Glimpse into the past – Dr. James R. Clark

August 18th, 2015 by Jessica Farmer, Adult Education Supervisor

By John A. Wott, Director Emeritus

Tukey and Clark
Since its founding 35 years ago, the Center for Urban Horticulture (now a part of the University of Washington Botanic Gardens) has produced numerous students, staff, and faculty who have continued on to illustrious horticultural careers. A few days ago, I received this photograph of Dr. Harold B. Tukey, Jr., founding director, and associate professor James R. Clark. They are examining a tree experiment in the nursery area of the Center.  Since the then-new Merrill Hall is in the background, without Isaacson Hall, I would date the picture in the spring of 1985. It was obviously taken by the Seattle Times, for publicity of the newly developing Center, which would become an international model.

Dr. Clark and I were the two early faculty hires for the Center, and he arrived a few months after I did in the summer of 1981.  He holds a B.S. in Plant Science, an M.S. in Horticulture from Rutgers University, and a Ph.D. in Plant Physiology from the University of California, Davis.  He was a faculty member at Michigan State University from 1971 to 1981.  He was extremely instrumental in the early development of the Center from 1981 to 1991.

Upon arrival, Dr. Clark quickly developed programs in urban forestry and tree physiology.  He proved that garden sites closer to our major highways often had higher concentrations of heavy metals.  He worked closely with nurserymen and arborists, as well as the public.  In his work with the late Marvin Black, Seattle City arborist, who was responsible for putting trees back on Seattle streets, he studied the adverse growing conditions for street trees in Seattle.  He also worked with the new immersion exhibits in Woodland Park Zoo.

Dr. Clark and I shared the wooden “chicken coop-like” Medicinal building still lounging near the Botany Greenhouse on campus from 1981-84. It also housed our secretary Diana Perl. It was Dr. Clark who suggested that we teach a required course on public speaking for all our graduate students, which ultimately became the first Center for Urban Horticulture-taught course on campus.  Upon his departure, I taught the course until I retired in 2006.   Dr. Sarah Reichard continues that legacy.  Over the years, I have heard from people all over the world that they can tell the “Center for Urban Horticulture-trained students,” who know precisely how to deliver both a scientific talk and an extension-style public presentation.

Dr. Clark went on to become vice president of HortScience, Inc., located in Pleasanton, California. It is a consulting firm providing horticultural, arboricultural and urban forestry services.  Dr. Clark has developed a model of sustainable urban forest management, is experienced in designing and implementing field research, and frequently serves as an expert witness.  He is also the coauthor of four books and has published over 30 articles in scientific journals including Arboriculture & Urban Forestry (formerly Journal of Arboriculture), Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, Arboricultural Journal and Journal of Environmental Horticulture. He continues to lecture on arboriculture and urban forestry worldwide.  He is recognized internationally by the International Society of Arboriculture and has received many rewards including the Alex Shigo Award for Arboricultural Education.

August Plant Profile – Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei ‘Sioux’

August 6th, 2015 by UWBG Horticulturist

 

BloomIf this year’s hot and dry summer is a climate change omen for Seattle and the greater PNW, then here’s the tree of our future: Lagerstroemia spp and its many hybrids and cultivars. Commonly known as crapemyrtles, these trees are tolerant of hot and dry summers and offer appeal throughout the seasons. They have lustrous foliage and large colorful flowers in the growing season (spring and summer); in the dormant season (fall and winter), the foliage and bark provide interest.

‘Sioux’ is a National Arboretum Fauriei Hybrid crapemyrtle introduction from the 1950s that produces an abundance of large, bright pink flower clusters  during summer. Its foliage is the darkest green of any crapemyrtle and turns to a handsome purple color in fall. The bark is tan in color and the twigs have a reddish color. See National Arboretum link below for more information on the Fauriei hybrids.

http://www.usna.usda.gov/PhotoGallery/CrapemyrtleGallery/index.html

Common Name: Sioux Crape Myrtle

Location: Center for Urban Horticulture, west end of Douglas Greenhouse parking lot

Origin: National Arboretum Introduction. Name registered May 1, 1992.

