titsighghniǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya kida sǫ titsighghniǫ̀? ʘma ‑‑‑Titsnightsiniiǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya kida titssighnahǫa? ʘma ‑‑‑koo dune titskhighniiǫ. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Titsghighniǫ. ʘma

cust ‑‑‑Tinutssighuąh. ‑‑‑Umawii chila titsnusighuąh. ʘma ‑‑‑Nupan tinutsghinąh. ʘma

P‑tu(‑nu)#ą vpf. (n) ‑‑‑Dune tunaghnǫ ughutsuts. ʘem ‑‑‑Tsdane tunǫ sutę. ʘem

‑z#n-D‑ą v. (gh mom) ‑‑‑Muznintą̀h. ‑‑‑Muznunintą̀h. ‑‑‑Yuznatǫ. ‑‑‑Yuznunatǫ. ‑‑‑Lhatseh muzantsinatǫ.

cust ‑‑‑Lhiihznaghnutąh. ‑‑‑Iihznaghnutąh.

O‑oo-d‑‑D‑ą v. (mom) ‑‑‑Dune oodidtǫ. ʘem ‑‑‑Dune ootsidtǫ. ʘem ‑‑‑Dune oodidstąlhe. ʘem

P‑i(‑nu)#w-‑h‑ą v. (0,s mom) This verb very commonly occurs with nu‑.

P‑i#w-‑h‑ą:

impf ‑‑‑Udoo nutsd ewsą̀h. ‑‑‑Udoo mudahda kewsą̀h. ‑‑‑Udoo mewsą̀h. ʘma

pf with 3sg postpositional object. (1s mewsiihǫ, 2s mewsinh‑, 3s yewh‑, 1p mewtsh‑, 2p mewsah‑, 3p mewwh‑) ‑‑‑Louie nniį̀į̀ glii mewsiihǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mewsiihǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mewsinhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Yewhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mewtshǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mewsahǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mewwhǫ. ʘma

P‑i-nu#w-‑h‑ą: ‑‑‑Minawnhą̀h. ‑‑‑Udoo kud yinawhą̀hǫ? ʘma

pf with 3sg postpositional object. (1s minawsiih‑, 2s minawsinh‑, 3s yinawh‑, 1p minawtsh‑, 2p minawsah‑, 3p minawwh‑) ‑‑‑Ya inawsinhǫa? ʘma ‑‑‑Minawsinhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Minawsiihǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Yinawhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Minawtshǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Minawsahǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Minawwhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Inawhǫ. ʘmc ‑‑‑Khǫhd Andreas inawhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Inawwhǫ. ʘmc ʘma ‑‑‑Ya inawwhǫa? ʘma ‑‑‑Dedza minawsinhǫa? ʘma

tulasgus inawhǫii n. ʘma (Zonotrichia leuchophrys or Zonotrochia albicollis)

P‑‑kw#d‑ą v. (n mom) ‑‑‑Kwn kwdidasąlhe. ‑‑‑Kwn kwdniǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Mkwtsidniǫ. For further example(s) of P‑‑kw#d‑ą see d2 (under kwn d).

cust ‑‑‑Kutle da kwn kwunduąh.

dist ‑‑‑Kwn kwndsǫ.

‑dz k#ą v. (gh mom) ‑‑‑Nudz ksą̀hǫ? ‑‑‑Sudz kinǫ. ‑‑‑Mudz ktsiiǫ.

‑iid P‑chu#d-‑ą v. (mom) ‑‑‑Miid muchudsǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii tsdane ii muddz yiid yuchudǫ. ʘma

du#ą/le v. (s mom) ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ gwa dususla. ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ gwa dutsusla. Lhgh sudowa nnuną̀h.

n#(w‑)ą/le v. (n mom) ‑‑‑Ide utsigǫ̀ nniisǫ. ‑‑‑Ide utsigǫ̀ nniisla.

n#w-d‑ą v. (n mom) ‑‑‑Lhad la Fort Ware noodnisǫ. Ide kaslhah. ‑‑‑Yd Uncle Perry kwune la Porcupine Forks wuts khuh noodniǫ. ‑‑‑Gwuda s nootsidniǫ.

P‑h n#w-d‑d-‑ą v. (mom) ‑‑‑Khuh noodidǫ. ‑‑‑Muh nootsididǫ.

‑iil ‑ą v. (cont) ‑‑‑Siil nsuǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Yiil ndaą̀lhe. ‑‑‑Miil nawsą̀ wukaynuszun.

impf (1s nsą, 2s nun‑, 3s n‑, 1p ntsu‑, 2p nh‑, 3p nghu‑) ‑‑‑Wool nhą. ʘma ‑‑‑Wool ntsuą. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Niil ną. ʘma ‑‑‑Miil nsą. ʘma ‑‑‑Miil nuną. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii kwlą miil nuną. ʘma ‑‑‑Ii kwlą miil nuną. ʘei ‑‑‑Khiil nghuą. ʘma

nauą n. [compare CJ Sla-hal A game played with ten small disks, one of which is marked. (Gibbs)]

nu#w-d‑ą v.

prog ‑‑‑Khukh nawdaąlh. ʘem

sa ‑ą, sa#ą v. (mot) This verb has no perambulative derivation. also su#.

prog ‑‑‑Dedza sa ghuąlha? ‑‑‑Sa ghuąlh zǫh sa kwiiǫ. ʘma

mom ‑‑‑Kwla sa dsǫ. ‑‑‑Sa kdsǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Ksiiǫ ʘma ‑‑‑Sa kiǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Knusiiǫ. ‑‑‑Kwla khwd sa tse įįh dz duą̀h. ‑‑‑Udoo kud sa dudą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Sa kwiiǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Sa kwusiiǫ.

sa natǫ n. ‑‑‑Kwla sa natǫ.

kw‑sa#d-‑ą, k‑sa#d-‑ą v. (mom) also su#. ‑‑‑Tse keh kwsadǫ. Yįįhdze udiidw. ʘma ‑‑‑Ksadǫ, kwsadǫ. ‑‑‑Udoo kwunusadą̀h. ‑‑‑Kwusanudǫ, kwunusadǫ. ‑‑‑Didoo dzenes udoo ksadą̀h. Widnstlts.

cust ‑‑‑Kwnusadąh.

‑ǫ v. (clf s neu) ‑‑‑Ide suǫ. ‑‑‑Yhlh suǫ. ‑‑‑Gwuda nun kesuǫ. ‑‑‑Gwa wuǫ̀ wukaynuszų. ʘma

na keh suǫii n. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑na keh suǫii nidw. ʘma ‑‑‑na keh suǫ kayniizun. ʘma

dsǫ n.

too dusuǫ n. For example(s) for too dusuǫ see doos (under ‑doos).

refl ‑‑‑Ehld gwuda dintǫ, tachǫh wudowa. ʘma

caus ‑‑‑Yhlh siihǫ. ‑‑‑Jode ts k nudowa siihǫ ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii ts chę̀ Edna dowa siihǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Gwuda kǫh whǫ. ʘmc ‑‑‑Wd gwuda whǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Gwuda kǫh woowhǫ. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Nudeh dasǫ̀lhe. ‑‑‑Louie dowa kachowa winhǫ̀. Kaghdoontsed n. ʘma For further example(s) of caus see ts (under ‑tsda).

w-h‑ǫ v. ‑‑‑Ide wsinhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Sugh wsinhǫ. ‑‑‑Nesdh. Khwil nuh shw wsinhǫ. ʘma

n-h‑ǫ v. ‑‑‑Nuts ninhǫ. ʘem ‑‑‑Ooy zǫh nhǫ. ʘem ‑‑‑Ooy zǫh nehǫ. ʘem

ehtǫ n. ʘma ʘmc (psd ‑ehtǫ̀, dim ehtwązii) ʘmc (psddim ‑ehtwą̀ązii) ‑‑‑mehtǫ̀ ʘma ‑‑‑hzhii khehtǫ̀ ‑‑‑Mehtǫ̀ joo mutla kwinlh. ‑‑‑Wehtǫ̀ nunhtsulii h udoo diih ghizehkhe. ‑‑‑Ts ts nehtǫ̀ kaghdinn.

‑tlǫh nu#w‑ǫ v. (s neu) ‑‑‑Khutlǫh nawsǫ. ‑‑‑Kutle d nutsidudlh ii la, kwla lhadz khutlǫh nawsǫ. ‑‑‑Did dzenes sutlǫh nawdaǫ̀lhe.

-n‑ǫ v. (n) ‑‑‑Uyii gle sadus unǫ. ʘem

caus ‑‑‑Uyii h miniinhǫ̀. ‑‑‑Uyii h uyii nikg iniinhǫ̀.

mh kininhǫ̀ii n.

P‑ghǫh O‑h‑ǫ v. (s neu) ‑‑‑Dna sǫh sehǫ.

P‑ts O‑h‑ǫ v. (s neu) ‑‑‑Dna suts sehǫ. ‑‑‑Khunun ghǫh dna khuts ghehǫ.

P‑ts dza#h‑ǫ v. (s neu) ‑‑‑Yuts dzasehǫ.

lh‑nu#O‑d‑ą v. (n neu) ‑‑‑Lhnadiną̀h. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Lhnatsidniǫ.

d‑nu#O‑d‑ą v. (n neu) ‑‑‑Noos dnadiną̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Dnadnisǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Dnutsidniǫ.

s#d-h‑D‑ą/la v. (s neu) also s#. ‑‑‑Dzh sdhtǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Lhatahda sadhya. ‑‑‑Ya stsidhya? ʘma ‑‑‑Tsk sdhtǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo sadestǫ. ʘma

sadhtǫ n. ʘma

Sadhtǫ prsn. nickname for Mary Charlie.

stsidhtǫ n. ‑‑‑Stsidhtǫ snlh. ʘma

sadhya n. ʘma ‑‑‑Stsidhya snlh. ‑‑‑Sdesya. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo sdesya usįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo dune saydhya usįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo dune saydhya ustsuts. ʘma

ą2

neu

ą

ą̀

ą̀lh

ą̀

cust

ąh

 

‑ą v. (ext neu) There are no distinctive distributive stem forms. The semantically most neutral prefix is n‑. [PA *a: extend (L87)]

gh‑ cnj ‑‑‑Gat niią. ‑‑‑Tse dzh kuniią. ‑‑‑Dichin too dz kudniią. ‑‑‑Ya tiąa? ʘma ‑‑‑Ide la mudah koową. ‑‑‑Mudwniią. ʘem ‑‑‑Dotiiye koową tadįįdze yhsa niią. For further example(s) of gh‑ cnj see ądze.

dist ‑‑‑Gat nnsuą.

caus ‑‑‑Kwn ts utsn unainhą. ‑‑‑Ts dowa nsniihą̀.

impf with ti# in water. (1s tiniihą, 2s tininh‑, 3s tiiniih, 1p titsiniih‑, 2p tinah‑, 3p tighghniih‑) ‑‑‑Tiniihą. ʘma ‑‑‑tininhą. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya ka tininhą? ʘma ‑‑‑Tiiniihą. ʘma ‑‑‑Edna tiiniihą. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya tiniihąa? ʘma ‑‑‑Titsiniihą. ʘma ‑‑‑Tinahą. ʘma ‑‑‑Tighghniihą. ʘma

mh nadiią n. ‑‑‑Oos mh nadiią ghdinkh.

utsn unadiią n.

