Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).
The length of time required for preinvasive adenoma to progress to carcinoma, the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC), and the identification of high-risk populations make development and testing of a prophylactic vaccine for the prevention of CRC possible.
Numerous lines of evidence demonstrate that breast cancer is immunogenic; yet, there are few biologically relevant immune targets under investigation restricting the exploration of vaccines to limited breast cancer subtypes.
Polysaccharide K (PSK) is a widely used mushroom extract that has shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of actions of PSK. We recently reported that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 and enhances the function of NK cells.
The ability to cryopreserve lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to retain their function after thawing is critical to the analysis of cancer immunotherapy studies. We evaluated a variety of cryopreservation strategies with the aim of developing an optimized protocol for freezing and thawing PBMC to retain viability and function.
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of PBMC and/or overnight shipping of samples are required for many clinical trials, despite their potentially adverse effects upon immune monitoring assays such as MHC-peptide tetramer staining, cytokine flow cytometry (CFC), and ELISPOT. In this study, we compared the performance of these assays on leukapheresed PBMC shipped overnight in medium versus cryopreserved PBMC from matched donors.
Measurement of humoral tumor-specific immunity can predict what proteins are specific tumor antigens, be used to evaluate patient diagnosis or prognosis, and function as a method by which one can measure the effects of an immune intervention, such as a vaccine. Antibody assays can easily be adapted to high throughput formats; however, specific reagents needed for assay development often are not available. Developing methods to produce large quantities of purified recombinant tumor antigen proteins for indirect ELISA is both laborious and expensive.
We assessed the autoantibody repertoire of a mouse model engineered to develop breast cancer and the repertoire of autoantibodies in plasmas collected at a pre-clinical time point and at the time of clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. In seeking to identify common pathways, networks and protein families associated with the humoral response, we elucidated the dynamic nature of tumor antigens and autoantibody interactions.
The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value questions-ethical, social, economic, and cultural-that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these questions visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions.