The Clinical Teratology Web is a project of the TERIS (Teratogen Information System) Program at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. This web site is a cooperative activity involving various clinical services, organizations, and institutions concerned with clinical teratology. It is intended as a resource guide for clinicians and other health practitioners seeking a broader understanding of the effects of reproductive exposures on the developing embryo and fetus, and to assist them in counseling their pregnant patients. It is not a guide for prescribing medications.
Other Teratology Databases
Teratology Information Services
Local, national, and international teratogen information providers and networks
Organizations and Societies
- Barlow SM, Sullivan FM: Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. London: Academic Press, 1982.
- This book reviews the available clinical and animal data on the reproductive toxicity of approximately 50 industrial chemicals. Information regarding the teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of each chemical is included.
- Briggs GG, Freeman RK: Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015.
- This reference contains over 1150 monographs on fetal risks associated with prenatal exposure to drugs. The monographs also provide information regarding risks associated with the use of these drugs during lactation. Most of the information is based on human studies, although animal studies are included for a few of the monographs.
- Folb PI, Graham Dukes MN (eds): Drug Safety in Pregnancy. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers BV, 1990.
- This book provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the safety of drugs for the fetus and pregnant woman. Animal and pharmacological data are included when relevant to the understanding of fetal toxicity. Material is presented according to categories of drugs.
- Friedman JM, Polifka JE: Effects of Drugs on the Fetus and Nursing Infant: A Handbook for Health Care Professionals. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
- This book was designed to assist physicians and other health care professionals in counseling pregnant and lactating women who have concerns about the possible effects of drugs and other agents on their developing babies and infants. Risk assessments based on a consensus of ratings by the authors and five internationally-recognized authorities in clinical teratology are provided for each agent in the book.
- Gilstrap LC III, Little BB: Drugs and Pregnancy, 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier, 1998.
- This book provides clinicians with useful guidelines for clinical evaluation and patient counseling as well as information regarding the reproductive effects of commonly-used medications, occupational agents, and substances of abuse.
- Koren G. Maternal-Fetal Toxicology. A Clinician’s Guide, 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2001.
- This book provides practical information for health care practitioners who counsel pregnant women regarding pregnancy exposures. In addition to briefly summarizing the relevant data on the teratogenic effects of various environmental and physical agents, the book includes a list of teratogen information programs. The editor’s approach to counseling pregnant women regarding teratogenic risks is also described.
- Paul M: Occupational and Environmental Reproductive Hazards: A Guide for Clinicians. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1993.
- This is a general review of the principles of reproductive and developmental toxicology, the research methods used to assess the reproductive toxicity of common occupational and environmental agents, and the clinical management of patients faced with such agents. In addition, information on the reproductive toxicity of commonly-encountered agents, such as organic solvents, video display terminals, and household chemicals is included.
- Schaefer C, Peters P, Miller RK (eds): Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Treatment Options and Risk Assessment, 3rd ed. Waltham, Mass.: Academic Press, 2015.
- Schardein JL: Chemically Induced Birth Defects, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1993.
- This comprehensive reference book reviews available animal and human studies on the teratogenic effects of drugs and chemicals. Emphasis is placed on studies in which exposures took place during the period of organogenesis.
- Scialli AR, Lione A, Boyle Padgett GK: Reproductive Effects of Chemical, Physical, and Biologic Agents. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
- This book contains information on the reproductive toxicology of over 2800 physical and chemical agents. The summaries include information on the effects of these agents on male and female fertility and the infants of breast-feeding mothers as well as on embryonic and fetal development.
- Shepard TH: Catalog of Teratogenic Agents, 13th ed. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
- Shepard’s Catalog provides a comprehensive compilation of animal and human research on the teratogenicity of chemical and environmental agents. The Catalog contains information on over 3500 agents and includes many references for the Japanese as well as the American and European literature.
Peer Reviewed Journals
Drug Compendiums and Indexes
The following reference books include general pharmacology and prescribing information on drugs. Such information is essential when a physician is deciding whether or not to treat a pregnant or lactating woman with a particular medication. Some of these references provide pregnancy risk information; however, this is usually in the form of a legal disclaimer that does little to help the clinician assess pregnancy risks associated with use of a particular drug. We strongly discourage quoting pregnancy risks from these books to patients. Doing so frequently provokes unnecessary anxiety and usually does not provide a balanced view of the risk from the patient’s perspective.
Brayfield A (ed): Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, 38th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2014.
Brunton LL Chabner BA Krollman BC (eds): Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th ed. New York: The McGraw Hill Companies, 2011.
Drug Facts and Comparisons 2015. Philadelphia, Pa.: Facts & Comparisons, 2014.
Physician’s Desk Reference, 69th ed. Montvale, N.J.: PDF Network, LLC, 2015.