‑tią n. (psd ‑tą̀) ‑‑‑utią ʘma ‑‑‑stę tią ʘma ‑‑‑Dusdlęha tią unleh, tsuts dinhchilii tseh. ʘma ‑‑‑Dusdlęha tią sugh nintį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Nistę tią̀ sugh nintį̀į̀h. ʘma

lhgh mugh niią num.

nun tiniią n. ʘma For example(s) for nun tiniią see tlǫǫ (under (P‑)du#O‑tlǫǫ).

0‑ cnj ‑‑‑Gat kaą. ‑‑‑Ide la kii kaą. ‑‑‑Koową. ʘem ‑‑‑Mugod wa wą. ʘem

bes kwną n.

kighdą n. ʘma also ukighdą. For example(s) for kighdą see k (under clf-mot).

tlowe chow kaąde n. ‑‑‑Tlowe chow kaąde kuda knustą.

kudnuą, kudnuąde n. (w)

kudnuą: ‑‑‑nugn kudnuą ʘma ‑‑‑nutsun kudnuą ʘma

kudnuąde: ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑sukwus kudnuąde ʘma ‑‑‑Sugwt kudnuąde wikoodidh.

nun tse niinaą n.

s‑ cnj ‑‑‑Muk zǫh kwnudnsą. (Natsoodalh)

uyiinsą n. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyiinsą lhetn.

‑kwedsą n. ‑‑‑mukwedsą ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑sukwedsą ʘma ‑‑‑Mukwedsą sntį̀į̀h. ʘma

nun nisuą n. ʘma

Tsdle Nisuą pn. ʘma

nun ysuą n. ʘma

n‑ cnj ‑‑‑Utune wą. ʘma ‑‑‑Yįįhdze la yhh tune wą. ʘma ‑‑‑Suk lhdą. ‑‑‑Tse Tii tah dotiiye kwą.

nun lhdą n. ʘma

duz lhdą n. ʘma

h‑ą v. ‑‑‑Duz yhą. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑canyon kawdhąde ʘma ‑‑‑Kawdadą̀da kawdhą. Yǫ̀dze miighe kudhya. Ii wǫh la wwujii Kawdya wwujii. ʘlt

nun yhą n. ʘma

Duz Yhąde pn. ʘma ‑‑‑Duz Yhąde la yehtune. ʘma

dist ‑‑‑Too gh la ktle knhą. ‑‑‑Utǫ̀ chow too gh nuyeh, kooy uza knhąde.

P‑ts n‑ą v. (0) ‑‑‑Lhiihts tsinuą. ‑‑‑Mary h Edna h lhiihts ghinuą. ‑‑‑Udoo nuts noosą̀ wukaynuszun. Nutah yaslę.

cust ‑‑‑Udoo suts nuąh. Sesdąhdz nuąh wd.

tl#w-h‑ą v. (s) ‑‑‑Tlwsinhą. ʘma

ts#h‑ą v. (gh) ‑‑‑Yn ktsisą. ʘma ‑‑‑Dukǫh zǫh ktsihą. ʘma ‑‑‑Sutlas dighde dukǫh suda. Ktsihą. ʘma ‑‑‑Sukǫh zǫh ktsihą. ʘma

n‑gw#h‑ą v. (gh) ‑‑‑Ngwihą. ʘma ‑‑‑Ngwtsiihą. ʘma

dist ‑‑‑Ngwnghehą.

cust ‑‑‑Nnugwtsiihą.

P‑ku#(w‑)d-h‑ą v. (s,) ‑‑‑Mukawoodhą. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Mukawtsidhą. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Udoo mukawoodhą. ʘmc ‑‑‑Udoo dune kawdinhą. ‑‑‑Udoo wukawdinhą. ‑‑‑Khudawdudh. Udoo mukawdehą. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii dune udoo dune kawdhą. ʘma ‑‑‑Idoo dune kawdhą. ʘei ‑‑‑koo dune ughdidhty. Udoo kawdinhą.

‑daą̀ adv.

dghdaą̀ adv. ʘma ‑‑‑Dghdaą̀ sinhǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii sel dghdaą̀ nantį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Dghdaą̀ zǫh niitęh.

tldaą̀ adv. ʘma ‑‑‑Tldaą̀ sintę. ʘma ‑‑‑Nitshtsg tldaą̀ sinhtǫ. ʘma

ywdaą̀ adv. ʘma ‑‑‑Ywdaą̀ sutę. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii mel ywdaą̀ sutǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Ywdaą̀ nintį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii oos ywdaą̀ niną̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii tsdane ywdaą̀ zǫh niitęh. ‑‑‑Ywdaą̀ siihtǫ. ʘma [cf. tsiihyw straight down]

ą3

dur

ą

ą̀

ą̀lh

ą̀

O‑h‑ą v. ‑‑‑Ya ghǫha uyii dune udoo inhą? ‑‑‑Uyii dune dasą̀lhe. ‑‑‑Uyii dune wusą̀ii.

pf (1s ghiihą̀, 2s ghiinh‑, 3s ghiih‑, 1p tsiih‑, 2p ghah‑, 3p ghighiih‑) ‑‑‑Edna ghiihą̀. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Edna ghiinhą̀ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas Edna ghiihą̀ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Khǫhd tsiihą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Edna ghahą̀ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Khǫhd Edna ghighiihą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Edna ghiihą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Ghighiihą̀. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Khgdǫ̀ uyii dune ghiihą̀ii sudn nsįį. [PA *ɬ‑a:‑ send (L87)]

du#O‑d-h‑ą v. ‑‑‑Wd dusidinhą. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii dune dusidehą, store ts diinyalhǫ shnii. Ii h ǫ disįį. ‑‑‑Andreas daghdehą. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Daghighdehą. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya ka dundiihą̀a? ‑‑‑Dutsidiihą̀. ‑‑‑Dusididahą̀lhe. ‑‑‑Dutsidoohą̀ii. For further example(s) of du#O‑d-h‑ą see n (under ninii).

impf with w‑/woo‑ 3pl object. (1s dawdusą/dawoodusą, 2s dawdinh‑/dawoodinh‑, 3s dawdeh‑, 1p dawtsideh‑/dawootsideh‑, 2p dawdah‑/dawoodah‑, 3p dawoodeh‑) ‑‑‑Dawdehą. ʘma ‑‑‑Dawtsidehą. ʘma ‑‑‑Dawdahą. ʘma

a exp. ʘma ‑‑‑A, lhaw, udoo kante. For further example(s) of a see lhut (under caus).

ą̀1

-n‑h‑ą̀ v. ‑‑‑Uyii dune uniihą̀. ‑‑‑Isǫ ya kayniizun ghǫh sǫ uniihą̀.

ą̀2 send

mom

ą̀

ą̀

ą̀lh

ą̀

per

ą̀h

ą̀h

ą̀lh

ą̀h

O‑h‑ą̀ v. [PA *ɬ‑a:‑ send (L87)]

per ‑‑‑Uyii umawii kwtah ksą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwtah ksą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwtah kinhą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas kwtah ksehą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Mary kwtah kesą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Khǫhd kwtah ksiihą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Kniihą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑tsǫǫ kwtah ksidahą̀lhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas kwtah kdasą̀lhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Tachǫh sǫ kwtah koosą̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas kwtah ktsoohą̀hii. ʘma

mom ‑‑‑Hǫ, khudii lhadz dinhą̀ ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo yd widehą̀. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Yd widehą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Yd widhą̀. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Dedza yidhą̀a? ʘma ‑‑‑Tsidhą̀. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Andreas dedza sidhą̀a? ‑‑‑Mary yn Andreas tsdehą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii dune nn dehą̀. ‑‑‑nn yshą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Dukǫh kwusiihą̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Dukǫh dsniihą̀. ʘma For further examples of mom see lhadz; tsits.

O‑h‑ą̀ v. (mom)

tsi-nu#O‑n-‑h‑ą̀ v. (0) ‑‑‑Tsinusinhą̀.

ni(‑nu)#O‑d-‑h‑ą̀ v. (0) ninu ‑‑> na. ‑‑‑Nasidnhą̀. ‑‑‑Udoo nisidhą̀ ʘem ‑‑‑Nidhą̀. ʘem ‑‑‑Tlįį nisidhą̀. ʘem ‑‑‑Nootsidhą̀. ʘem ‑‑‑Nitsidhą̀ii. ʘem ‑‑‑Khwąze nitsididsą̀lhe. ʘem [< nu# from ni-nu#]

cust ‑‑‑Wd kutle dǫ̀ nasidhą̀h.

‑dowa n#O‑h‑ą̀ v. ‑‑‑Andreas dowa ide nsniihą̀. ʘem

abahl n. (psd ‑abahl) [from Eng overall]

ądze adv. (pr ąʹdze) ʘma ‑‑‑Wd ądze gwa tse niią. ʘma ‑‑‑koo gat ądze niią. ‑‑‑Ądze ii tse gwa suǫ.

ah n. ʘma ʘmc (psd ‑ah) ‑‑‑muah ʘma ‑‑‑suah ʘma [PA *a:xy snowshoe (K05)]

ah chow n. (psd ‑ah chow)

> ah bla bearpaw snowshoe see under bla

> ah bja temporary, emergency snowshoe see under bch

> ah chę̀ rear end of snowshoe, tail see under che

> ah tloolh fine babiche see under tloolh

> ah ts snowshoe tip see under ts

ąh1

s#w-d‑ąh v. also s#. ‑‑‑Sawduąh. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Sinii joo sawdusąh. ʘma ‑‑‑Swooduąh. ʘma For further example(s) of s#w-d‑ąh see kooht (under koot).

dist ‑‑‑Snwooduąh. ʘma

ąh2

P‑e#d-n‑ąh v. (gh) ‑‑‑nnsgh medninąh. ʘma

hzhii adj. ‑‑‑Sitiiy hzhii ndehtliit. ‑‑‑Ide jooaylh. hzhii khehtǫ̀ hnii.

> ahy that way, over there see under y2

> ahyugh over there, that way see under yugh

akǫ̀ adv. (pr akǫ̀ʹ) ʘma variant of kakǫ̀.

just now, a little while ago: ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ late. ʘma ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ astst. ‑‑‑Did akǫ̀ nudsja. ʘma ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ Andreas ts dhya. ʘma ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ lhunasdalh. ʘma ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ knawdntį̀į̀lh. ʘma ʘma For further example(s) of just now, a little while ago see ze.

as soon as, just as: ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ hkh lhutsadlhii ii joo sąs khuh katsut. For further example(s) of as soon as, just as see ya3 (under P‑g#d-ya/ats/detl).

akǫ̀? exp.

ą̀gh deceive

dur

ąh

ą̀gh

ąlh

ąh

(nu#)O‑n‑ą̀gh v. ‑‑‑Nuniisą̀gh. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Umawii chila nuniisą̀gh. Andreas joo nuniisą̀gh. ʘma ‑‑‑Nayniią̀gh. ‑‑‑Nasighniią̀gh.

k#O‑n‑ą̀gh v. ‑‑‑Ktsiniią̀gh. ‑‑‑Yudowa nzudzǫh udoo khudii khwd kayniią̀gh. Gwudz la yizhkhę. ʘma

> Aghele Carrier people see under khe2

l chew

dur

l

l

l

l

P‑(i‑)(yh)#d-n‑H‑l v. some tonal variation: sometimes before yh, sometimes yhi in closed syllable. [cf. O‑h‑tl chew on O]

P‑‑yh#d-n‑H‑l: ‑‑‑Ya iyhdninla? ʘma ‑‑‑Ya iyhdnahla? ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ yhdnul. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ iyhtsidnul. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ iyhidnusl ʘma

yh#O‑d-n‑H‑l: ‑‑‑Dzh yhdnusl. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ yhdnusl. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ yhighdnul. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya yhdnula? ʘma

O‑d-n‑H‑l: ‑‑‑Ya dininla? ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ dinusl. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Dzh dinusl. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ dinul. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ tsidnul. ʘma ‑‑‑Dzh tsidnul. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya dinahla? ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ ghidnul. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ dachow dinasl.

