1. For a discussion of the possible location of Dere 德若 [Te-je] in the region of modern Mazar to the west of Shahidullah, see note 5.1 above. Dere is also sometimes written Deruo. The reconstructed pronunciation of first character 德, de is, according to Karlgren 919k: *tək / tək, and Pulleyblank gives the same reconstruction for the EMC. It is frequently used nowadays to represent foreign te or de sounds. The last character 若, re or ruo, is frequently used to transcribe Sanskrit; j, ya, and j๑a.
The name of this kingdom is written Deruo 得若 in the Tangshu (ch. CCXXI, a, p. 9b) and Yiruo 億若 in the Weilue . Translated and adapted from Chavannes (1907), p. 175, n. 2.