Professor of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology, Medicine and Pathobiology

University of Washington School of Medicine



Harvard College - A.B. magna cum laude in Biology, 1979

Harvard Medical School - M.D., 1983



1983 to 1986 - Intern/ Resident, Department of Medicine, U. of California San Diego (UCSD)

1986 to 1987 - Chief Resident, Department of Medicine, UCSD

1987 to 1990 - Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, UCSD

1987 to 1989 - Post-doctoral Fellow, UCSD, Laboratory of Donald Helinski

1989 to 1992 - Post-doctoral Fellow, UCSD, Laboratory of Donald Guiney

1990 to 1992 - Adjunct Instructor of Medicine, UCSD

1992 to 1997 - Assistant Professor of Medicine, Pathology, & Microbiology, U. of Colorado (UCHSC)

1992 to 2001 - Director, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, University of Colorado Hospital

1996 to 2001 - Member, NIH Bacteriology-Mycology 1 Study Section

1997 to 2001 - Associate Professor of Medicine, Pathology, and Microbiology, UCHSC

2001 to present - Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Microbiology, U. of Washington

2001 to present - Director, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Harborview Medical Center

2002 to present - Adjunct Professor of Medicine, U. of Washington

2003 to present - Director, NIH T32 Training Program in Bacterial Pathogenesis

2010 - Ad hoc Reviewer, NIH Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Research Committee

2011 to present - Adjunct Professor of Pathobiology, U. of Washington



National Merit Scholar, 1975

Phi Beta Kappa, 1979

Kaiser Permanente Teaching Awards, 1985 & 1987

NIH Physician-Scientist Award, 1987-1992

UCSD Senior and Chief Residents' Teaching Awards, 1992

ASM Baxter Diagnostics MicroScan Young Investigator Award, 1994

UCHSC Outstanding Infectious Diseases Educator Award, 1995

American Society for Clinical Investigation, elected 1998

MidWest Microbial Pathogenesis Meeting Keynote Speaker, 1998

James Biundo Foundation Award, 1998 and 1999

ASM Division B Lecturer, 2000

Vice-Chair, ASM General Meeting, 2001-2004

Advisory Editor, Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2002-2005

Editor, Infection and Immunity, 2002-2007

Harry F. Dowling Lecturer, Univ. of Illinois, 2003

Chair, ASM General Meeting, 2004-2007

Abraham I. Braude Visiting Professor, UCSD, 2005

Editor-In-Chief, Infection and Immunity, 2007-2017

American Academy of Microbiology, elected 2007

Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research Visiting Lecturer, 2009

Keynote Speaker, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan, 2009

Keynote Speaker, DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, Canada, 2009

Co-Chair, 3rd International ASM Conference on Salmonella, France, 2009

Keynote Speaker, FEMS-ESCMID Conference on Salmonella, Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, 2010

Neidhardt-Freter Lecturer, University of Michigan, 2011


PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS (in chronological order, excluding abstracts).

1. Benson, R.F., W.L. Thacker, F.C. Fang, B.Kanter, W.R. Mayberry, & D.J. Brenner. Legionella sainthelensi serogroup 2 isolated from patients with pneumonia. Res Microbiol 141:453-63, 1990.

2. Durland, R.H., A. Toukdarian, F. Fang & D.R. Helinski. Mutations in the trfA replication gene of the broad host range plasmid RK2 result in elevated plasmid copy numbers. J Bacteriol 172:3859-67, 1990.

3. Krekorian, T.D., A.B. Radner, J.M. Alcorn, P. Haghighi, & F.C. Fang. Systemic epithelioid angiomatosis: a treatable cause of biliary tract obstruction in a patient with AIDS. Am J Med 89:820-2, 1990.

4. Fang, F.C. & D.R. Helinski. Broad host-range properties of plasmid RK2: the importance of overlapping genes encoding the plasmid replication initiation protein TrfA. J Bacteriol 173:5861-8, 1991.

5. Fang, F.C., M. Krause, C. Roudier, J. Fierer & D.G. Guiney. Growth regulation of a Salmonella plasmid gene essential for virulence. J Bacteriol 173:6783-9, 1991.

6. Fang, F.C. & J. Fierer. Human infection with Salmonella dublin. Medicine 70:198-207, 1991.

7. Fang, F.C., S.J. Libby, N.A. Buchmeier, P.C. Loewen, J. Switala, J. Harwood, and D.G. Guiney. The alternative sigma factor KatF (RpoS) regulates Salmonella virulence, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:11978-82, 1992.

