In the tumor microenvironment, the signals from tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) that suppress antitumor immunity remain unclear. Here, we develop and investigate an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) scaffold model for the novel evaluation of TAF interaction with breast tumor cells and breast specific, neu antigen (p98) reactive T cells. Breast cancer cells seeded on 3D chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds showed productive growth and formed distinct tumor spheroids.
A multiantigen multipeptide vaccine, targeting proteins expressed in preinvasive breast lesions, can stimulate type I CD4(+) T cells which have been shown to be deficient in both patients with breast cancer and mice that develop mammary tumors. Transgenic mice (TgMMTV-neu) were immunized with a multiantigen peptide vaccine specific for neu, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor-I at a time when some of the animals already had preinvasive lesions (18 weeks of age).
Mutated p21 ras proteins contain single substituted amino acid residues and represent cancer-specific proteins. The current study examined whether primed T cell immunity to mutant p21 ras proteins and/or peptides can be detected in patients with pancreatic or colon cancer.
Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).
The length of time required for preinvasive adenoma to progress to carcinoma, the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC), and the identification of high-risk populations make development and testing of a prophylactic vaccine for the prevention of CRC possible.
Numerous lines of evidence demonstrate that breast cancer is immunogenic; yet, there are few biologically relevant immune targets under investigation restricting the exploration of vaccines to limited breast cancer subtypes.
Polysaccharide K (PSK) is a widely used mushroom extract that has shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of actions of PSK. We recently reported that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 and enhances the function of NK cells.
The ability to cryopreserve lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to retain their function after thawing is critical to the analysis of cancer immunotherapy studies. We evaluated a variety of cryopreservation strategies with the aim of developing an optimized protocol for freezing and thawing PBMC to retain viability and function.
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of PBMC and/or overnight shipping of samples are required for many clinical trials, despite their potentially adverse effects upon immune monitoring assays such as MHC-peptide tetramer staining, cytokine flow cytometry (CFC), and ELISPOT. In this study, we compared the performance of these assays on leukapheresed PBMC shipped overnight in medium versus cryopreserved PBMC from matched donors.
Measurement of humoral tumor-specific immunity can predict what proteins are specific tumor antigens, be used to evaluate patient diagnosis or prognosis, and function as a method by which one can measure the effects of an immune intervention, such as a vaccine. Antibody assays can easily be adapted to high throughput formats; however, specific reagents needed for assay development often are not available. Developing methods to produce large quantities of purified recombinant tumor antigen proteins for indirect ELISA is both laborious and expensive.