PURPOSE: Proteomics technologies are well suited for harnessing the immune response to tumor antigens for diagnostic applications as in the case of breast cancer. We previously reported a substantial impact of hormone therapy (HT) on the proteome. Here, we investigated the effect of HT on the immune response toward breast tumor antigens.
This phase I study evaluated the feasibility of expanding HER-2/neu (HER2) vaccine-primed peripheral blood T-cells ex vivo and assessed the safety of T-cell infusions. Eight patients with HER2(+) treatment refractory metastatic cancers were enrolled. T-cells could be expanded to predefined parameters in seven patients (88%).
Effective elicitation of endogenous immunity is associated with improved prognosis for cancer patients. Clinical evidence in hematological and solid cancers shows that intratumoral injection of immunostimulatory genes primes and augments endogenous T cell responses.
Inflammasome activation has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is important to investigate whether immune-enhancing natural products can also activate inflammasome. The current study examined the potential of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK), a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, to activate inflammasome. Using THP-1 cells, we have demonstrated that PSK induces both pro-IL-1β and mature IL-1β in THP-1 cells in a caspase 1- and NLRP3-dependent manner. PSK also induces IL-1β and IL-18 in human PBMC.
Immunization against self-tumor antigens can induce T-regulatory cells, which inhibit proliferation of type I CD4(+) T-helper (TH1) and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. Type I T cells are required for potent antitumor immunity. We questioned whether immunosuppressive epitopes could be identified and deleted from a cancer vaccine targeting insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-2) and enhance vaccine efficacy.
In the tumor microenvironment, the signals from tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) that suppress antitumor immunity remain unclear. Here, we develop and investigate an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) scaffold model for the novel evaluation of TAF interaction with breast tumor cells and breast specific, neu antigen (p98) reactive T cells. Breast cancer cells seeded on 3D chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds showed productive growth and formed distinct tumor spheroids.
A multiantigen multipeptide vaccine, targeting proteins expressed in preinvasive breast lesions, can stimulate type I CD4(+) T cells which have been shown to be deficient in both patients with breast cancer and mice that develop mammary tumors.
Mutated p21 ras proteins contain single substituted amino acid residues and represent cancer-specific proteins. The current study examined whether primed T cell immunity to mutant p21 ras proteins and/or peptides can be detected in patients with pancreatic or colon cancer.
Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).