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Recent Papers:

Dai DF, Chen T, Wanagat J, Laflamme M, Marcinek DJ, Emond MJ, Ngo CP, Prolla TA, Rabinovitch PS. Age-Dependent Cardiomyopathy in Mitochondrial Mutator Mice is Attenuated by Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria. Aging Cell. 2010 Apr 29. [Epub ahead ofprint]PMID: 20456298

Lee D, Marcinek D. Noninvasive in vivo small animal MRI and MRS: basic experimental procedures. J Vis Exp. 2009 Oct 20;(32). pii: 1592. doi:  10.3791/1592.

Costford, S. R., S. Bajpeyi1, M. Pasarica, D. C. Albarado, S. C. Thomas, H. Xie, T. S. Church, S. A. Jubrias, K.E. Conley and S. R. Smith. Skeletal Muscle NAMPT is Induced by Exercise in Humans.  Am J Physiol -
Endocrinol Metab (in press).

Marcinek, DJ, MJ Kushmerick and KE Conley. Lactic acidosis in vivo: Testing the link between lactate generation and H+ accumulation in ischemic skeletal muscle.  J Appl Physiol (in press).

Bajpeyi, S, Pasarica, M, C Moro, KE Conley, et al. No Relationship Between Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function And Insulin Resistance In T2DM. Diabetes (in press).

CE Amara, Marcinek, DJ, L Arakaki, KA Schenkman, and KE Conley (2008). Mitochondrial function in vivo: Spectroscopy opens a window on cellular energetics. Methods 46(4):312-8.

Jubrias SA, Vollestad NK, Gronka RK, Kushmerick MJ.  (2008) Contraction-coupling efficiency of human first dorsal interosseous muscle.  J Physiol. 586.7, 1993 – 2002.

Marro KI, Lee, D, Shankland, EG, Mathis, CM, Hayes, CE, Amara, CE and Kushmerick MJ.  (2008)  Synthetic signal injection using inductive coupling.  J Magn Reson 194, 67 – 75.

Conley, KE , CE Amara, SA Jubrias, and DJ Marcinek (2007). Mitochondrial function, fiber types and aging: new insights from human muscle in vivo. Exp. Physiol Mar;92(2):333-9.

Amara, CE, EG Shankland, SA Jubrias, DJ Marcinek, MJ Kushmerick and KE Conley. (2007) Mild uncoupling impacts mitochondrial aging in human muscles in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104:1057-1062.

Conley, KE , SA Jubrias, CE Amara, and DJ Marcinek (2007). Mitochondrial dysfunction: impact on exercise performance and cellular aging. Exer Sport Sci Rev. 35(2):43-9.

Marcinek, DJ, CE Amara, K Matz, KE Conley and KA Schenkman (2007). Wavelength shift analysis:  separating hemoglobin and myoglobin optical signals permits measurement of O2 consumption in vivo. Appl Spectro 61(6): 665-9.

Conley, KE, DJ Marcinek, and JJ Villarin (2007).  Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10:688-92.


Key Papers (central to core TCMI research):

Marcinek, D. J., K. A. Schenkman, WA Ciesielski, D Lee, KE Conley (2005).  Reduced mitochondrial coupling in vivo alters cellular energetics in aged mouse skeletal muscle.  J Physiol; 569(Pt 2):467-73.

Marcinek, D. J., K. A. Schenkman, WA Ciesielski, KE Conley (2004). Mitochondrial coupling in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle.  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 286: C457-63.

Crowther, GJ, J Milstein, SA Jubrias, MJ Kushmerick, RK Gronka and KE Conley. (2003) Altered energetic properties in skeletal muscle of men with well-controlled insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes.  Am J Physiol
Endocinol Metab 284(4):E655-62.

Marcinek , DJ, WA Ciesielski, KE Conley, KA Schenkman  (2003).Oxygen regulation and limitation to cellular respiration in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Am J Physiol Heart Circ 285(5):H1900-8.

Jubrias, SA, GJ Crowther, EG Shankland, R Gronka, KE Conley (2003). Acidosis inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in contracting human skeletal muscle.  J Physiol 553: 589-99.

Crowther, GJ, WF Kemper, MF Carey, and KE Conley. (2002) The control of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle. I Turning it on. Am J Physiol Endocinol Metab 282:E67-E73.

Crowther, GJ, WF Kemper, MF Carey, and KE Conley.  (2002) The control of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle. II Turning it off. Am J Physiol Endocinol Metab 282:E74-E79.

Kushmerick, M.J. and Conley, K.E. (2002). Energetics of muscle contraction: the whole is less than the sum of its parts. Biochem Soc Trans. 30(2), 227-31.

Crowther, GJ, SA Jubrias, RK Gronka and KE Conley. (2002) A "functional biopsy" of muscle properties in sprinters and distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exer. 34(11):1719-24.

