tklinger's picture
Director and Professor, School of Marine and Environmental Affairs; Stan and Alta Barer Endowed Professor of Sustainability Science; Adjunct Professor, School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences


  • B.A., Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 1979
  • M.Sc., Botany, University of British Columbia, 1984
  • Ph. D., Biological Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1989


Trained as a marine ecologist, I use empirical data to test the application of ecological theory to marine environmental policy and management. I am particularly interested in the effects of multiple environmental stressors (habitat loss, biological removals and invasions, global change) on marine ecosystem function, and in the development of management strategies to reduce the impact of stressors on marine communities. The biological and ecological impacts of ocean acidification are a growing area of my research.

Current and recent research themes include:

  • Ecosystem Approaches to Management: I study the application of ecosystem approaches to management in Puget Sound and on the outer coast of Washington State. Past work has focused on evaluation of the effectiveness of spatially-explicit management strategies in the San Juan Archipelago and on the status of water resources in four western National Parks. Recent contributions include a summary of the status of the biophysical condition of Puget Sound for use in regional planning and management.
  • Global Change: My research increasingly involves the study of ocean acidification and its effects on biological and ecological processes. Past studies have included investigations of invasive seaweeds and invertebrates in the San Juan Archipelago and biological response to variation in intertidal temperature throughout Puget Sound.
  • Ecosystem Response and Restoration: I study recovery from pulse disturbances on rocky intertidal shores in Washington and Alaska, and the potential for restoration of benthic species in Puget Sound. In particular, long-term monitoring of intertidal systems in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, has provided insights into drivers of change in this sub-arctic system.

Current and Recent Professional Activities and Awards

  • Governor’s Appointee, Northwest Straits Commission
  • Chair, Phycological Society of America Conservation and Policy Committee
  • Science Advisory Panel, COMPASS
  • Chair, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council
  • Western Society of Naturalists Naturalist of the Year
  • UW Outstanding Public Service Award

Selected Publications

Hofmann G, Barry JP, Edmunds PJ, Gates RD, Hutchins DA, Klinger T, Sewell MA. 2010 Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Polar, Temperate and Tropical Calcifying Organisms. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 41

ChittaroPM, KlingerT, Telmer K, SanbornM, MorganL. 2010. Using otolith chemistry to investigate population structure of quillback rockfish in Puget Sound. Northwest Science 84: 243-254

Evans K, Klinger T. 2008. Bottom-up approaches to implementation of ecosystem-based management in the marine environment: A case study of San Juan County, WA. Conservation Biology 22: 1135-1143

Ruckelshaus M, Klinger T, Knowlton N, DeMaster D. 2008. Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Considering Resilience in a Broader Context. BioScience 58(1): 53-63

Engie K, Klinger T. 2007. Modeling passive dispersal in a large estuarine system to evaluate linkages between existing marine protected areas. Estuaries and Coasts 30(2):201-213

Klinger T, Dale V. 2007. The promise and the challenge of cooperative conservation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(2): 97-103

Klinger T, Padilla DK, Britton-Simmons K. 2006. Two invaders achieve higher densities in reserves. Aquatic Conservation, Marine and Freshwater Systems 16: 301-311. (DOI: 10.1002/aqc.717)

Van Cleve F, Leschine T, Klinger T, Simenstad C. 2006. An evaluation of the influence of natural science in regional-scale restoration projects. Environmental Management 37:367-379

Carney L, Waaland JR, Klinger T, Ewing BK. 2005. Factors limiting the restoration of the bull kelp Nereocystis luetkeana in nearshore rocky habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 302: 49-61

Klinger T 2004 International ICZM: In Search of Successful Outcomes. J. Ocean Coastal Mgmt 47: 195-196

Klinger T 2004 Biosafety approaches to transgenic crop plant gene flow. In: Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science, RM Goodman, ed. New York: Marcel Decker, Inc.

Duggins DO, Eckman J, Siddon C, Klinger T 2003 Population, morphometric, and biomechanical studies of three understory kelps along a hydrodynamic gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series 265: 57-76

Hoffman JR, Hansen LJ, Klinger T 2003 Interactions between ultraviolet radiation and temperature limit inferences from single-factor experiments. J Phycol 39: 268-272

Klinger T, Ebbesmeyer C 2002 Using Oceanographic Linkages to Guide Marine Protected Area Network Design. In T. Droscher (ed.), Proceedings of the 2001 Puget Sound Research Conference. Puget Sound Action Team, Olympia, WA

Klinger T 2002 Variability and uncertainty in crop to wild hybridization. In: Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effects. D.K. Letourneau and B.E. Burrows, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton

Duggins DO, Eckman J, Siddon C, Klinger T 2001 The role of mesograzers on kelp survivorship in variable flow environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 223: 143-155

Klinger T 2000 Marine Conservation Biology. In: Mc-Graw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 9th Edition

Klinger T, Ellstrand NC 1999 Transgene movement via gene flow: recommendations for improved biosafety assessment. In: Ecological Risks and Prospects of Transgenic Plants. K Ammann, V Simonsen, and G Kjellson (eds). Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland, 320 pp

Garbary D, Kim KY, Klinger T, Duggins DO 1999 Endophytism as a life history strategy for kelp gametophytes. Marine Biology 135: 35-40

Garbary D, Kim KY, Klinger T, Duggins DO 1999 Preliminary observations on the development of kelp gametophytes endophytic in red algae. Hydrobiologia 398/399: 247-252

Wheelis M, Spielman A, Regal P, Letourneau D, Klinger T, Kapuscinski A, Istock C, Ingham E, Ellstrand NC, Bhargava P, Akabas S 1998 A manual for assessing ecological and human health effects of genetically engineered organisms. The Edmonds Institute, Edmonds, WA      

Klinger T 1998 Biosafety Assessment of genetically engineered organisms in the environment. Trends Ecol Evol 13: 5-6

Klinger T 1997 Wild-crop hybridization and the ecological impact of escaped transgenes. Bull Ecol Soc 78: 86-87

Klinger T, Ellstrand NC 1994 Engineered genes in wild populations: fitness of weed-crop hybrids of Raphanus sativus L. Ecol Applications 4:17-20

Klinger T 1993 The persistence of haplo-diploidy in algae. Trends Ecol Evol 8: 256-259

Klinger T, Arriola P, Ellstrand NC 1992 Crop-weed hybridization in Raphanus sativus: occurrence relative to density and distance. Amer J Bot 79: 1431-1435

Klinger T, Elam D, Ellstrand NC 1991 Radish as a model system for the study of engineered gene escape rates via crop-weed mating. Cons Biol 5: 531-535

Klinger T, DeWreede RE 1988 Stipe rings, age, and size in populations of Laminaria setchellii Silva (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in British Columbia, Canada.  Phycologia 27:234-240

DeWreede RE, Klinger T 1988 Reproductive strategies in algae.  In: Plant Reproductive Ecology. Lovett-Doust  and Lovett-Doust, eds. Oxford University Press pp. 267-284

Bodin P, Klinger T 1986 Coastal uplift and mortality of intertidal organisms caused by the September 1985 Mexico earthquakes. Science 233: 1071-73