(nu#)O‑d-n‑H‑l v.

fut (1s nudnasle, 2s nudniin‑, 3s nudna‑, 1p ntsidna‑, 2p nudnah‑, 3p naghdna‑) ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ nudnasle. ʘma ‑‑‑Nudniinlǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ nudnale. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ ntsidnale. ʘma ‑‑‑Nudnahlǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ naghdnale. ʘma

opt ‑‑‑Kwla sa dz tadįįdze, hnii. Utsigǫ̀ nutsidnoolii. ʘma

n exp. (pr ʹn) ʘma ‑‑‑n, gwudze ghiinyalh.

t n. ʘma ‑‑‑Too keh t wlę. ‑‑‑t nidwawjh. For further example(s) of t see ya5 (under d-ya). [PA *a:q fog (K05)]

tl

dur

lh

tl

lh

lh

mom

l

tl

lh

l

O‑h‑tl v. (dur) ‑‑‑Tlįį utsun ehlh. ʘma ‑‑‑Tlįį utsun ghiihtl. ‑‑‑Tsiihtl. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ niihtl. ‑‑‑Diinhlhǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Sul utsun dahlhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ tsidahlhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Dahlhǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Tlįį inleo? Ughųz winhlh! ʘma [cf. ()(yh)#O‑d-n‑H‑l chew O] [PA *a:tl chew, bite (L87)]

O‑(h‑)tl v. (mom) ‑‑‑Khą̀ts kinwdehtl, tasdlęha ka. ‑‑‑Ghje sǫ yikida nukanoohl. ‑‑‑Tudniistl. ‑‑‑Ttsidniitl.

cust ‑‑‑Digch da diighǫ̀ǫ̀ h yikinwehtl.

n#O‑d‑tl v. (mom) ‑‑‑Udoo utsun ndusl. ʘma ‑‑‑Tlįį utsun ndstl. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsun ndestl. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsun ndoonln. ʘma

n#O‑gh-‑tl v. (mom) ‑‑‑Tlįį nsightl. ‑‑‑Khgdǫ̀ usdii tlįį sul nghtl. ʘma ‑‑‑Nayghtl. ʘma ʘei ‑‑‑Udoo nnighl. For further example(s) of n#O‑gh-‑tl see khg (under khgdǫ̀). [cf. n#gh‑ accidentally]

ats du go

mom

s/ts

ats/tats

s/ts

s/ts

per

ts

ts

ts

ts

prog

s/ts

 

‑ats v. (mot) [PA *a:č several go on foot (L87)]

prog (1d tsa‑, 2d ghah‑, 3d gha‑) ‑‑‑Tsas. ʘma ‑‑‑Ghahsǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Ghas. ʘma

per ‑‑‑Ktsuts. ʘma ‑‑‑Kghuts. ‑‑‑Dedza khtsa? ʘma ‑‑‑Kghatas lǫ̀.

mh ktsutsii n. ‑‑‑Mh ktsutsii gwudze sutǫ.

psd (1d mh ktsutsii, 2d mh khtsii, 3d mh kghutsii)

mom ‑‑‑Gwudz dahs. ʘma ‑‑‑Dedza dahadza? ‑‑‑Tsidsats. ʘma ‑‑‑Ydigh tsidsats. ʘma ‑‑‑Katshlhah ts tsidsats. ‑‑‑Fort Grahame ts nutsidatse ii dowa digh Ukii gh nuntsustats.

‑tlǫh nu#d-D‑ats/detl v. ‑‑‑Edna h lhiihtlǫh nudahts. ʘma ‑‑‑Ii tlǫh nudahdlh. ʘma

h‑ats v. (mot

per1 ‑‑‑Khs. ʘma

mom1 ‑‑‑ts dhats. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwla kuda dhats. ‑‑‑Kwsǫ yhh nun too gh dahse. ‑‑‑Ii tselę mun dlįį uyii tselę gh lhoowe dehs elhh. ‑‑‑Yghdhats. ʘma ‑‑‑Mitsgh nidhats. ʘma For further example(s) of mom1 see įį2 (under pf).

cust

Dude Khsde n.

Khuda Chinahsde pn. ʘlt TsK place. ‑‑‑Kuda Tinahsde Kw pronunciation of this place.

uka d-h‑ats v.

mom ‑‑‑Kuda uka dhats.

O‑n-h‑ats v.

per ‑‑‑Tlįį klhighnehs.

a adv. [from McL/TsK]

e

P‑e#d-h‑ vpf. ‑‑‑Tsutsudzii etsidehkeh. ʘem ‑‑‑Tsutsudzii etsidhkę ʘem

ę have, be

neu

tę̀

tę̀lh

tę̀

(u#)O‑d-D‑ę v. (n neu) [PA *də‑e:ŋ have, own, possess (L87)]

have: ‑‑‑Tlįį dstę. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo tlįį chow dstę. Tlįį kuntsdla zǫh usįį. ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ dstę. ‑‑‑Tlįį utsidtę, tsidtę. ‑‑‑Gwndn udtęǫ? ʘma

use: ‑‑‑Tsuts joo dintę. ‑‑‑koo koohte la umawii uzs bes ghidtę. ʘma

w-d‑D‑ę v. ‑‑‑Yd la kǫh witsidtę. ‑‑‑Tse keh kǫh wididastę̀lhe.

P‑i#w-d‑D‑ę v. i#w ‑‑> oo. ‑‑‑Tazowe koodatę. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo nukh koodatę. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo tsits kh koodatę. ʘma ‑‑‑Wooba kwune dkaghujha? Udoo woodatę. ʘma

P‑i#w-d‑D‑ę v. ‑‑‑Kuda ndatsida da uwutee moodatę. ‑‑‑Ninii la khwd numa khdz noodatę. ‑‑‑Mukhdz khoodatę.

s#n-‑D‑ę v. ‑‑‑Sntę̀ ghiil lǫ̀. ‑‑‑Snootę̀ wukayniizun.

impf (1s snnustę, 2s snin‑, 3s sn‑, 1p stsin‑, 2p snah‑, 3p soon‑) ‑‑‑Stsintę. ‑‑‑Shwghhdaǫ? Snhtęǫ?

ech n. ʘma ʘmc (psd ‑ej, psddim ‑eja) ‑‑‑suej ʘma ‑‑‑muej ʘma ‑‑‑Nuej utee. ʘma ‑‑‑Ii muej dinstldzii mnunhtsoos. ʘma ‑‑‑Mueja utee. ʘma [PA *e:gy coat, shirt (K05)]

> ‑ej gn sleeve see under gn

d adv. (pr ʹd) ʘma occurs with (uncertainty). ‑‑‑d sǫ Andreas knoost. ʘma ‑‑‑d sǫ dukǫh lhundooj. ʘma ‑‑‑d sǫ nudoonj. ʘma ‑‑‑d sǫ widoondh. ʘma

ędii

‑ędii n. ‑‑‑Tii ędii ma tiiyawjh. ‑‑‑Muędii nudowa witsį̀į̀? ‑‑‑Edna ędii witsusdune. ʘma ‑‑‑Wooędii witsusdune. ʘma ‑‑‑Ah ędii ts tselę gh destla. ‑‑‑Edna kutle d tudhya, dud ędii. ʘma ‑‑‑Usanante d uskale kwsǫ nuędii ghiil, disįį. For further example(s) of ‑ędii see tslh2 (under n-tslh). [PA *P‑e:‑d@n without P L87]

ke ędii n. ʘma ʘei ‑‑‑Ke ędii susda. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo ke ędii kindah.

ę̀dz

tse ę̀dz n. ʘma ‑‑‑Tse ę̀dz oonejit. [cf. dzh2 cliff, bluff]

ga n. (psd ‑g, psddim ‑gazii) ‑‑‑Mugazii mntį̀į̀h. [from McL/TsK]

h

‑h n. [PA *P‑@tl with P (K05)] [cf. h with, like, same as. The PA root developed word-initial Ɂ stop with these senses, slightly different from ‑h.]

with, and: ‑‑‑Nuh doosyii. ‑‑‑Duh kyuąh. ‑‑‑Edna h mudowatsiihte. ‑‑‑Edna h nn utsidslooz. ‑‑‑Edna h ya ghahtsda? ʘma ‑‑‑Yd nudsja h duh yidsǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Duh taydsǫ. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Duh naydsǫ. ‑‑‑Andreas h nudindah. ʘma ‑‑‑Ma ha nudadalha? ‑‑‑Ma ha nudiindalha? Edna h? ʘma ‑‑‑Mary nkhhįį. Ma ha? Edna h nkhhįį.

by means of, using: For examples for by means of, using see ą1 (under caus); tl (under cust); įį3 (under refl); iigholh; bla (under utsoosbla); bch (under O‑h-bch); chin (under ‑chin); chla (under ku#gh-d‑chla); dah6 (under ‑dahdze); d2 (under ‑d); d1 (under too h ‑n P‑k#d-diih); d1 (under du#w-n‑diih); jje (under sgą jj).

P‑h p. For example(s) for P‑h see dich (under P‑i-nu#w-d‑D-dich).

h conj. ‑‑‑Ud h Aghele h ʘma ‑‑‑Uyagh h utsigǫ̀ h lhidh. ‑‑‑Ldii h soon h kwudindiiǫ? ‑‑‑Lbdak h utsn h dnsdǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas h Mary h Edna kighoohdįįhii. ʘma ‑‑‑Ydahdze destla gwudze zǫh Mary h mama h suneh nughats. ‑‑‑Wilson h Tommy h Frank h la wkghiidetl.

h sub. requires noun or nominalized sentence argument; nominalization covert after vowel.

nominal argument: ‑‑‑Ii h dkajha? ‑‑‑Ii h tudhtla. For further example(s) of nominal argument see d3 (under impf).

nominalized sentence argument: ‑‑‑Wukidnghdlii h kitsnhgwuch. ‑‑‑Dusbdii h utsn nesįį. ‑‑‑Kghukehii h too ghizhkhę. ‑‑‑Uwutee udn ii h udoo mukawtsidhą. ‑‑‑Mayiislii h nudesja. ʘma ‑‑‑Miil dzą̀z, ii h too ujh. ʘma

sentential argument without overt nominalization: ‑‑‑Udoo dna dstę h dusbt. ʘma ‑‑‑Uskookn woowehą h gwuda kaghghhlhah. ʘma For further examples of sentential argument without overt nominalization see ine (under impf); ine (under tewhine).

> P‑h n#w-d‑d-‑ą charge, fight with P unexpectedly see under ą1

> muh utsidehdii whistle see under t

> muh tsuts dichilii splitting axe see under chil

> ‑ht along with, et cetera see under t

> P‑h nu#w-d‑n-tlts P blacks out see under tlts1

> ya1 (h) how! see under ya1

ehda n. (pr ehdaʹ) ʘma ʘei (Aquila chrysaetos) ‑‑‑Ehda lhoowe ka hda. ʘma

ehda muchow n. ʘma For example(s) for ehda muchow see tlat (under per).