Height and Spread: 12′-15′ tall; 8′-10′ wide. Multi-stemmed small tree, large shrub

Bloom Time: Summer, extended out as long as temperatures remain warm.

Specimen at CUH

Specimen at CUH

 

 

 

 

 

July Color Appears at the Center for Urban Horticulture

July 25th, 2015 by UWBG Arborist, Chris Watson

Featuring a Selection of Trees at the Center for Urban Horticulture

Selected cuttings from the Center for Urban Horticulture (July 20, 2015 - August 2, 2015)

Selected cuttings from the Center for Urban Horticulture (July 20, 2015 – August 2, 2015)

1)  Acer japonicum  ‘Aconitifolium’                         Fern Leaf Maple

  • Grove of six located in McVay Courtyard
  • Planted in 1986, original design element for McVay Courtyard
  • Beautiful leaf texture with extraordinary fall color
  • The most iconic tree at the Center for Urban Horticulture (CUH)

2)  Cedrus deodara             Deodar Cedar

  • Two mature specimens located at northeastern entrance to Event Lawn (x from Greenhouse)
  • The only conifers remaining from pre-CUH development
  • Probably planted post-war years (1950s) for UW married student housing

3)  x Chitalpa tashkentensis  ‘Morning Cloud’                                                                           Morning Cloud Chitalpa

  • An inter-generic cross between Catalpa bignonioides and Chilopsis linearis
  • A hardy drought tolerant tree currently in flower, hence its cultivar namesake
  • Several specimens located in bed along NE 41st Street, west entrance to CUH.

4)  Lagerstroemia indica             Crape Myrtle

  • This amazingly resilient and adaptable tree has had three homes in its lifespan.
  • Planted in 1963 around the original Washington Park Arboretum (WPA) buildings,
  • Then moved in 1984 to the WPA Mediterranean beds.
  • Moved to its current resting spot at CUH, south side of Isaacson Hall in 1990.

5)  Juniperus scopulorum             Rocky Mountain Juniper

  • Cuttings would not be complete without featuring a Pacific Northwest native tree at CUH.
  • OK, so it’s not found in the Puget Sound area, but its range does include parts of eastern Washington.
  • This upright specimen can be found anchoring the southeastern corner of the Soest Herbaceous Display Garden.

Plant Profile: Stewartia monadelpha

June 5th, 2015 by Jessica Farmer, Adult Education Supervisor

This small tree, commonly grown for its stunning reddish-brown bark, offers exceptional features throughout the year. Stewartia monadelpha, otherwise known as tall stewartia or orangebark stewartia, is just getting ready to come into bloom this month. Its white camellia-like flowers burst forth in early summer, followed by interesting brown seed pods and rich russet fall color. This species is planted in UW Botanic Gardens’ collections at both the Washington Park Arboretum and Center for Urban Horticulture.

Stewartia monadelpha is a member of the Camellia family. The small, white cup-shaped flowers last up to four weeks and have petals with smooth edges. This tree is best grown in partial shade but can handle full sun in the Pacific Northwest. It makes an excellent specimen tree for the home landscape.

Common Name: Tall Stewartia or Orangebark Stewartia
Location: Washington Park Arboretum: Camellia collection, Winter Garden; Center for Urban Horticulture: Event Lawn
Origin: Japan
Height and Spread: 20-25’ tall, 15-25’ wide
Bloom Time: June

Summer blooms of Stewartia monadelpha

Summer blooms of Stewartia monadelpha

Exfoliating bark of Stewartia monadelpha

Exfoliating bark of Stewartia monadelpha

Stewartia monadelpha fall color

Stewartia monadelpha fall color

Stewartia monadelpha in winter

Stewartia monadelpha in winter

Glimpse into the past – the Legend of the Flamingos and the Silver Egg

June 4th, 2015 by Jessica Farmer, Adult Education Supervisor

By John A. Wott, Director Emeritus

This month’s Glimpse is about the ‘Legend of the Flamingos and the Silver Egg’ featured at the recent celebration honoring Dr. Harold B. Tukey, Jr., and the founding of the Center for Urban Horticulture.  Dr. Tukey arrived in Seattle in May 1980 and one year later, several new faculty and staff were added.