Jubrias, SA and KE Conley. (2001) Aging of the musculoskeletal system. In:  Functional Neurobiology of Aging. Hof, Patrick, ed. San Diego: Academic Press, pp 661- 780.

Kemper, WF, SL Lindstedt, LK Hartzler, JW Hicks and KE Conley. (2001). Shaking-up glycolysis:  sustained, high lactate flux during aerobic rattling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 98(2): 723-728. [Cited on journal cover;
also see Commentary, Gladden, L. B. (2001). Lactic acid: New roles in a new millennium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98: 395-397].

Jubrias, SA, PC Esselman, LB Price, ME Cress, KE Conley (2001). Large energetic adaptations of elderly muscle to resistance and endurance training. J. Appl. Physiol. 90: 1663-1670.

Conley, KE, WF Kemper and GJ Crowther (2001). Limits to sustainable muscle performance: interaction of glycolysis and respiration. J Exp Biol 204: 3185-3194.

Lindstedt, SL and KE Conley (2001).  Human aerobic performance: too much ado about limits to VO2.  J Exp Biol 204:3195-3199.

Conley, KE, SA Jubrias, and PE Esselman. (2000) Oxidative capacity and aging in human muscle. J Physiol.  526.1: 203-210.

Conley, KE, PE Esselman, SA Jubrias, ME Cress, B Inglin, C Mogadam and RS Schoene. (2000) Aging, muscle properties and maximum O2 uptake rate in humans.  J Physiol. 526.1: 211-217.

Conley, KE, MJ Kushmerick and SA Jubrias. (1998) Glycolysis in independent of oxygenation state in stimulated human skeletal muscle in vivo. J Physiol 511.3: 935-945.

Jubrias, SA, IO Odderson, PE Esselman, and KE Conley. (1997) Decline in isokinetic force with age: cross-sectional area and myosin isoforms of muscle. Pflgers Arch. 434: 246-53.

Conley, KE, ML Blei, TR Richards, MJ Kushmerick and SA Jubrias. (1997) Activation of glycolysis in human muscle in vivo. Am J Physiol: Cell Physiol. 273: C306-15.

Cress, ME, KE Conley, SL Balding, F Hansen-Smith, and J Konczak. (1996) Functional training: muscle structure, function and performance in older women. J Ortho Sports  Phys Therapy 24: 4-10.


Selected Papers (foundations of TCMI methods and approach):

Arakaki LS, Burns DH, Kushmerick MJ.  (2007) Accurate myoglobin oxygen saturation by optical spectroscopy measured in blood-perfused rat muscle. Applied Spectrosc 2007 Sep;61(9):978-85.

Vinnakota K, Kemp ML, and Kushmerick MJ. (2006) Dynamics of Muscle Glycogenolysis Modeled with pH Time-Course Computation and pH Dependent Reaction Equilibria and Enzyme Kinetics. Biophysical Journal 91:1264-1287.

Marro KI, Hyyti OM, Vincent MA & Kushmerick MJ. (2005). Validation and advantages of FAWSETS perfusion measurements in skeletal muscle. NMR in Biomedicine 18, 226-234.

Asllani I, Shankland E, Pratum T, Kushmerick MJ. (2003) Effects of pH and Molecular Charge on Dipolar Coupling Interactions of Solutes in Skeletal Muscle Observed by DQF, 1H NMR Spectroscopy. J. Mag. Reson. 163(1): 124-32.

Hiblar T, Bolson EL, Hubka M, Sheehan FH, Kushmerick MJ.  (2003)  Three Dimensional Ultrasound Analysis of Fascicle Orientation in Human Tibialis Anterior Muscle Enables Analysis of Macroscopic Torque at the Cellular Level.  Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Vol. 538, 635-645; Discussion 645.

Jeneson JAL, Westerhoff HV, Kushmerick MJ.  (2002) A metabolic control analysis of kinetic controls in ATP free energy metabolism in contracting skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol., 279: C813-C832.

Asllani I, Shankland E, Pratum T, Kushmerick MJ. (2001) Double Quantum Filtered 1H NMR spectroscopy Enables Quantification of Lactate in Muscle.  J. Mag. Reson., 152, 195-202.

Vicini P, Kushmerick MJ.  (2000) Cellular energetics analysis by a mathematical model of biochemical energy balance: estimation of cellular parameters in human skeletal muscle.  Am. J. Physiol . (Cell Physiol.); 279: C213-C224.

Mystkowski P, Shankland E, Schreyer SA, Leboeuf RC, Schwrtz RS, Cummings DE, Kushmerick M, Shwartz MW.  (2000) Validation of whole-body magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool to assess murine body composition.  Internat. J. Obesity 24, 719-724).