> ehd this (time), now see under d1

ehkhwą n. ‑‑‑Ehkhwą too gh ndl ghidii.

ehld

> ‑ehld some, part, rest of see under ehld

elhh adv. (pr elhʹh) ʘma ʘei also lhh, elh. ‑‑‑Didii saneh ndidzs elhh. ‑‑‑Ide lhoowe ka nghudlh elh. ʘei ‑‑‑Ninla wd Andreas h tsynundalh elhh. ‑‑‑Dzenes tadįįdze la tsdane kǫh lhundadlh elhh. ‑‑‑Ninla tsn nuz winstlǫ elhh. ʘma ‑‑‑Dune ghghudane lhh witsusdune. ʘma For further example(s) of elhh see ats (under mom1).

lh

P‑lh p. ‑‑‑Msdoos sulh tsynatla. ‑‑‑Umawii chila sugh tunudhtla. Sulh tsynatla.

ę̀sha

d-h‑ę̀sha v. (neu) ‑‑‑Dehę̀sha. ʘma ‑‑‑Mits dehę̀sha. ʘma ‑‑‑Mitsgh dehę̀sha. ʘma ‑‑‑Tlįį dehę̀sha. ʘma ‑‑‑Das dlzhe dehę̀sha mutsusdune. ‑‑‑Ghidehę̀sha. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Sukod dehęshawjh. ʘma ‑‑‑Sul dehę̀shajh kudidhtlahii h.

dist ‑‑‑koo tlįį naghdhę̀sha. ʘma

ts#h‑ę̀sha v. ‑‑‑Uyii tsdane tssehę̀sha. ʘma

dusehę̀sha adv. ‑‑‑Dusehę̀shnjh. ʘma

etl, lh pl float, fall

per

lh

lh

lh

lh

mom

l

etl

lh

l

‑etl v. (mot) per H‑etl.

per ‑‑‑Klh. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsits klh. ‑‑‑d mun keh kghulh. Wd gwudz kghulh. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsn wsdlii. Ya ka kghulha? ʘma ‑‑‑Khǫhd kghalh. ʘma ‑‑‑Ktsidalhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsdawa kwune ktsoolhii. ʘma ‑‑‑Hǫ, ktsoolhii. ʘma

mom ‑‑‑Yd dsetl. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsits udoo yl. ‑‑‑Tsits yndze sitssune ysuetl. ‑‑‑Tun kdulh. d tun dulh. For further example(s) of mom see ni1 (under ni#).

mh kiiedla n. ʘma ‑‑‑Mh kiiedla la lhidh. ʘma

n#n‑etl v.

mom ‑‑‑dichin nnsedlii ʘma ‑‑‑Tsuts kutsidoosii. Nnsedlii nstlǫ. ʘma

caus ‑‑‑Hǫ, nninhl. ʘma ‑‑‑tsǫ̀ǫ̀w dichin nnahl. ʘma ‑‑‑Uskewa dichin naghnhetl. ʘma ‑‑‑Gat naghdnahlhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Ntsinoohlii.

ts step, kick

mom

us/es

ts

us

es

dur

es

es

.

cont

es

ts

us

es

O‑ts v. [PA *‑e:dz act with foot (L87)]

dur ‑‑‑Udiines.

mom ‑‑‑Udoo maines. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo mainus. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo sainus. ʘma ‑‑‑Miyonines. ʘma ‑‑‑Mnusts. ‑‑‑Yukdsts. ‑‑‑Distsii taniists. ‑‑‑Edna yodnasuse. ʘma ‑‑‑Edna yonoosesii. ʘma ‑‑‑Siyonooessį̀į̀. ʘma For further example(s) of mom see ka2 (under P‑ka#n‑).

n#O‑d‑ts v. (cont) ‑‑‑Udoo ndines. ‑‑‑Udoo yda lhw nduses. ʘma ‑‑‑Lhw zǫh ndests. ‑‑‑Naydsts. Sul ndsts. ‑‑‑Lhw zǫh nundasuse. ‑‑‑Nsidoonsn. ‑‑‑Lhw zǫh nundoosesii. ʘma ‑‑‑Lhw zǫh ndoosesii.

P‑t‑nu#d-D‑ts v. (mom) ‑‑‑Nuk tundintes. ‑‑‑Khǫhd suk tundastts. For further example(s) of P‑t‑nu#d-D‑ts see tdii (under kehtdii).

caus ‑‑‑Muk tnaydinhes.

P‑ki#d-‑D‑ets v. (mom) ‑‑‑Udoo suah kindntus. ʘma ‑‑‑Mukidsts.

i#-n‑h‑us v.

mom ‑‑‑Ya ka iize ikeniinhus ii kayniinzų?

prog ‑‑‑Iize inanahus. ʘma ‑‑‑Khinii joo iize inatsinahus.

eyh exp. ʘma ʘem expression while struggling, having a hard time.

i

i#d-n‑ vpf. occurs with succ verbs. ‑‑‑Ooshin idnesyts. ‑‑‑Idnsghts. ʘma For further example(s) of i#d-n‑ see tsii (under O‑tsii).

> i#d-n‑ downward movement see under i

> i#d-n‑(D‑) off, away, this way, chase see under 1 For examples for i#d-n‑(D‑) see (under mom); yoot (under mom).

> i-d‑n-ghtl trip (and fall) see under khtl

1

‑‑nu#D‑ vpf. used with motion verbs. ‑‑‑Yn kǫh winundah. ʘma ‑‑‑Wech kǫh winasja. ʘma ‑‑‑Wech kǫh winastla. ʘma

> #H-da sg. hunt while stationary see under da3

> #d-‑ intersect with see under 1

> #H-kę du. hunt while sitting, be in a hunting stand see under

> koo# hidden, hiding, stored, out of sight see under koo

2

dirpf. neutral to far distance; variant of y‑.

ide det. (pr iʹde) ʘma ‑‑‑Ide kǫh awtsiddlh. ‑‑‑Ide wutseh utune winidw. ‑‑‑Kwla ide wuts la kesdh. ‑‑‑Ide la udoo kesdh.

idniidzą n. ʘma (Fragaria virginia)

> idniidzą tloolh strawberry runners see under tloolh

idoo adv. (pr idooʹ) variant of udoo. ‑‑‑Idoo usanii suda. ʘei ‑‑‑Idoo sne keintį̀į̀h. ʘei ‑‑‑Idoo shw wudindh. ʘei

indinii n. (pr indiʹnii) ʘma ʘmc (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) [PA *dənəxy arctostaphylos, bearberry (KL)]

Indinii Gh pn.

ine

ti#h‑ine v.

impf (1s tesine, 2s tinh‑, 3s teh‑, 1p titseh‑, 2p tah‑, 3p tigheh‑) ‑‑‑Titsehine. ‑‑‑Tehine. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Tighehine. ʘma ‑‑‑Wookǫh tewhine, udoo mda wookǫ̀wate h.

tewhine adv. ‑‑‑Nupan tada h tewhine lhunadalh.

> isǫ I dont know see under

> zǫ̀ii Izony see under

t adv. emphasisizing especially temporal or locative argument; affixal forms are ‑t, ‑t, ‑t. ‑‑‑Akǫ̀ knawdntį̀į̀lh t la umawii chila jode lhaagelh. ʘma

ii det. ʘma short form of uyii. ‑‑‑Ii ya oohta? ʘma ‑‑‑Ii mukeh suda keh wsinhǫ. ‑‑‑Ii h ii wutseh next day Bill Kǫh lhutsas. ‑‑‑Ii la oos suǫ. ‑‑‑Ii dkawjha? [cf. ‑ii 3sg rel/det]

iiya det. iiye before word beginning with . ‑‑‑Iiya too ndutęh tazowe. For further examples of iiya see da3 (under k(‑chi)#gh-n‑‑da); ts (under P‑tsda).

iiya det. ʘma less common variant of iiya.

įį1

‑įį nsf. occurs with ‑a diminutive. ‑‑‑bbaįį ‑‑‑tswąįį ‑‑‑tsaįį ʘma

įį2

mom

į̀į̀h

įį

į̀į̀lh

į̀į̀h

n#d‑įį v. (n mom) ‑‑‑Udoo ndiį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Khwązii ndidasį̀į̀lhe. ‑‑‑Udoo ndooį̀į̀h wukayniizun.

pf (1s ndnisįį, 2s ndniin‑, 3s nd‑, 1p ntsid‑, 2p ndnah‑, 3p nighd‑) ‑‑‑kwune joo kula la nighdįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Sul kwune joo kula nighdįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kula ndnisįį. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Kula ndniinįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Ndįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kula ntsidįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kula ndnahįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Dǫ̀ kh ndįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwdii witst da ndįį uwhsų. Ide glii kwa nindhs, koo tsehe. ‑‑‑Noodįį. ‑‑‑Udoo mda wlę. Kht noodįį. For further example(s) of pf see t1 (under t).

Dune ndhiine dowa tinatsididlii dzenes n.

įį3 do

dur

įį

į̀į̀

į̀į̀lh

į̀į̀

cust

įįh

 

u#O‑h‑įį v. (dur) u# a default prefix, replaceable by more contentful prefixes. ‑‑‑koo intsudzii biilh unooį̀į̀? For further example(s) of u#O‑h‑įį see dzen (under did dzenes).

impf1 (1s usįį, 2s anh‑/unh‑, 3s ah‑, 1p utseh‑, 2p ah‑, 3p ugheh‑) ‑‑‑Udoo tlįį usįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo tlįį ahįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Dughudahii ughehįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Jje usįį. ‑‑‑Uyehįį. ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ anhįǫ? ‑‑‑Ya anhįįa? ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Ya unhįįa? ʘma ‑‑‑Khinii utsigǫ̀ utsehįį. ‑‑‑Ya ahįįa? ʘma ‑‑‑Ah ahįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo yda utsehįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Uwehįį. ‑‑‑Kǫh uwehįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ usįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nun nitsį̀į̀ ughehįį. ‑‑‑Ma nehą? ʘma

refl ‑‑‑Tshtsk joo dune muh udiįį. ‑‑‑Udidįį kwududii. ʘem

u# replaced ‑‑‑Shwanhįįh. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo yda ddasįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya kanhą? ʘma ‑‑‑Ya kanehą? ʘma ‑‑‑Ya kayehą? ʘma For further examples of u# replaced see d2 (under what); tsįįhd.

‑dowa#O‑h‑ii v. ‑‑‑Yudowayehįį. ʘma

dza#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Dzayehįį.

khuda#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Hǫ, khudanhįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Khudasinhįį. ʘma

P‑kǫ̀wa#įį v. ‑‑‑Nukǫ̀wawsįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nukǫ̀watsooį̀į̀ii.

la#O‑h‑įį v. This verb is used in positive, declarative sentences only. ‑‑‑Soon lasįį. ‑‑‑Utsigǫ̀ lasįį. ‑‑‑Harvey .303 lahįį. Sinii la .300 udstę. ‑‑‑Utsn latsehįį. ‑‑‑Umuse kwne, tse kwune, tse Old Poole kwune lawwehįį, John Poole muba kwne. ʘma ‑‑‑Wl lawehįį. ʘma For further examples of la#O‑h‑įį see dastǫh (under ‑dastǫhda); te1 (under P‑kǫ̀wa#te); tsut (under P‑chǫ̀ d-D‑tsut).

sa#į̀į̀ v. low tone due to sa maybe. ‑‑‑koo jje chow saghehį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Jje sahį̀į̀. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Jje saghehį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsn satsehį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Andreas sǫ dna sahį̀į̀. ʘma

sna#O‑įį v. ‑‑‑Snayehįį. ‑‑‑Katsiloos ii glii snatsehįį. ‑‑‑Duzgh snawehįį. [cf. sne slowly]

tsula#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Tsulayehįį. ‑‑‑Udoo tsulatsehįį.

uma#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Umayehįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Umatsehįį.

P‑#įį v. ‑‑‑Umawii chila nughaį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Duba daį̀į̀lhe noodlii. ‑‑‑Duba ooį̀į̀sį̀į̀.

impf2 with 3sg postpositional object. (1s msįį, 2s min‑, 3s y‑, 1p mtsi‑, 2p mh‑, 3p mghi‑) ‑‑‑Mtsiįį. ‑‑‑Msįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Yįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Udoo tsdane inįį. ʘei ‑‑‑Udoo tlįį hįį. ʘma For further example(s) of impf2 see ya5 (under kwn diduyahii).

tlįį̀įį exp. ʘem

P‑gha-g#h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Sagnhį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Nagsį̀į̀h ‑‑‑Magtsehį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Khitsinlii. Nagtsehį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Sag deda Edna anhįį. ʘma

ku#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Barbara dkunhįįa? ‑‑‑Ya dkunhįįa? ʘma ‑‑‑Dkayehįįa? ʘma ‑‑‑Dkayeh~a? ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo kuskehdz la kutsehįį. ‑‑‑Udoo kasinhįį, lhaw. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo kahįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Mitsahlii, tehine. Udoo kahįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo kunhįį. Mitsinlii. ‑‑‑Dkunehįį ghǫha mutsinhduna?

sch#įį v. ‑‑‑Udughghinda. Udoo dune tah shchanįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo schanįį. Keintį̀į̀h sootehante. ‑‑‑Schįį. ‑‑‑Udoo schtsiįį. ʘma

shwa#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Shwayehįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Shwakhighehįį. ʘma

P‑tu#O‑h‑įį v. ‑‑‑Soon shoogah tutsehįį. Lsel joo tutsehįį. ‑‑‑Ya mukayniinzų mutunhįį. ‑‑‑Ya mukaytsiniizų la mututsehįį.

soon taghghehįį n. ʘma

t#O‑d‑įį v. ‑‑‑Taydiįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Tdinįį. ‑‑‑Tghghdiįį. ‑‑‑Ttsiduįį.

-d‑‑įį v. ‑‑‑Utsididįį. ‑‑‑Itsididth utsididįį. ‑‑‑Kedtsugh udidįį. ‑‑‑Dune utee udidįį. ‑‑‑Nitsį̀į̀ udidįį.

įį4 see

mom

į̀į̀h

įį

į̀į̀lh/į̀į̀h

į̀į̀h

prog

į̀į̀lh

 

O‑įį v. (gh mom) This verb has two unusual features. (1) The perfective is interpreted as either imperfective or perfective. (2) The imperfective is used only to form the negative (or yes/no questions). ‑‑‑Noosį̀į̀hii kwudisdii. ‑‑‑Kah sąs ii glii inį̀į̀ha lhw? ʘma [PA *‑e:n look, gaze, stare (directionally) (L87)]

pf1 (1s ghisįį, 2s ghin‑, 3s ghi‑, 1p tsa‑, 2p ghah‑, 3p gha‑) ‑‑‑Ghisįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kuda ghiįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Ghinįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Tsaįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Ghahįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Kuda ghaįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwla ghisįį. ‑‑‑Edna Mary ghiįį. ‑‑‑Khighaįį. ‑‑‑Witsaįį. For further example(s) of pf1 see 1 (under a()‑).

impf (1s usį̀į̀h, 2s in‑, 3s u‑, 1p tsi‑, 2p ah‑, 3p ghi‑) ‑‑‑Udoo usį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo uį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo inį̀į̀hǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Edna udoo Mary uį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Kah, yda inį̀į̀hǫ? ‑‑‑Udoo kuda ghiį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo nukwlą̀ usį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Udoo ahį̀į̀hǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo yda usį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo tsiį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo yda tsiį̀į̀h. ʘma For further examples of impf see kh; w(oo) (under woow‑).

n#O‑h‑įį v. (,s mom) ‑‑‑Udoo nsį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo ntshį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo yda ntshį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo nshį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo nsnhį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Ma nyhįįa? ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo nsidhį̀į̀he, udoo nsidhį̀į̀lhe. ‑‑‑Kud. Nyhį̀į̀hii. Moonle. ʘma ‑‑‑Kud, nyhį̀į̀hii. ʘma ‑‑‑Sul nasehįį. ʘma ‑‑‑koo dune nsighhįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nsighhįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Naghghhįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑koo tsdawa naghghhįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nunghhįįǫ? ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Nnukhhįįǫ? ʘmc ‑‑‑Nkhighhįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Nkhighhįįǫ? ʘmc ‑‑‑Nnukhighhįįǫ? ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Nsiihįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nssinhįį? ʘma ‑‑‑Nuntshįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nnsiihįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nssinhįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Nshįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Nssahįįǫ? ʘma

pf2 with w‑ areal object. (1s nwsiihįį, 2s nwsinh‑, 3s nwh‑, 1p nawtsh‑, 2p nwsah‑, 3p nawwh‑) ‑‑‑Kǫh nawtshįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kǫh nwsiihįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kǫh nwsinhįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Kǫh nwhįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kǫh nwsahįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Kǫh nawwhįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Kuda kh nwsiihįį. ‑‑‑Nawwhįį. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Nnhįį h newitsį̀į̀ nhnii?

tlįį nsehįį n. ‑‑‑Uyii tlįį nsehįį nyhįį.

O‑d-d‑h‑įį v.

mom ‑‑‑Tsididhįį. ‑‑‑Kwla didehįį. ‑‑‑Udoo glii tsididhįį.

ni#O‑d-d‑‑h‑įį v. (mom) ‑‑‑Nididhįį. ‑‑‑Udoo la nididhįį. ‑‑‑Udoo glii nitsididhįį. Kwdii mikedatlah ejh. ʘma

nu#y-d‑įį v. (s mom) ‑‑‑Naytsidiį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Tsusya wutseh ytsw naydesįį. ‑‑‑Naytsidsįį. ‑‑‑Kwsǫ Louie lhadz dhya nw tse keh naydooį̀į̀hii wuka. ‑‑‑Tse keh naytsidooį̀į̀hii. ‑‑‑Gwudz nn naydisį̀į̀h.

da#y-d‑D‑įį v. (mom) ‑‑‑Mudaytsidiį̀į̀h. ʘma

refl ‑‑‑Wd daytsiditį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Daydintį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Dayditį̀į̀h. ʘma

P‑ku#y-d‑įį v. (mom) ‑‑‑Mukaytsidiį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Mukaydisį̀į̀h ii glii nidw. ʘma ‑‑‑Yahdighde usba nzudii kaydahį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Mukaytsidooį̀į̀hii. ʘma ‑‑‑Una kaytsidį̀į̀hii. ʘma For further example(s) of P‑ku#y-d‑įį see jh (under P‑ka ‑jh).

k‑nu#w-d‑n-‑D‑į̀į̀h v. (,s

prog ‑‑‑Knawdntį̀į̀lh. ʘma ‑‑‑Knawdintį̀į̀lh. ʘmc

mom ‑‑‑Knawdnstį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo knawdntį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Kud, knawdntį̀į̀hii. ʘma

įį5, į̀į̀h, į̀į̀ sneak

conc

į̀į̀h

įį

į̀į̀lh

į̀į̀h

dur

į̀į̀

į̀į̀

į̀į̀lh

į̀į̀

mom

į̀į̀h

įį

įįlh

į̀į̀h

per

įįh

įįh

įįlh

įįh

prog

įįlh

 

cust

įįh

 

O‑n‑į̀į̀h v. (conc) ‑‑‑Dune uniį̀į̀h da witsį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Udoo dughel tseh uniį̀į̀hii edh. ‑‑‑Yidnaį̀į̀lhe. ‑‑‑Kud, noosį̀į̀hii. [PA *n‑i:ŋ steal (L87)]

pf with 3sg pronominal object. (1s nesįį, 2s nin‑, 3s yins‑, 1p tsins‑, 2p nah‑, 3p ghighns‑) ‑‑‑Dusbdii h unesį. ‑‑‑Yutsahd nsįį. ‑‑‑Tsinsįį. ‑‑‑koo tlįį tsutsudzii ghinsįį. ‑‑‑Ya ghinsįįa? ʘma ‑‑‑Bdii ghinsįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Bdii ghinsįį. ʘmc ‑‑‑Ghighnsįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Ghighnsįį. ʘmc

pf with u‑ unspecified object. (1s unesįį, 2s unin‑, 3s uns‑, 1p utsins‑, 2p unah‑, 3p ughns‑) ‑‑‑Unsįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Unsįį. ʘmc ‑‑‑Unesįį ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Uninįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Uninįįǫ? ʘmc ‑‑‑Utsinsįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsinsįį. ʘmc ‑‑‑Unahįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Unahįįǫ? ʘmc ‑‑‑Ughnsįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Ughnsįį. ʘmc ‑‑‑Dishnii khukǫh wutseh ughnsįį.

uniį̀į̀hii n.

caus ‑‑‑Wd sininhįįh.

n‑(H‑)įį v. (mot) [PA *n-l‑i:ŋ hide (L87)]

prog ‑‑‑Nunaįįlh. ‑‑‑Lhuntsinaįįlh.

per ‑‑‑Ktsiniįįh. ʘma ‑‑‑Knaįįh.

mom ‑‑‑Sukǫh wududnuį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Muchǫhda mugh kwundidasįįlhe. ‑‑‑nn tsidnhįį. ʘma ‑‑‑nn ynhįį, ynsįį. ‑‑‑Kwunasįį. ‑‑‑Tsdane kwunanaįį. ‑‑‑Kwutsiniiįį. ‑‑‑Yts nudnhįį. For further example(s) of mom see d1 (under kutle d).

pf with d# inside. (1s dnnisįį, 2s dnniin‑, 3s dn‑, 1p dtsin‑, 2p dnnah‑, 3p daghn‑) ‑‑‑Dnnisįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Dnniinįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Dkuskehdza dnniinįįa? ‑‑‑Dnįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Dtsinįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Dnnahįįǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Daghnįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Dnunįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Dnaghnįį. ʘma

cust ‑‑‑Suts nudniįįh. ‑‑‑Umawii chila nudniįįh ii tlǫh kwununiįįh. ‑‑‑Ynuniįįh. ‑‑‑Wd sugh kwununinįįh. ʘma

nu#n-H‑į̀į̀, n#n-H‑į̀į̀ v. (dur) ‑‑‑Nudnaį̀į̀lhe. ‑‑‑Ya ka nnoonį̀į̀ wukayniinzuna?

impf (1s nnisį̀į̀, 2s nnin‑, 3s nni‑, 1p ntsini‑, 2p nnah‑, 3p naghni‑) ‑‑‑Nuniį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Ma nuniį̀į̀a? ʘma ‑‑‑Witst. Yuh nniį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Suchnniį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Nniįį lǫ̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya ka nniį̀į̀a? ʘma ‑‑‑Nninį̀į̀ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Wd nninį̀į̀. Nesdh. ʘma ‑‑‑Naghniį̀į̀ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Naghniį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo nnisį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Nnahį̀į̀ǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo ntsiniį̀į̀. ʘma

pf (1s nnasį̀į̀, 2s nniin‑, 3s nna‑, 1p ntsina‑, 2p nnah‑, 3p naghna‑) ‑‑‑Nnaį̀į̀ ʘma ‑‑‑Nnaįį lǫ̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Nnasį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya ghǫha nniinį̀į̀a? ʘma ‑‑‑Ya wǫha nnahį̀į̀a? ʘma

dune nniį̀į̀ii n. ʘma (pl dune nniį̀į̀ne) ʘma

caus ‑‑‑Tsdane ech nnisį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Muchnayninhį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Lhidhii muchntsinehį̀į̀.