During that time period, the American public had been ‘poking fun’ at the profusion of inexpensive (rather cheap) plastic ornaments which had been flooding our marketplaces.   The urban landscape took on a new look with its plastic balls, animals, statues, pet rocks, etc.  It was inevitable that a symbol from that urban environment should be chosen for the fledgling CUH.

The original Xylem and Phloem in the Center for Urban Horticulture courtyard, 1986

The original Xylem and Phloem in the Center for Urban Horticulture courtyard, 1986

The two first graduate students in the program, Sharon Buck and Cindy Maitland, decided that a pair of pink flamingos should be part of the CUH display and proudly presented them to Dr. Tukey on May 31, 1981, as members of the CUH Alumni Association.  The faculty and staff were excited and decided to hold a naming contest, voting by secret ballot, with the names of ‘Xylem’ and ‘Phloem’ chosen.  The following holiday season, and in subsequent seasons, the proud ‘parents’ were joined by a large silver egg in a CUH courtyard display.

The presentation of a pair of flamingos occurred for each new faculty and staff member hired, often appearing spontaneously on their front lawn or porch.   I was given a pair which I proudly named ‘Burt’ and ‘Ethel’, who proudly presided on my deck overlooking Lake Union.  Flamingos often appeared in many ways during the next few years around CUH.  In 1994, six appeared on my new home lawn, causing the neighbors to wonder about their new neighbor.

Today, flamingos come in many assorted colors and themes, including Husky mascot colors.   While reminiscing with Dr. Tukey at the Celebration, he remarked how much we were all full of the new doctrine for urban horticulture in the 1980’s, but the addition of the plastic flamingos brought us back to our relevancy to the urban environment.   Recently two of my new neighbors have been officially “Flocked” through a legitimate business.  While ‘Xylem’ and ‘Phloem’ have long disintegrated, their prototypes live on.

Modern garden flamingos, on display at a celebration of Dr. Tukey's founding of the Center for Urban Horticulture, April 2015

Modern garden flamingos, on display at a celebration of Dr. Tukey and the founding of the Center for Urban Horticulture, April 2015

More festive flamingos from the April celebration

More festive flamingos from the April celebration

Restoration and Renewal in the Goodfellow Grove

May 11th, 2015 by Rosemary Baker
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Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) and white western redbud (Cercis occidentalis alba) in April bloom

It’s spring and time for a full on revival in the Center for Urban Horticulture’s Goodfellow Grove!  Dedicated to the late Marilou Goodfellow, the Grove was designed to demonstrate the use of native plants in a transitional landscape and is aptly located between the formal ornamental gardens in and around the Center for Urban Horticulture and the “wilderness” of the Union Bay Natural Area.

As a former UW Botanic Gardens graduate student, a botanist and restoration ecologist, and landscape designer specializing in native plants with horticultural appeal, I am thankful for the opportunity as the new gardener assigned to the grove.

We are working on re-defining original beds and pathways, taming and radically renovating shrubs and trees, and will be installing beautiful true native/native cultivar wildflowers and groundcovers for the upcoming summer events season.  If you see me, ask me about wild foraging – there are some native edibles in the grove and even the weeds are delicious…

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The serviceberry grove (Amelanchier x grandiflora) in full April

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Cardamine oligosperma also known as bittercress or shot-weed is an edible green great for mixed salads

Comprehensive Audit of Hyde Herbarium Now Complete

May 5th, 2015 by UWBG Communication Staff

By Eve Rickenbaker, Otis Douglas Hyde Herbarium manager and School of Environmental and Forest Sciences graduate student

The herbarium specimen of Pseudotsuga menziesii,  beloved Douglas fir of the Pacific Northwest, is just one of 22,500 specimens in our Otis Douglas Hyde Herbarium collection at the University of Washington Botanic Gardens.  During the last two and half years, a group of dedicated volunteers logged close to 1,200 hours in the herbarium completing an audit of the entire collection.

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Ross Bayton in the Hyde Herbarium with a Douglas fir specimen

Ross Bayton, our 2014 UW Botanic Gardens’ Volunteer of the Year, led the audit by generously giving 680 hours of his time.  With Ross’s botanical knowledge and expertise, he checked each of the 22,500 specimens for accuracy while adding information from each specimen into our database and organizing the collection to match current classification. Ross came to the herbarium during the fall of 2012 from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, where he earned a PhD in plant taxonomy.  In addition to Ross’s work, twenty-three students and community volunteers* committed over 500 hours working on the audit from October 2012 until now, April 2015.

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Eve Rickenbaker, Herbarium Manager, would like to thank Ross and each of the 23 herbarium volunteers who completed this project.

The pressed plant specimens of the Otis Douglas Hyde Herbarium reflect the research of faculty, staff and students at the UW Botanic Gardens.  The Herbarium includes specimens from the Washington Park Arboretum, horticulturally significant plants, and the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board collection.  We offer free plant identification services and many volunteer opportunities.  Come see us in the Herbarium at the UW Botanic Gardens Center for Urban Horticulture to see specimens such as the Douglas fir and other interesting pressed plants.

*Herbarium audit volunteers:

Larisa Campos
Kathryn Christensen
Loretta Fisher
Cole Gross
Kezhu Guo
Janice Jap
Mary Lee
Aileen Liu
Austin Lucas
Susan McDougall
Margaret McGrew
Sasha McGuire
Patricia Nevin
Loni Jean Rodrigo
Heidi Sandhorst
Paul Schloemer
Lisa Schomaker
Sarah Verlinde
Alex Von Bredow
Gabe Wisswaesser
Emily Wittenhagen
Jenny Yang
Boyang Zhao

Glimpse into the Past – Thirty Years of Horticultural Outreach

March 31st, 2015 by UWBG Communication Staff

By John A. Wott, Director Emeritus.

When the Center for Urban Horticulture was established in the early 1980s, one of the programmatic goals was to create and carry out a comprehensive public outreach program into the community for gardeners and professionals. The University of Washington is not part of the federal land grant system and thus receives no federal or state monies for such programs, as is the case for Washington State University. Thus any resources and programs developed had to be self-supporting.

Private funds were found to assemble the buildings on the UW East campus, which were built from 1984-1987. The addition of the Graham Visitors Center in 1986 at the Washington Park Arboretum added an additional site for Arboretum focused programs.  As programs grew, so did the staff to support them.  In the late 1980s and 1990s,  the annual total number of participants in classes, facility inquiry visits, tours, school programs, telephone inquiries, public open houses, library visits, as well as community lectures and tours at both the Center for Urban Horticulture and Washington Park Arboretum reached into the thousands.

The addition of Washington State Master Gardening clinics, classes and lectures greatly expanded both community gardening and professional landscape and nursery programs.  The school programs increased at the Washington Park Arboretum. Both programs became year round.  In the 1990’s, we often boasted that we were “second” in UW community outreach numbers, although quite some distance behind the UW Athletic events.

Since the beginning and continuing today, these programs have been lead by a talented group of staff.   Many people have started their careers with us and then gone onto “greener pastures,” making their mark throughout the country.

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Early outreach staff at the Center for Urban Horticulture in 1992: Jean Robins – Office Coordinator and Administrator; Larry Vickerman – graduate student and Class Coordinator; Dave Stockdale – Outreach Coordinator; Lynda Ransley – GVC Manager and Washington Park Arboretum Program Leader; Fran (Trinder) Myer – Budget and Fiscal Analyst; Rebecca Johnson – Building Rental Coordinator

In thirty years, there have been changes in the horticulture outreach environment:  public budgets have decreased; there is now a plethora of gardening information on the internet; and there is increasing emphasis on environmental, conservation, and restoration issues.  The baby boomer generation is retiring and today’s consumers have less interest in large gardens although they are more food and environmentally conscious.

Annual reports of specific numbers and program themes are archived in both the Miller Library and UW Archives.  The included photos are one glimpse of the continuing education and outreach staff  taken in December 1992.

staff photo

Early staff for Center for Urban Horticulture outreach program in 1992: Jean Robins – Office Coordinator and Administrator; Larry Vickerman – grad student and Class Coordinator; Professor John Wott, Faculty Supervisor; Lynda Ransley – GVC Manager and Washington Park Arboretum Program Leader; Fran (Trinder) Myer – Budget and Fiscal Analyst; Rebecca Johnson – Building Rental Coordinator.

Encouraging Native Pollinators at the UW Farm

March 27th, 2015 by Jenelle Clark

University of Washington graduate student Nicolette Neumann Levi is looking for ways to bring more native pollinators to the UW Farm. Nicolette recently obtained a $1,000 UW Campus Sustainability Fund (UWCSF) grant to help support the installation of several new native pollinator plantings at the UW Farm, Center for Urban Horticulture site. Nicolette is embarking on this endeavor as part of her thesis project as a candidate for the Master of Environmental Horticulture degree. Her funding will support the installation of a herbaceous perennial garden with plantings specifically chosen to attract native pollinators, as well as a pollinator hedge that will further provide food and habitat for beneficial pollinator insects.

Nicolette_1

Recently Nicolette had the opportunity to meet with UWBG curation staff and horticulturists to discuss plant choices, especially options that would be easy to grow and maintain while providing the most benefit to the pollinators. Some of the preliminary plant ideas include grasses, violets, trilliums, sunflowers, and irises for the herbaceous perennial gardens, and evergreen huckleberry and grasses for the hedgerow. The concept is to use all local, native plantings in these gardens to lower maintenance needs and avoid the requirement to directly irrigate.

Work on the project will start this spring with the preparation and planting of two patches at the north end of the farm for perennial flowers. Over the summer, Nicolette also plans to install plastic film to solarize the areas at the southern edge of the farm where the pollinator hedge is slated to be planted. This will utilize passive solar heat to remove pests and pathogens prior to planting.

Working with Native Pollinators

By planting exclusively native plants, Nicolette hopes to attract a wide variety of the native pollinators found in the Seattle area. “The idea is to use native plants to attract what would naturally be around the [local] area.” she explains. Some of the local pollinators she is hoping to see more of at the Farm include honey bees, orchard mason bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. While each of these pollinators have specific native plants that they prefer, Nicolette is utilizing a diverse palette of plants with blooming times staggered throughout the growing season to try to consistently attract as many pollinators as possible. “Overall it’s healthier to have a more diverse mix of insect,” she explains.

Nicolette is hoping that by bringing in a diverse mix of pollinators it will have measurable impacts on the Farm’s overall crop yield too. She will be measuring this impact as a part of her thesis work, as well as continuing to do frequent pollinator counts to see if her efforts are making a difference. Nicolette does have high hopes for the impact the perennial gardens and pollinator hedge will have on the UW Farm:

“Many farms will have to bring in on a yearly basis a box of bees. By trying to attract the native pollinators you don’t have to do that and spend all that money every year. You can maintain the populations and have a place for them to overwinter. It saves money.”

