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Barlow SM, Sullivan FM: Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. London: Academic Press, 1982.

This book reviews the available clinical and animal data on the reproductive toxicity of approximately 50 industrial chemicals. Information regarding the teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of each chemical is included.

Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ: Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation, 7th ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

This reference contains over 700 monographs on fetal risks associated with prenatal exposure to drugs. The monographs also provide information regarding risks associated with the use of these drugs during lactation. Most of the information is based on human studies, although animal studies are included for a few of the monographs.

Folb PI, Graham Dukes MN (eds): Drug Safety in Pregnancy., Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers BV, 1990.

This book provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the safety of drugs for the fetus and pregnant woman. Animal and pharmacological data are included when relevant to the understanding of fetal toxicity. Material is presented according to categories of drugs.

Friedman JM, Polifka JE: Teratogenic Effects of Drugs: A Resource for Clinicians (TERIS) , 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

This book was designed to assist physicians and other health care professionals in counseling pregnant women who have concerns about the possible effects of drugs and other agents on their developing babies. Risk assessments based on a consensus of ratings by the authors and five internationally-recognized authorities in clinical teratology are provided for each agent in the book.

Friedman JM, Polifka JE: Effects of Drugs on the Fetus and Nursing Infant: A Handbook for Health Care Professionals. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Gilstrap LC, Little BB: Drugs and Pregnancy. 2nd Ed. New York: Elsevier, 1998.

This book provides clinicians with useful guidelines for clinical evaluation and patient counseling as well as information regarding the reproductive effects of commonly-used medications, occupational agents, and substances of abuse.

Koren G(ed). Maternal-Fetal Toxicology. A Clinician’s Guide, 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2001.

This book provides practical information for health care practitioners who counsel pregnant women regarding pregnancy exposures. In addition to briefly summarizing the relevant data on the teratogenic effects of various environmental and physical agents, the book includes a list of teratogen information programs. The editor’s approach to counseling pregnant women regarding teratogenic risks is also described.

Paul M: Occupational and Environmental Reproductive Hazards: A Guide for Clinicians, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993.

This is a general review of the principles of reproductive and developmental toxicology, the research methods used to assess the reproductive toxicity of common occupational and environmental agents, and the clinical management of patients faced with such agents. In addition, information on the reproductive toxicity of commonly-encountered agents, such as organic solvents, video display terminals, and household chemicals is included.

Schardein JL: Chemically Induced Birth Defects, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1993.

This comprehensive reference book reviews available animal and human studies on the teratogenic effects of drugs and chemicals. Emphasis is placed on studies in which exposures took place during the period of organogenesis.

Scialli AR, Lione A, Boyle Padgett GK: Reproductive Effects of Chemical, Physical, and Biologic Agents. Baltimore, MD.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

This book contains information on the reproductive toxicology of over 2800 physical and chemical agents. The summaries include information on the effects of these agents on male and female fertility and the infants of breast-feeding mothers as well as on embryonic and fetal development.

Shepard TH: Catalog of teratogenic Agents, 10th ed. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press , 2001.

Shepard’s Catalog provides a comprehensive compilation of animal and human research on the teratogenicity of chemical and environmental agents. The Catalog contains information on over 2500 agents and includes many references for the Japanese as well as the American and European literature.

Peer Reviewed Journals

Congenital Anomalies

Neurotoxicology and Teratology

Reproductive Toxicology

Teratology: The International Journal of Abnormal Development, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Drug Compendiums and Indexes

The following reference books include general pharmacology and prescribing information on drugs. Such information is essential when a physician is deciding whether or not to treat a pregnant or lactating woman with a particular medication. Some of these references provide pregnancy risk information; however, this is usually in the form of a legal disclaimer that does little to help the clinician assess pregnancy risks associated with use of a particular drug. We strongly discourage quoting pregnancy risks from these books to patients. Doing so frequently provokes unnecessary anxiety and usually does not provide a balanced view of the risk from the patient’s perspective.

Drug Facts and Comparisons® St. Louis, Mo.: Fact and Comparisons, 2007.

Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P (eds). Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11th ed. New York: Pergamon Press, 2006.

Physician’s Desk Reference, 62nd ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Data, 2008.

Reynolds JEF, Parfitt K, Parsons AV, Sweetman SC (eds). Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopeia, 32nd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1999.

USP DI (USP Dispensing Information), Volume 1. Drug Information for the Health Care Professional, 26th ed. Rockville, Md.: The US Pharmacopeial Convention, 2005.

Department of Pediatrics
University of Washington