įį6

dur

į̀į̀

įį

į̀į̀

P‑ki#d‑įį, P‑ti#d‑įį v.

P‑ki#d‑įį: ‑‑‑Udoo khikidiinį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑udoo sikidiinį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsdane chila khikidaįį. ʘma ‑‑‑Khikighdooį̀į̀sį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii sǫ udoo nikidooį̀į̀. ʘma

P‑ti#d‑įį: ‑‑‑Sitighdooį̀į̀ noodlii. ʘma

iitl n. (psd ‑iidl) ‑‑‑Siiidl lhechil.

iibazi, idniibazii n. (Mustela nivalis or Mustela erminea) ‑‑‑Iibazii sutsugh kaghe lhisutla. [PA *lə-wa: be gray (L87)]

Iibazii Tselę̀, Idniibazii Tselę̀ pn.

Iibazii Ts, Idniibazii Ts pn. ‑‑‑Imbazii ts ʘlt TsK pronunciation.

iibh n. (pr iibʹh) ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑iibh utune, iibh etune ‑‑‑Iibh uwjh. ʘma ‑‑‑Iibh wulęde, kǫh awtsiddlh.

> Iibhawjh June see under jh

iih

> lh‑ ~ lhiih‑ ~ iih‑ each others see under lhiih

įįh1

‑įįh n. ‑‑‑ya įįha? ʘma ‑‑‑Alec h kǫh wiįįh sahkę. ‑‑‑Ma įįha wusǫ̀a? ‑‑‑Niįįh sinhǫ. ‑‑‑Ya įįha sinhǫa? ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Sitsghed įįh sinhǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Sutselh joo ddtǫ įįh nudsǫ. For further example(s) of ‑įįh see ą1 (under mom).

kwusįįh adv. (pr kwusįįʹh) ʘma ‑‑‑Kwusįįh nniį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Kwusįįh nniisǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Gwudz nhtl kwusįįh ghusyalh. ‑‑‑Uyii dune udoo kwusįįh suda edh. ʘma

kwusii‑ vpf. ‑‑‑Kwusiisǫ. ʘma

wizįįdz įįh pp. ‑‑‑Louie la wd wizįįdz įįh suda. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwsadǫ d, wizįįdz įįh utsootsudzii. [cf. ‑zįįh shadow]

> ‑tssįįh near, to the side of see under tssįįh

įįh2

‑įįh n. ‑‑‑siįįh ʘma ‑‑‑Ninii siįįh inhts. ‑‑‑Gwa la deyǫ̀ niįįh zehkhę. ‑‑‑Dude wooįįh tsehtę umuse h. ‑‑‑Siįįh ldii unleh. ʘma ‑‑‑Ma įįha tii unundleha? ‑‑‑Utsn dinaghuda tah siįįh too zul unleh. For further examples of ‑įįh see uske; kh.

į̀į̀h1 learn

dur

į̀į̀h

į̀į̀

į̀į̀lh

į̀į̀h

P#oo-d‑H‑įį v. (dur) ‑‑‑Ya oodinį̀į̀ha? ‑‑‑Yhin oodisį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Umawii chila khǫhd koodaį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwla kbęhii oodaį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Tse keh ndl koodaį̀į̀. ‑‑‑Duzgh kinawdaį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Suzgh kinawdasį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Khǫhd kootsidaį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Shw koodiinį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Lhiihh kaghtshlhahii kootsidaį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Kwla kootsididaį̀į̀lhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Hǫ, kootsidooį̀į̀hįį. ʘma For further example(s) of P#oo-d‑H‑įį see guts (under P‑k#w-n‑guts).

impf with k‑ areal object of postposition. (1s koodisį̀į̀h, 2s koodin‑, 3s koodi‑, 1p kootsidi‑, 2p koodah‑, 3p koowoodi‑/koowdi‑) ‑‑‑Suzgh koodiį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Muzgh kootsidiį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo kud kootsidiį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Dune za zgh woodudhii koowdiį̀į̀h.

koodiį̀į̀hde n. also dune koodiį̀į̀hde, koodiį̀į̀hde kǫh. ‑‑‑Dune koodiį̀į̀hde kǫh udoo mda wlę. ‑‑‑Jode koodahį̀į̀hde nukhukǫh lawhte. ʘma ‑‑‑Jode koodahį̀į̀hde lhiihtunahdlh. ʘma ‑‑‑Jode koodahį̀į̀hde lhiihtunahdlh chilhinaghnahyehii tlǫh ʘma

dune koodiį̀į̀hii n.

caus ‑‑‑tsǫǫ la utsigǫ̀ usį̀į̀ kisoodehį̀į̀h. ʘma

į̀į̀h2

y-d‑į̀į̀h v. ‑‑‑Yitsidiį̀į̀h. ʘma

į̀į̀h3

mom

tį̀į̀h

tį̀į̀h

tį̀į̀lh

tį̀į̀h

per

(t)į̀į̀h

(t)į̀į̀h

cust

įįh

 

u#D‑į̀į̀h v. (mom) u# a default prefix, replaceable by more contentful prefixes, although this verb seems to lack the derivational potential of u#O‑h‑įį have, do to, make O. ‑‑‑Lhhgą̀h awdiditį̀į̀hda zutl ghidii. ʘma ‑‑‑Khudii nundehkhlha unuwtį̀į̀h. ʘma

u# replaced ‑‑‑Dutelanutį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Nustlwą̀tį̀į̀h. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Nustlǫ̀ utį̀į̀h. ʘma slow pronunciation. ‑‑‑Kuwatį̀į̀h da la gǫ̀ze mikin nstlwą̀tį̀į̀h elhh. ‑‑‑Yunuwtlichda la shwanuwtį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Khudii nundehkhlhanuwtį̀į̀h. ʘma For further examples of u# replaced see g (under d-‑g); tun1 (under dahtun).

P‑gha tiiya#w-‑D‑į̀į̀h v. ‑‑‑Watiiyanuwtį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Lhhgą̀h da satiiyanuwtį̀į̀h. ʘma

ka#D‑į̀į̀h v. ‑‑‑Dkanuwitį̀į̀ha? ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Dkantsitį̀į̀ha? ‑‑‑Dsǫ kanahtį̀į̀h udoo nukhesdh. ‑‑‑Dkadiintį̀į̀lhe? ‑‑‑Dkatsidatį̀į̀lhe?

‑e#D‑į̀į̀h v. ‑‑‑Ytį̀į̀h. Yukhdze keitį̀į̀h. ʘma

udoo ‑gh w‑į̀į̀h v. ‑‑‑Kh wutseh George udoo sugh wiį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Udoo mugh witsiį̀į̀h.

k#-D‑į̀į̀h v. (per) inseparable ; ‑‑> e before . ‑‑‑Udoo wesdh. Tsn knaghitį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Keintį̀į̀hǫ? ʘma ‑‑‑Keistį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Sne keutį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Del kh keitį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Sudukhdz keistį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Mukehdz keistį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Ninii joo wd tsn keintį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Mukehdz ketsitį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Baba kwune wawutee woodowa ketsitį̀į̀h da. ‑‑‑Kula dzah kewitį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Woowǫh kula khuh dzah kewitį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Tse tah wudun la tse tah koowitįįh wd.

k#O‑h‑į̀į̀h v. (per) with nominal object, O can also be marked with . ‑‑‑Kesehį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Wutsį̀į̀ii kesighehį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Edna Mary uwutee keehį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii tsdane sooteha keinhį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Uwutee ketsehį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Uwutee keyehį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii kuda wl kekhehį̀į̀h. ʘma

P‑ka k#O‑h‑į̀į̀h v. k‑ ‑‑> ke. ‑‑‑Kiiyoohdįįh wuka keyehį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Nawdzdii wuka ketsehį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Kiiyoohdįįh wuka keitį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya ka ketsitį̀į̀ha? ‑‑‑Koowoonhdįįh wuka keintį̀į̀h. ʘma

refl ‑‑‑Ghda ka kedinį̀į̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Yhh koonyii wuka kedinį̀į̀h. ʘma ʘma

k#w-D‑į̀į̀h v. (per) ‑‑‑Dedza kwitį̀į̀ha? ʘma ‑‑‑S dǫ̀h dkunahtį̀į̀ha? Dewa kwahtį̀į̀ha? ‑‑‑Nukhinii joo dedza kwahtį̀į̀ha? ʘma ‑‑‑Ynw Tse Bj tah la kwistį̀į̀h. ‑‑‑Yįįhdze la dune kwatįįh lǫ̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Andreas gh kwoostį̀į̀hii. ʘma ‑‑‑Sinii joo d kwistį̀į̀hda sawutee. ʘma ‑‑‑Dedza kootsootį̀į̀ha? ʘma ‑‑‑Yd khehdne h kootsootį̀į̀hii. ‑‑‑Dune kwitį̀į̀hne ktsats. ʘma

> įįhnadze (on) both sides see under nadze

> iihtahii two and a half see under tah1

iihtedii adj. (pr iihteʹdii) ʘma may only be used predicatively (performing action or being in a state while naked). ‑‑‑Iihtedii kdah. ‑‑‑Lhgh dune iihtedii kbęh. ‑‑‑Dzehlada dkanta iihtedii? ʘma

> įįhtloolh fine babiche see under tloolh

> iihts tadute six see under te2

> iihtsii wind see under tsii2

> iihtsii dus whirlwind, tornado see under duts1

> iihtsii khdz with the wind see under khdz

> iihtsii zule warm wind see under sul

iijǫ̀ǫ̀h n. ʘma (Cladina mitis)

iigholh n. (pr iiʹgholh) ʘma (psd ‑iigholh) ‑‑‑Uyii iigholh h kudinghl. ‑‑‑Uyii Mary miiigholh mudowa knunlh.

iila

ni#n-h‑iila v. ‑‑‑Nitsiniihiila. ‑‑‑Niinhiila.

Miighe Nooniihiila(de) pn. [from TsK]

Miighe Nooniihiila: ʘlt ʘlt

Miighe Nooniihiilade: ʘlt

iiloo

iiloo, įįloo n. (pr iiʹloo, įįʹloo) (psd ‑iiloo) [cf. lhoo tun glacier, ice]

iiloo: ʘma ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑miiloo ʘma ‑‑‑Jje miiloo zǫh wlę.