Asllani I, Shankland E, Pratum T, Kushmerick MJ.  (1999) Anisotropic orientation of lactate in skeletal muscle observed by dipolar coupling in H NMR  spetroscopy.  J. Mag. Reson. 139: 213-224 .

Chase PB, Denkinger TM, Kushmerick MJ. (1998) Effect of viscosity on mechanics of single, skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle.  Biophys. J.  74(3): 1428-38.

Kushmerick MJ. (1998)  Energy balance in muscle activity: simulations of ATPase coupled to oxidative phosphorylation and to creatine kinase.  Comp.                              Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol.  May; 120(1): 109-23.

Conley KE, Kushmerick MJ, Jubrias, SA. (1998) Glycolysis is independent of oxygenation state in stimulated human skeletal muscle in vivo.  J. Physiol.  (London) Sep  15; 511 (Pt 3): 935-45.

Conley KE, Blei ML, Richards TL, Kushmerick MJ, Jubrias SA. (1997) Activation of glycolysis in human muscle in vivo.  Am. J. Physiol. 273(1 Pt 1): C306-15.

Kushmerick MJ.  (1997) Multiple equilibria of cations with metabolites in muscle bioenergetics.  Am. J. Physiol. 272(5 Pt 1): C1739-47.

Marro KI, Kushmerick MJ. (1997) Skeletal muscle perfusion measurements using adiabatic inversion of arterial water.  Mag. Reson. Med. 38(1): 40-7.

Arakaki LSL, Kushmerick MJ, Burns DH. (1996) Myoglobin oxygen saturation measured independently of hemoglobin in scattering media by optical reflectance spectroscopy,  Appl.Spectrosc. 50: 697-707.

Jeneson JAL, Wiseman RW, Westerhoff HV, Kushmerick MJ. (1996) The signal transduction function for oxidative phosphoylation is at least second order in ADP.  J. Biol. Chem. 271: 27995 – 27998.

Hardin CD, Kushmerick MJ, Roberts TM. (1995) Vascular smooth muscle glycogen metabolism studied by 13C-NMR. J Vasc Res 32:293-300.

Chase PB, Kushmerick MJ.  (1995) Effect of physiological ADP concentration on contraction of single skinned fibers from rabbit fast and slow muscles. Am J. Physiol. 268(37): C480-C489.

Kushmerick MJ.  (1995) Skeletal muscle: a paradigm for testing principles of bioenergetics. J. Bioenergetics and Biomemb. 27: 555 - 569.

McFarland EW, Kushmerick MJ, Moerland TS. (1994) The activity of creatine kinase in a contracting mammalian muscle of uniform fiber type.  Biophys. J.  67: 1912-1924.

Moerland TS, Kushmerick MJ. (1994) Contractile economy and aerobic recovery metabolism in skeletal muscle adapted to creatine depletion. Amer. J. Physiol. 267(36): 127-137.)

Hardin CD, Kushmerick MJ. (1994) Simultaneous and separable flux of pathways for glucose and glycogen utilization studied by 13C NMR. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 26: 1197-1210.

Phillips SK, Wiseman RW, Woledge RC, Kushmerick MJ.  (1993) The effect of metabolic fuel on force production and resting inorganic phosphate levels in isolated mouse skeletal muscles. J. Physiol. (London) 463: 135-146.

Phillips S, Wiseman RW, Woledge RC, Kushmerick MJ.  (1993) Neither changes in phosphorus metabolite levels nor myosin isoforms can explain the weakness in aged mouse muscle cells. J. Physiol(London), 463: 157-167.

Blei ML, Conley KE, Kushmerick MJ.  (1993) Separate measures of ATP utilization and recovery in human skeletal muscle.  J. Physiol. (London) 465:202-223.

Chase PB, Martyn DA, Kushmerick MJ, Gordon AM. (1993)  Effects of inorganic phospate analogues on stiffness and unloaded shortening of skinned muscle fibres from rabbit. J. Physiol. (London) 460:231-246.

Blei ML, Conley KE, Odderson IR, Esselman PC, Kushmerick MJ.(1993) Individual variation in contractile costs and recovery in a human skeletal muscle.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 90: 7396-7400.

Kushmerick MJ, Meyer RA, Brown TR.  (1992) Regulation of oxygen consumption in fast- and slow-twitch muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 263(32): C598-C606.

Kushmerick MJ, Moerland T, Wiseman RW.  (1992) Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of PCr, ATP and Pi.  Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci., USA 89: 7521-7525.

Chase PB, Beck TW, Bursell J, Kushmerick MJ.  (1991) Molecular charge dominates the inhibtion of actomyosin in skinned muscle fibers by SH1 peptides. Biophys. J. 60:352-359.

Meyer RA, Adams GR, Fisher MJ, Dillon PF, Krisanda JM, Brown TR, Kushmerick MJ. (1991) Effect of decreased pH on force and phosphocreatine in mammalian skeletal muscle. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmac. 69(20):305-310.

Moerland TS, Wolf NG, Kushmerick MJ.  (1989) Administration of a creatine analogue induces isomyosin transitions in muscle.  Am. J. Physiol.  257 (26): C810-C816.

Chase PB, Kushmerick MJ. (1988) The effects of pH on contraction of rabbit fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers.  Biophys. J. 53:935-946.

Meyer RA, Brown TR, Krilowicz BL, Kushmerick MJ. (1986) Phosphagen and intracellular pH changes during contraction of creatine-depleted rat muscle.  Am. J. Physiol. 250 (Cell Physiol. 19):C264-C274.

Sweeney HL, Kushmerick MJ, Mabuchi K, Gergely J, Sre'ter FA.  (1986) Velocity of shortening and myosin isoenzymes in two types of rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers.  Am. J. Physiol.  251 (Cell Physiol. 20):C431-C434.

Kushmerick MJ, Dillon PF, Meyer RA, Brown TR, Krisanda JM, Sweeney HL. (1986) 31P-NMR spectroscopy, chemical analysis and free Mg2+ of rabbit bladder and uterine smooth muscle.  J. Biol. Chem. 261:14420-14429.

Meyer RA, Brown TR, Kushmerick MJ.  (1985) Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance of fast- and slow-twitch muscle.  Am. J. Physiol.  248 (Cell Physiol. 17):C279-C287.

Kushmerick MJ, Meyer RA.  (1985) Chemical changes in rat leg muscle by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance.  Am. J. Physiol. 248 (Cell Physiol. 17):C542-C549.

Kushmerick MJ.  Patterns in mammalian muscle energetics. (1985) J. Exp. Biol.  115:165-177.

Meyer RA, Sweeney HL, Kushmerick MJ. (1984) A simple analysis of the "phosphocreatine shuttle".  Am. J. Physiol. 246 (Cell Physiol. 5):C365-C377.

Krasner BH, Kushmerick MJ.  (1983) Tension and ATPase rate in steady-state contractions of rabbit soleus fiber segments.  Am. J. Physiol.  245 (Cell Physiol. 14):C405-C414.

Kushmerick MJ. (1983) Energetics of muscle contraction.  In:  Peachey L, Adrian R, Geiger SR, eds.  Handbook of physiology.  Skeletal muscle.  Bethesda, MD:  American Physiological Society, 189-236.

Crow MT, Kushmerick MJ.  (1982) Chemical energetics of slow- and fast-twitch muscles of the mouse.  J. Gen. Physiol. 79:147-66.

Kushmerick MJ, Krasner B.  (1982) Force and ATPase rate in skinned skeletal muscle fibers.  Fed. Proc. 41:2232-37.

Meyer RA, Kushmerick MJ, Brown TR.  (1982) Application of 31P-NMR spectroscopy to the study of striated muscle metabolism.  Am. J. Physiol.  242 (Cell Physiol. 11):C1-C11.

Kushmerick MJ, Paul RJ. (1977) Chemical energetics in repeated contractions of frog sartorius muscles at 0oC.  J. Physiol. (London). 267:249-60.

Kushmerick MJ.  (1977) Energy balance in muscle contraction:  A biochemical approach.  In:  Sanadi R, ed.  Current topics in bioenergetics, vol 6.  New York:  Academic Press, 1-37.

Kushmerick MJ, Paul RJ.  (1976) Aerobic recovery metabolism following a single isometric tetanus in frog sartorius muscle at 0oC.  J. Physiol. (London). 254:693-709.

Kushmerick MJ, Paul RJ. (1976) Relationship between initial chemical reactions and oxidative recovery metabolism for single isometric contractions of frog sartorius at 0oC.  J. Physiol. (London). 254:711-27.

Paul RJ, Kushmerick MJ.  (1974) Apparent P/O ratio and chemical energy balance in frog sartorius muscle in vitro.  Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 347:483-90.

Kushmerick MJ, Larson RE, Davies RE.  (1969) The chemical energetics of muscle contraction.  I. Activation heat, heat of shortening and ATP utilization for activation-relaxation processes.  Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B174:293-313.

Kushmerick MJ, Davies RE.  (1969) The chemical energetics of muscle contraction.  II. The chemistry, efficiency and power of maximally working sartorius muscles.  Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B174:315-53.

Kushmerick MJ, Podolsky RJ. (1969) Ionic mobility in muscle cells.  Science.  166:1297-98.

Davies RE, Kushmerick MJ, Larson RE.  (1967) Prof. A.V. Hill's "Further Challenge to Biochemists":  ATP, activation, and the heat of shortening of muscle.  Nature. 214:148-51.