Brookfield SD Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Jossey-Bass, 1995.
Building on the insights of his highly accalimed earlier work, The Skillful Teacher, Stephen D. Brookfield offers a very personal and accessible guide to how faculty at any level and across all disciplines can improve their teaching abilities. Applying the principles of adult learning, Brookfield thoughtfully guides teachers through the processes of becoming critically reflective about teaching, confronting the contradictions involved in creating democratic classrooms and using critical reflection as a tool for ongoing personal and professional development. Using numerous examples, Brookfield describes what critical reflection is and why it is so important
Cranton P. Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning : A Guide for Educators of Adults. Jossey-Bass, 1994.
Drawing on numerous examples from nearly twenty years of experience as an adult educator and researcher, Cranton relates transformative learning to current adult education perspectives. She describes how learners undergo transformative learning. She examines individual differences among learners, and she presents practical strategies for fostering and supporting transformative learning—including questioning techniques, journal writing, consciousness-raising exercises, and experiential activities. Jack Mezirow's theory of transformative learning has developed over nearly two decades into a comprehensive and complex description of how learners construe, validate, and reformulate the meaning of their experiences. But what exactly is transformative learning? How does it differ from other concepts of adult learning? How can educators actively foster transformative learning with adult learners?In this book, Patricia Cranton describes the theory and process of transformative learning in terms of experiences with which we are all familiar: from the learner who is struck by a new concept or a different way of thinking about something to the learner who changes her personal life based on new insights. Cranton also describes approaches the educator can use—such as fostering group interaction and encouraging learner networks—to provide support for the transformative learning process and help learners to support each other.
Jaques D. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: Teaching small groups. BMJ 2003;326:492-494.
Kurtz S, Silverman J, Draper J. Teaching and Learning Communication Skills in Medicine. Radcliffe Medical Press, 1998.
Combined with its companion, this book provides a comprehensive approach to improving communication between doctors and patients throughout all three levels of medical education (undergraduate, residency, and continuing medical education) and in both specialist and family medicine. Examines how to construct a communication skills curriculum, the individual skills that form the core content of communication skills teaching programs, and specific teaching and learning methods.
Mezirow J. Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood : A Guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning. Jossey-Bass, 1990.
This book presents successful programs, techniques, and strategies for helping adult learners tap into their rich and diverse life experiences as a basis for growth and lifelong learning.
Pinsky LE, Monson D, Irby DM. How Excellent Teachers Are Made: Reflecting on Success to Improve Teaching. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 1998;3(3):207-215.
The authors surveyed forty-eight distinguished teachers from clinical departments regarding the role of instructional successes in learning to teach. Using qualitative content analysis of comments, the authors identified nine common successes in clinical teaching associated with planning, teaching, and reflection. In anticipatory reflection used for planning, common successes occurred by involving learners, continuously innovating, creating a positive atmosphere for learning, considering the learners, engaging the learners, preparing adequately, and limiting content. When reflecting-in-action, the success experience most commonly mentioned was maintaining flexibility in action. Reflecting-on-action after a successful teaching event, they commented on the importance of thoughtful analysis and choosing an appropriate strategy. These teachers incorporated reflective practice into their teaching as an essential component of professional development and incrementally improved their teaching based upon successful instructional experiences.
Pinsky LE, Irby DM. "If at first you don't succeed": using failure to improve teaching. Acad Med. 1997 Nov;72(11):973-6.
The authors surveyed a group of distinguished clinical teachers regarding episodes of failure that had subsequently led to improvements in their teaching. Specifically, they examined how these teachers had used reflection on failed approaches as a tool for experiential learning. The respondents believed that failures were as important as successes in learning to be a good teacher. Using qualitative content analysis of the respondents' comments, the authors identified eight common types of failure associated with each of the three phases of teaching: planning, teaching, and reflection. Common failures associated with the planning stage were misjudging learners, lack of preparation, presenting too much content, lack of purpose, and difficulties with audiovisuals. The primary failure associated with actual teaching was inflexibly using a single teaching method. In the reflection phase, respondents said they most often realized that they had made one of two common errors: selecting the wrong teaching strategy or incorrectly implementing a sound strategy. For each identified failure, the respondents made recommendations for improvement. The deliberative process that had guided planning, teaching, and reflecting had helped all of them transform past failures into successes.
Westberg J, Jason H. Fostering Learning in Small Groups: A Practical Guide. Springer Publishing Company, 1996.
Text on teaching health care in small group settings, for medical educators, particularly problem-based learning instructors. Discusses strategies for planning and facilitating small group sessions.