Original Articles

Proteomic profiling of the autoimmune response to breast cancer antigens uncovers a suppressive effect of hormone therapy

PURPOSE:  Proteomics technologies are well suited for harnessing the immune response to tumor antigens for diagnostic applications as in the case of breast cancer. We previously reported a substantial impact of hormone therapy (HT) on the proteome. Here, we investigated the effect of HT on the immune response toward breast tumor antigens.

HER-2/neu vaccine-primed autologous T-cell infusions for the treatment of advanced stage HER-2/neu expressing cancers

This phase I study evaluated the feasibility of expanding HER-2/neu (HER2) vaccine-primed peripheral blood T-cells ex vivo and assessed the safety of T-cell infusions. Eight patients with HER2(+) treatment refractory metastatic cancers were enrolled. T-cells could be expanded to predefined parameters in seven patients (88%).

Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1β via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation

Inflammasome activation has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is important to investigate whether immune-enhancing natural products can also activate inflammasome. The current study examined the potential of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK), a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, to activate inflammasome. Using THP-1 cells, we have demonstrated that PSK induces both pro-IL-1β and mature IL-1β in THP-1 cells in a caspase 1- and NLRP3-dependent manner. PSK also induces IL-1β and IL-18 in human PBMC.

Elimination of IL-10 inducing T-helper epitopes from an IGFBP-2 vaccine ensures potent anti-tumor activity

Immunization against self-tumor antigens can induce T-regulatory cells, which inhibit proliferation of type I CD4(+) T-helper (TH1) and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. Type I T cells are required for potent antitumor immunity. We questioned whether immunosuppressive epitopes could be identified and deleted from a cancer vaccine targeting insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-2) and enhance vaccine efficacy.

Three-dimensional scaffolds to evaluate tumor associated fibroblast-mediated suppression of breast tumor specific T-cells

In the tumor microenvironment, the signals from tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) that suppress antitumor immunity remain unclear. Here, we develop and investigate an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) scaffold model for the novel evaluation of TAF interaction with breast tumor cells and breast specific, neu antigen (p98) reactive T cells. Breast cancer cells seeded on 3D chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds showed productive growth and formed distinct tumor spheroids.

A multiantigen vaccine targeting neu, IGFBP-2, and IGF-IR prevents tumor progression in mice with preinvasive breast disease

A multiantigen multipeptide vaccine, targeting proteins expressed in preinvasive breast lesions, can stimulate type I CD4(+) T cells which have been shown to be deficient in both patients with breast cancer and mice that develop mammary tumors.

Protein-bound polysaccharide activates dendritic cells and enhancesOVA-specific T cell response as vaccine adjuvant

Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).

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