įįloo: ʘmc

iize n. (pr iiʹze) ʘma ‑‑‑Kwa too keh iize uwjh. ʘma For further example(s) of iize see yghe (under through (weather)).

ze adv. ʘei ‑‑‑Skidoo yddze ghutlelh ze. ʘma ‑‑‑Did kutle dǫ̀ akǫ̀ nawdgalht dune natlulh ze. ʘma ‑‑‑Nhtune nzhtsǫ ze. ʘei ‑‑‑Ydigh White gh dz dune udsn ze.

iitsatl n. (pr iitsaʹtl) ʘma (psd ‑iitsadl) ‑‑‑siiitsadl ʘma ‑‑‑Siiitsadl lhetn.

> iitsii ba north wind see under ba

> iitsii tlujii blizzard see under tlujii

iitst n. (pr iitsʹt) ʘma (psd ‑iitsd) (Jenness entsat moose-skin breechclout) ‑‑‑Deiitsd tnaja.

> ‑ǫ̀da over, nearby at location see under n

> ǫ̀dze over here, from over there see under n

Odziin prsn. (Morice Otzenn, Jenness Otzane)

n

n dir. ‑‑‑yn ʘma ‑‑‑Yn nzut. ‑‑‑n dhya. ʘma ‑‑‑Kula la kwa n tsidsats. ‑‑‑Yn dotiiye nniiya. ‑‑‑Dedza witsiihna? ʘma ‑‑‑sukǫh tsiihn ʘma ‑‑‑Linda kǫh tsiihn utune wlę. ʘma ‑‑‑Mukǫh tshn dintl. For further example(s) of n see ch. [PA *αn off to the side, away (L89)]

n d‑, n#d‑ vpf. (s mom) occurs with clf-mot verbs. The difference between the variants is only detectable with vowel syncope (or lack thereof). In the absence of such evidence, this prefix sequence is transcribed n d‑. For examples for n d‑, n#d‑ see dna; dǫ̀; dul2 (under mom).

n d‑: ‑‑‑n yidsǫ. ʘma

n#d‑: ‑‑‑neydhtlas. ʘma

P‑ghan p. ‑‑‑Wan la uwutee ghighda. ʘem ‑‑‑Yano udoo yus udeh. Yus tsusdune suchaire ghan. ʘma ‑‑‑Man kwuststs. ʘma

tsn adv. ‑‑‑Tsn wsdlii. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsn indh. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsn didooz. ʘma ‑‑‑Tsn witsidudh. ʘma ‑‑‑Sughel tsn tsehklh. ‑‑‑Charlie tsn mul nstlǫ. Jode joo tlįį nstlǫ. ‑‑‑koo dune tsnanghidii.

ǫ̀dze dir. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑yǫ̀dze ʘma ‑‑‑Ǫ̀dze ghuyalh. ‑‑‑Yahǫ̀dze nabęlh. For further examples of ǫ̀dze see kh (under P‑kh1); te1 (under impf2); tlat (under prog3).

tsiihǫ̀dze adv. ‑‑‑Tsiihǫ̀dze lhǫ̀gwad. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo tsiihǫ̀dze la sitsoodindh. ‑‑‑Uyii dune tsiihǫ̀dze widudhii l. ʘma

P‑ǫ̀dz p. ‑‑‑Uzs ǫ̀dz kaghiioon. ‑‑‑Ul ǫ̀dz nuknustą. ‑‑‑Subt ǫ̀dz uwute. For further example(s) of P‑ǫ̀dz see 1 (under impf).

‑ǫ̀da dir. ‑‑‑yǫ̀da ʘma ‑‑‑Yǫ̀da siihǫ. ‑‑‑Yǫ̀da kwdnhkǫ̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Yahǫ̀da uskewa ghustę. [PA *ą:‑d off to the side, away (punctual) (L89)]

‑ǫ̀da n. ‑‑‑Suǫ̀da ndl.

‑ǫsd dir. ‑‑‑yǫsd ʘma ‑‑‑Hǫ, yǫsd tsoohtedzii.

ǫsd n. ‑‑‑Edna ǫsd suda. ʘma ‑‑‑kǫh wuǫsd ‑‑‑Duǫsd nyniiǫ. ‑‑‑Uyii tse ǫsd tsdinyah. ‑‑‑Wheelchair ǫsd siihǫ. ʘma

ǫ̀w dir. ‑‑‑yǫ̀w ʘma ‑‑‑Yǫ̀w nundzt. ‑‑‑Yǫ̀w kinhtal. ‑‑‑Yǫ̀w la nisgow nstlǫ elhh. ʘma

> n O‑d-h‑chil drag along see under chil

> n ghidudulhii garbage see under dul2

> ‑h tsna#te be busy with see under te1

> ‑ǫsd on the other side see under n

ts

conc

ts

ts

ts

ts

nu#O‑ts v. (conc) ‑‑‑Ts nuts. ʘma ‑‑‑Diil nuts. ‑‑‑Nunts. ʘma ‑‑‑Nits nunts. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Suej nusuts. ʘma ‑‑‑Ts nusudzǫ? ‑‑‑Khǫhd nususts. ʘma ‑‑‑Ts nutsusts. For further example(s) of nu#O‑ts see te1 (under la#te).

refl ‑‑‑Too suzulii tah nudints.

opt (1s nawsts, 2s nawn‑, 3s naw‑, 1p nutsoo‑, 2p nuwah‑, 3p nawoo‑) ‑‑‑Ts nawsdzii. ʘma ‑‑‑Ts nutsoodzii. ʘma ‑‑‑Nuba nun nawdzii. ʘei ‑‑‑Dun nawdzii. ʘma ‑‑‑Dughun nawoodzii. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Niil nawndzsį̀į̀. ʘma ‑‑‑Niwischil nawndzo? ʘma ‑‑‑Nukhinii joo nukhiwischil nuwahdzo? ʘma ʘma

mukudz natsudzii n.

madudzii n. ʘma

w n. ʘma For example(s) for w see tlat (under cust). [PA *ʊq(e:) eddy (K05)]

> ǫ̀w over in general area see under n

oo, ooh exp.

oo: ‑‑‑Oo duna le ididth. ʘma

ooh: ʘma ‑‑‑Ooh, noodighe la etsidh. ʘma

ooh exp. very commonly occurs with lǫ̀. ‑‑‑Ooh ninii? ʘma ‑‑‑Ooh ninii lǫ̀? ʘei ‑‑‑Ooh manta? ʘma ‑‑‑Ooh Mary joo? ‑‑‑Udoo tii kwudisdii. Shwaste. Ooh ninii? ‑‑‑Ooh ninii lǫ̀, ya indha?

oohun, oohune exp. expression of surprise.

oohun: ‑‑‑Oohun, uyii knhtą!

oohune: ʘma ‑‑‑Oohune, khidtsugh, hnii. ʘma ‑‑‑Oohune tasusla! ‑‑‑Oohune, sinii lhkwudute zǫh sisn nstlǫ glii. For further examples of oohune see ddii; tę̀ (under u#d-d‑tę̀).

h

lhgh h adv. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Lhgh h gwuda ninlh. ʘma

oohchą̀s n.

oohchą̀s muth sulaii n. [from TsK?]

> oohchą̀s tloolh fishing line see under tloolh

hkh n. (pr ʹhkh) ʘma ‑‑‑Ide la hkh wlę.

hkh adv. ‑‑‑hkh kuda dul nstlǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑hkh kuda dul nstlǫ. ʘei ‑‑‑hkh sustę da sawutee.

oohtsuna n. (pr oohtsuʹna) ʘma (Falco sparverius)

khwe adv. (pr ʹkhwe) ʘma ‑‑‑khwe, dkadiindlha?

n shoot

mom

n

n

n

n

sem

n

n

n

n

na n. ʘma (psd ‑n) ‑‑‑sin ʘma ‑‑‑nin ʘma ‑‑‑min ʘma ‑‑‑Din kihdlat. ʘma ‑‑‑Edna na sniitǫ. ʘma ‑‑‑Dune n tsinsįį. ‑‑‑Lhkwudute sin ghinsįį. [compare Kas unee, ITli n gun, rifle, and Tli onah]

na zǫza n.

na chow n.

na Tw pn. ʘma

na Tselę̀ pn. ʘma

O‑n v. (succ

sem ‑‑‑Udoo kud yn. ‑‑‑Yidne. ‑‑‑Tsnii. ‑‑‑Khnsį̀į̀. Mitsinlii.

pf (1s sisn, 2s sin‑, 3s si‑, 1p tsis‑, 2p sah‑, 3p ghis‑) ‑‑‑Kula sisn. ʘma ‑‑‑Kula ssn. ʘma ‑‑‑Kuda sin. ‑‑‑Tsisn. ‑‑‑Ysn. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Lhw ysn.

refl ‑‑‑Kula udsn. ʘma

mom ‑‑‑Wisąhdze udn. ‑‑‑Ya uninna? ‑‑‑Yayiin. ‑‑‑Minhn. ‑‑‑Ya ha nnawdinna? ʘma ‑‑‑Kwdii tsits la disįį. Munuyisn. ʘma ‑‑‑Tundinin. ‑‑‑Tadute la keiisn. Nawdgalhe yd lhkwudute la keiisn. ‑‑‑Tsits keiisn. ʘma For further examples of mom see ku1 (under succ); ku1 (under ku#gh-d‑).

> na lhidubudzii double-barreled shotgun see under buts

> na chin stock (of gun) see under chin

> na zǫǫdl barrel of gun see under sǫǫdle

> na tloolh gun strap see under tloolh

oosed, oosed adv.

oosed: (pr ooseʹd) ʘma ‑‑‑Oosed gl ididnth. ʘma ʘma ‑‑‑Oosed gl keitį̀į̀h. ʘma

oosed: (pr ooseʹd) ʘem ‑‑‑Oosed witsoodusdh glii udoo sighdtsugh. ʘem

oos

> oos pot, bucket, basket see under oos

sbba n. (pr sbbaʹ) ʘma (Aegolius funereus) ‑‑‑sbba didz kwundahtelhe. Udoo noonyehsį̀į̀.

sbba Tselę pn.

ooschąza n. (pr ooschąʹza) ʘma ‑‑‑Supan ooschąza sinii ntsidhtę. ʘma

> oosdą̀jii pike see under dą̀ch

oosdlzii n. (pr oosdlziiʹ) ʘma variant of toosdlzii. (Lota lota)

> oosdlooza hide toboggan see under loos

oosdzeghe n. (pr oosdzeʹghe) ʘma ‑‑‑Oosdzeghe widitlija. ‑‑‑Kutle oosdzeghe sa keh nasdalh. For further example(s) of oosdzeghe see lǫ̀ (under perfective verb).

> oosdzeghe dachowajh half-full moon see under jh

zęh n. (pr zęʹh) ʘma (Accipiter striatus)

sgą n. ʘma (dim sgązii) (Corvus corax or Corvus brachyrhynchos) [from Kas (LL) sgaa] [cf. usg raven, crow]

sgą ul n. ʘma (Juniperus communis)

> sgą jj juniper see under jje

ooskahje n. (pr ooskaʹhje) ʘma (Perisoreus canadensis)

ooskahje chow n. ʘma (Cyanocitta stelleri)

slhą n. (pr slhąʹ) ʘma (Glaucidium gnoma)

stą n. (pr stąʹ) ʘma (Marmota caligata or Spermophilus columbianus)

stl n. (pr ʹstl) ʘma

stę n. (pr stęʹ) ʘma (psd ‑stę̀, dim stązii) (Martes americana) ‑‑‑stę siihdzos. ‑‑‑stę kh wuknehtą. ʘma For further example(s) of stę see kądza (under d-kądza).

oostsų̀htse, oostsų̀sde n. (Glaucomys sabrinus)

oostsų̀sde: (pr oostsų̀sdeʹ) ʘma

oostsų̀htse: (pr oostsų̀htseʹ) ʘma

oostsuni n. (pr oostsuniʹ) ʘma ʘma (Prosopium coulteri)

ooshin n. (pr ooshiʹn) ʘma ‑‑‑Ooshin nasdloos.

t whistle

dur

t

t

t

t

-d‑(h‑)t v. (dur) ‑‑‑Udist. ʘma ‑‑‑Udeht. ʘma ‑‑‑Utsidiiht.

muh utsidehdii n.

d-e# inc.

> d-e#d-D‑ya walk whistling see under ya3

> oowooktde (kǫh) store see under kt

ya adj. ‑‑‑Kula sąs ya kandiilh. (Early Travels) ‑‑‑Uduka ya udlę. ‑‑‑Uduka yadlę. ‑‑‑yajh. ʘma ‑‑‑Sutah yajh. ʘma ‑‑‑Ya ghǫha sutah yajhii h mun dutelajh? ‑‑‑Ma nutah yajha?

> (‑tah) ya# be shy (of), polite (to) see under le1

u trajectory

u#d-n‑(D‑) vpf. (s mom) occurs with mot verbs; variant of i#d-n‑(D‑). ‑‑‑Kwla khwązii udnatlulhe. ʘma ‑‑‑Mary ts udnhtlah.

> i-d‑n-ghtl trip (and fall) see under khtl

uboa adj. (pr uboʹa)

> u-d‑ oneself, ‑selves see under d1

> uddǫ̀h long ago see under dǫ̀h

udama n. ‑‑‑Udoo udama inlę. ʘma ‑‑‑Kula udama yizehkhe.

udatlǫ̀ adv. ʘem ‑‑‑Udatlǫ̀ ide shwa suda. ʘem ‑‑‑Udatlǫ̀ gwuda usanii koohte. ʘem

udkii n. (pr udkiiʹ) ʘmc ʘma [from TsK] [compare Wit deka]

udstls n. ʘma [from McL]

udinswązii n. ʘmc variant of udswązii.

dii, dzii exp. expression of fear.

dii: ʘma dii especially used by men.

dzii: ʘma dzii especially used by women.

> udiidw no see under dw1

udsǫǫ n. [cf. usǫǫ mother-in-law (voc)]

> udsǫǫ female marmot, groundhog see under udsǫǫ

udswązii n. variant of udinswązii. [from mainly TsK; Daddy call it udswązii. MA] [cf. udsǫǫ female marmot, groundhog]

> udtlǫh fall, autumn see under tlǫh

udoo adv. (pr udooʹ) ʘmc ʘma ʘei variant of idoo. ‑‑‑Udoo ddoohte. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo kweyah. ‑‑‑Udoo nuzgh widusdh. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo shwatsiihte. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo kǫh thdze wukayniizun. Tazowe kahlhah. ‑‑‑Udoo kǫh thdze kahlhah. Ma tiiyawhte. ʘma

> udoo ‑gh w‑į̀į̀h not visit see under į̀į̀h3

> udoo dda nothing, anything see under dda

> P‑i-doo-nu#D-dh forget P see under d3

> udoo sdǫ̀h not long ago see under dǫ̀h

> udoo mda no one, anyone see under ma1

> udoo ywwhte unable, cannot see under te1

> udoo yda nothing, anything see under yda

> udoo k#D-yh not say a thing see under yh3

> udu- oneself, ‑selves see under d1

uji

> uji#d-ya/ats/detl sg./du./pl. go hunt see under ya3

ujide n.

> ujide tj milk see under tch

> Ukii Akie R. see under ka3

> ukelhun thick babiche see under lhun

koo det. (pr kooʹ) ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑koo dune ‑‑‑koo sąs muzedz tehine. ʘma ‑‑‑koo tlįį ddtǫ gh ghuskę. ‑‑‑koo tsatsn kunachow kwla kgeh.

kwune det. (pr kwuneʹ) ʘma ‑‑‑kwune digh kghuts. ‑‑‑kwune uyii dune ghidiyh.

kwune n. (pr kwuneʹ) noun plural; requires preceding nominal argument. ‑‑‑Ma kwuna ghiihta? ʘma ‑‑‑Nuddz kwune dinyh. ‑‑‑Ma kwune ha nudoonja? ʘma

ukǫ̀ǫ̀hje n. (pr ukǫ̀ǫ̀hjeʹ) ʘma ʘma

ukǫ̀ǫ̀hje tii n. ʘma ‑‑‑Ukǫ̀ǫ̀hje tii myniinhtę.

> ukeloo trail in snow see under lhoo

ul n. ʘma ʘmc (psd ‑ul) ‑‑‑muul ʘma ‑‑‑suul ʘma ‑‑‑Tsoostsęhe ul ninlh. ‑‑‑koo ul nghudah. Iihtsii nayghehdah. ʘma [PA *əɬ conifer needle (L87)]

lh

dur

lh

lh

lh n. ʘma ʘmc (psd ‑lh) ‑‑‑mulh ʘma ‑‑‑Tselę gh lh utsoolehii. ‑‑‑Ts dulh ghahlhah. [PA *ətl beaver dam (K05)]

da#O‑d-n‑lh v. (gh) ‑‑‑Ts mun dadniilh. ʘma ‑‑‑Mun datsidniilh. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii tselę datsidnoolhii. ʘma

> ul boat, dugout see under l

lgoo exp. expression of fear.

um adv. (pr umʹ) ʘma ‑‑‑Um yhnii. ‑‑‑Widoondhii. Um, udoo widoosdh wukaynuszun. ‑‑‑koo dune um wdoon. Um wdoon t.

kwla um adv. ‑‑‑Kwla um, khǫhd datsinsdǫ. ʘma

> uma#O‑h‑įį get rid of, throw away, abandon O see under įį3

> uma#jh be gone, gotten rid of see under jh

> uma#O‑lh abandon, get rid of, throw away O see under lh

> um d-nii quit, call it quits see under nii1

> umawii woman, wife, girlfriend see under ma2

un

cont

un

.

O‑n‑un v. (cont) This verb has no perfective, future, or optative forms. ‑‑‑Uyii tlįį nninun. ‑‑‑Uyii tlįį tsn uniį̀į̀h. Lhadz nninun. ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii nul nunun.

nee, nee adv. (pr neeʹ)

nee: ʘmc

nee: ʘma ‑‑‑nee, sdinhdeh. ʘma

unh, un n. (dim una, pl une kwune) ʘma (pl una kwune) ʘma

unh: ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Unh, uyii sidowanleh. ‑‑‑Unh, uyii sną̀h. ʘma ‑‑‑Unh, didii knhtą. Didii nudowa nidsǫ. ʘma

un: ʘma ‑‑‑Un, gwudze. ʘma ‑‑‑Una nhtsun.

Una Mun pn.

pl ‑‑‑Une kwune, gwudze. Sugh dahtsii. ʘma

no adv. (pr noʹ) ʘma n also attested. ‑‑‑no, muędasjh. ‑‑‑Uno, Edna ędasjh. For further example(s) of no see lhda (under h-lhda).

nkh n. expression of sympathy. For example(s) for nkh see yheh (under wooyǫ̀).

usanii adv. (pr usaʹnii) ʘma ʘei ‑‑‑Usanii nudsja. ʘma ‑‑‑Udoo usanii suda. ʘma ‑‑‑Usanii tazowe kintal. ʘma ‑‑‑Usanii wudun uslę. ‑‑‑Usanii zǫh wukayniizun. ‑‑‑Dune mugh dhtsii. Udoo usanii suda. ‑‑‑Dune chila suh kindah. Lhatahda usanii wutsusdune. Suh kindah. ʘma For further example(s) of usanii see te1 (under ku#te).

usanii suǫ n. ʘma

Tse Usanii Suǫ pn.

> usanii -d‑H-da sg./du. keep to oneself see under da3

usba n. (pr uʹsba) ʘma (dim usbazii) ʘma (Oreamnos americanus) [PA *lə-wa: be gray (L87)]

Usba Tselę̀ pn. ʘma

Usba Tselę̀ pn.

Usba tawutę prsn. (Jenness esbaataotenne Kaska of Lower Post) [< usba tah wutę]

usb, usb

Usb, Usb Gh pn.

Usb: ʘlt ʘlt

Usb Gh: ʘma ʘma

> usda gęd hard, solid ground see under gęd

usdęhdz adv. ʘem ‑‑‑Usdęhdz ide suda. ‑‑‑Kuda usdęhdz la gwuda utsuts. ʘem ‑‑‑Uyii ts dusuda mitsesyalhii glii usdęhdz utsuts.

usdii adj. (pr uʹsdii) ʘma ‑‑‑Usdii wischil minaahtlǫ̀ǫ̀h. ‑‑‑Louie lhgh kuda zhkhę glii kwjoo usdii lhgh kayniizun. ‑‑‑Usdii tlįį nayghtl. ʘma ‑‑‑Usdii tsle sntį̀į̀h. Didii nitsį̀į̀.

dune usdiine n. ‑‑‑Dune usdiine uslę.

usdiida, usdįįdz n.

usdiida: ʘma ‑‑‑Uyii nuylh usdiida nuną̀h. ʘma

usdįįdz: ʘem ‑‑‑Usdįįdz dune loohte. ʘem

usdw adv. ‑‑‑Usdw widudh. ‑‑‑Usdw kesidiinhdįįlhe. Ide la wukaynuszų.

> P‑gha usdii ‑le bother P see under le1

usg n. (pr usgʹ) ʘma (dim usgazii) (Corvus corax or Corvus brachyrhynchos) ‑‑‑Wd jode usg nstlǫ. ‑‑‑Udoo usg hte. ʘma [from TsK/McL] [cf. Kw sgą raven, American crow]

> usg jj juniper see under jje

> usgoo worm, caterpillar see under goo

uske n. (pr uskeʹ) ʘma (pl uskewa) no possessed form. ‑‑‑Uske, siįįh ujidinyah. [PA *(ə)‑qe: child (L87)] [cf. ‑eskghe children, also from this PA root]

uska n. ʘma ‑‑‑uska zǫza

uskookn n. (pr uskookʹn) ʘma ʘmc [from Kas (LL, L) esgukan] [compare ITli Guskkhwn white, European, Caucasian (man or person)]

Uskookn Ts pn. ʘma

ut

mom

ut

ut

ut

ut

per

uch

uch

uch

uch

cust

uch

 

O‑ut v. [PA *αx̣ move fabric abruptly; untie (L87)]

mom ‑‑‑Nisut. ʘma ʘmc ‑‑‑Lhyiiut. ʘma ‑‑‑Tloolh lhniisut. ʘma ‑‑‑Tloolh lhnaghiiut. ʘma ‑‑‑Mukeh toodidasude.

cust ‑‑‑Wd mutsd mitsindusuch.

per ‑‑‑Kyauch. ʘma

nu#O‑ut v. (gh mom) ‑‑‑Nunut. ‑‑‑Niisut. ‑‑‑Suk nusuut. ‑‑‑‑<