Not only will the plants in the garden and hedge provide pollen for the pollinators, they will also be chosen to support these beneficial insects in their various life-stages (i.e. larval, such as a caterpillar) and provide food, habitat, shelter, and hiding for adults. The hope is that these new plantings will also provide over-wintering habitat for the pollinators so that the Farm can start to grow a larger base population of pollinators right where they need them

A Network of Green Spaces

One of the challenges facing pollinators today, especially in urban areas like Seattle, is habitat fragmentation and the loss of green spaces. An exciting possible benefit of this project is its ability to provide a vital patch of habitat, for many types of pollinators, right in the heart of the University District. “The flight range or movement [for pollinators] between different patches is not so big, so you end up with these isolated patches,” Nicolette explains. “You miss out on the opportunity to have pollinators moving through a mosaic of habitat patches. Having one more pollinator garden adds one more place for the population to move to and grow”.

Pollinator Garden

National groups such as the Pollinator Pathway and the Xerces Society are working to bring awareness to the importance of habitat patches and are focused on promoting more urban gardens with plantings tailored towards the needs of native pollinators. Home gardeners can get involved too and help to provide vital habitat patches by fine-tuning their own growing spaces to meet the needs of more pollinators. Nicolette recommends that home gardeners, “try to use plants that would naturally be growing [in our region] and blooms that are in a variety of colors.” She also encourages, “using plants that bloom at different times during the growing season,” to consistently attract pollinators throughout the season. Bee boxes, such as those made for mason bees, could be something a home gardener could use.

The most important thing is to make sure that the plants chosen match up well with the needs of our local pollinators. Starting with native plants is a good place to begin, but Nicolette also recommends checking with your local nursery or gardening outreach program (like the Center for Urban Horticulture) to get more ideas and guidance with setting up your own pollinator garden.

The Elisabeth C. Miller Library has a list of recommended books on Pollinators and Pollination.

Glimpse into the Past – Celebrating the Founder of the Center for Urban Horticulture

March 5th, 2015 by UWBG Communication Staff

By John Wott, Director Emeritus

In those divisive times of the late 1960’s and 1970’s, many new ideas began to form regarding how to live on, properly use, and safeguard the resources on our earth. This included groups from the “flower children” to academics. Learned horticulturists, botanists, and academics in the Northwest created a plan which called for the creation of a new academic unit at the University of Washington to be called the Center for Urban Horticulture. It would be different from traditional production horticulture which had been taught for hundreds of years.   Instead it would bring disciplines together which seldom or never interacted.

The Center for Urban Horticulture, the first of its kind in the world, and thereafter copied around the world, officially began its life when Professor Harold B. Tukey, Jr, from Cornell University arrived as its founding director in May 1980. Dr. Tukey’s family, including father and brothers, were well known in the horticulture academic arena. He first worked along with an administrator, Sally Dickman, in an office in Anderson Hall on the UW campus. He also was UW director of the Washington Park Arboretum and directed that staff, headed by Joseph A. Witt, curator. In 1981, two new faculty arrived: myself, John A. Wott, from Purdue University in April, and James A. Clark, from Rutgers University in June.

The initial promise of full state funds soon evaporated as the State of Washington rapidly slipped into a recession and all hope of state funds for building and future program building was futile. Never daunted, Dr. Tukey, aided by the good will of Provost George Beckman (who did provide what seed money he could), along with community horticulture stalwarts such as Elisabeth Carey (Betty) Miller began a campaign to raise the millions of dollars needed privately. As you now see today, they were successful. CUH, now a part of the University of Washington Botanic Gardens, is an invaluable resource in the Northwest as well as nationally and internationally.

The accompanying pictures show scenes from the Ground Breaking Ceremony for the original Merrill Hall in 1983.

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Elisabeth Carey Miller, Prentice Bloedel, Dr. Harold B. Tukey Jr. with their Champagne glasses at the ground breaking ceremony for the original Merrill Hall, 1983

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Front row: Eulalie Merrill Wagner, Virginia Merrill Bloedel, Prentice Bloedel, Mary Gates, Marilee Boyd, Elisabeth Miller, George Beckman, William Gerberding, Mrs. Harold Tukey.
(center 2nd row, Marvin Black)