8. Fang, F.C., D.J. Looney, M. Krause, J. Fierer & D. Guiney. Expression of HIV antigens in Salmonella. Vaccine Res 1:265-73, 1992.

9. Krause, M., F.C. Fang, and D. Guiney. Regulation of plasmid virulence gene expression in Salmonella dublin involves an unusual operon structure. J Bacteriol 174:4482-9, 1992.

10. Fang, F.C. Use of tetracycline for treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infections. Clin Infect Dis 15:1071, 1992.

11. Miyamoto, M. and F.C. Fang. Hepatic actinomycosis. case report and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 16:303-9, 1993.

12. Fang, F.C., J. Welsh, D.G. Guiney, M. Jackson, A.I. Hartstein, V.H. Morthland, C.E. Davis, D.C. McPherson, and M. McClelland. Value of molecular epidemiologic analysis in a nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak. JAMA 270:1323-8, 1993.

13. Fierer, J., L. Eckmann, F. Fang, C. Pfeifer, B.B. Finlay, and D. Guiney. Expression of the Salmonella virulence plasmid gene spvB In cultured macrophages and non-phagocytic cells. J Bacteriol 61:5231-6, 1993.

14. Fang, F.C., R.H. Durland & D.R. Helinski. Mutations in the replication protein gene of RK2 produce elevated copy numbers of RK2 plasmid derivatives in Escherichia coli and distantly related bacteria. Gene 133:1-8, 1993.

15. Libby, S.J., W. Goebel, A. Ludwig, N. Buchmeier, F.C. Fang, D. Guiney, F. Bowe, J.G. Songer and F. Heffron. A cytolytic toxin encoded by Salmonella is required for virulence and survival within macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:489-93, 1994.

16. O'Neal, C.R., W.M. Gabriel, A.K. Turk, F.C. Fang, and M.P. Spector. RpoS is necessary for both the positive and negative regulation of starvation-survival genes during phosphate-, carbon-, and nitrogen-starvation in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol 176:4610-6, 1994.

17. Prince, R.W., Y.S. Xu, S.J. Libby, and F.C. Fang. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the RpoS sigma factor from Salmonella typhimurium 14028s.Bioch Biophys Acta 1219:198-200, 1994.

18. Fang, F.C. and N. Madinger. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile disease. N Engl J Med 330:1754, 1994.

19. Fang, F.C. and S.D. Freedman. Mycobacterium avium Complex and Other Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections. Chapter 132 in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th edition. K.J. Isselbacher, E. Braunwald, J.D. Wilson, J.B. Martin, A.S. Fauci, and D.L. Kasper, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 722-6, 1994.

20. Volkert, M.R., L.I. Hajec, Z. Matijasevic, F.C. Fang, and R. Prince. Anaerobic induction of the Escherichia coli aidB gene requires a functional rpoS (katF) gene. J Bacteriol 176:7638-45, 1994.

21. Guiney, D.G., F.C. Fang, M. Krause and S. Libby. Plasmid-mediated virulence genes in non-typhoid Salmonella serovars. FEMS Microbiol Letters 124:1-9, 1994.

22. Buchmeier, N.A., S.J. Libby, Y. Xu, P.C. Loewen, J. Switala, D.G. Guiney, and F.C. Fang. DNA repair is more important than catalase for Salmonella virulence. J Clin Invest 95:1047-53, 1995.

23. DeGroote, M.A., D. Granger, Y. Xu, G. Campbell, R. Prince and F.C. Fang. Genetic and redox determinants of nitric oxide cytotoxicity in a Salmonella typhimurium model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 92:6399-403, 1995.

24. Guiney, D.G., S.J. Libby, F.C. Fang, M. Krause, and J. Fierer. Growth and environmental conditions that regulate Salmonella virulence gene expression. Trends in Microbiol 3:275-9, 1995.

25. Krause, M., F.C. Fang, A. El-Gedaily, S. Libby, and D.G. Guiney. Mutational analysis of SpvR-binding to DNA and identification of short-chain fatty acids as inducers in the regulation of the Salmonella plasmid virulence operon, Plasmid 34:37-47, 1995.

26. Chen, C.Y., N.A. Buchmeier, S. Libby, F.C. Fang, M. Krause and D.G. Guiney. Central regulatory role for the RpoS sigma factor in expression of Salmonella dublin plasmid virulence genes. J Bacteriol 177:5303-9, 1995.

27. DeGroote, M.A. and F.C. Fang. NO inhibitions: antimicrobial properties of nitric oxide. Clin Infect Dis 21:S162-5, 1995.

28. Guiney, D.G., F.C. Fang, M. Krause, S. Libby, N.A. Buchmeier, and J. Fierer. Biology and clinical significance of virulence plasmids in Salmonella. Clin Infect Dis 21:S146-51, 1995.

29. Berggren, R., A. Wunderlich, E.J. Ziegler, M. Schleicher, R.C. Duke, D. Looney, and F.C. Fang. HIV gp120-specific cell-mediated immune responses in mice after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella. J AIDS 10:489-95, 1995.

30. Fang, F.C. and N. Madinger. Resistant nosocomial gram-negative pathogens: Acinetobacter baumannii, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas cepacia. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 16:52-83, 1996.

31. Gass, R., J. Fisher, D. Badesch, M. Zamora, A. Weinberg, H. Melsness, F. Glover, J.G. Tully and F.C. Fang. Donor-to-host transmission of Mycoplasma hominis in lung allograft recipients. Clin Infect Dis 22:567-8, 1996.

32. De Groote, M.A., T. Testerman, Y. Xu, G. Stauffer, and F.C. Fang. Homocysteine antagonism of nitric oxide-related cytostasis in Salmonella typhimurium. Science 272:414-7, 1996.

33. Fang, F.C., C.Y. Chen, D.G. Guiney, and Y.S. Xu. Identification of RpoS-regulated genes in Salmonella typhimurium: complementary regulatory interactions between RpoS and CRP. J Bacteriol 170:5112-20, 1996.

34. Fang, F.C., D.N. Gerding and L.R. Peterson. Diagnostic value of culture in Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Ann Intern Med 125:515, 1996.

35. Anderson, M. and F.C. Fang. Bacterial Infections. In: Critical Care. Civetta, J.M., R.W. Taylor and R.R. Kirby, eds. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, pp. 1657-84, 1996.

36. Chen, C.Y., L. Eckmann, S.J. Libby, F.C. Fang, S. Okamoto, M.F. Kagnoff, J. Fierer, and D.G. Guiney. Expression of Salmonella typhimurium rpoS and rpoS-dependent genes in the intracellular environment of eukaryotic cells. Infect Immun 64:4739-43, 1996.

37. Fang, F.C. Mechanisms of nitric oxide-related antimicrobial activity. J Clin Invest 99:2818-25, 1997.

38. Buchmeier, N., S. Bossie, C.Y. Chen, F.C. Fang, D.G. Guiney and S.J. Libby. SlyA, a transcriptional regulator of Salmonella typhimurium, is required for resistance to oxidative stress and is expressed in the intracellular environment of macrophages. Infect Immun 65:3725-30, 1997.

39. Fang, F.C., A. Vazquez-Torres and Y. Xu. The transcriptional regulator SoxS is required for resistance of Salmonella typhimurium to cytosolic superoxide but not for virulence in mice. Infect Immun 65:5371-5, 1997.

40. De Groote, M.A., U.A. Ochsner, M. Shiloh, C. Nathan, J.M. McCord, M.C. Dinauer, S.J. Libby, A. Vazquez-Torres, Y. Xu and F.C. Fang. Periplasmic Superoxide Dismutase Protects Salmonella from Products of Phagocyte Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:13997-4001, 1997.

41. Bisognano, J.D., B. Young, J.M. Brown, E.A. Gill, F.C. Fang, and L.S. Zisman. Diverse presesntation of aberrant origin of the right subclavian artery: two case reports. Chest 112:1693-7, 1997.

42. Fang, F.C. NO contest: understanding the complex roles of nitric oxide in infection. ASM News 63:668-73, 1997.

43. Hensel, M., S. Waterman, J.E. Shea, T. Nikolaus, R. Mundy, G. Banks, A. Vazquez-Torres, F.C. Fang, C. Gleeson, and D.W. Holden. Mutational analysis of genes encoding effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Molec Microbiol 30:163-74, 1998.

44. Madinger, N.E., E.W. Koneman, and F.C. Fang. Infections caused by Fungi and Actinomycetes. In: Principles of Medical Therapy in Pregnancy. Gall, S. ed. 3rd edition. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1998.

45. Marovich, M.A. and F.C. Fang. Important Parasitic Infections in the United States. In: Infectious Disease Secrets. Gates, R.H. ed., Hanley & Belfus, 1998.

46. Lundberg, B.E., R.E. Wolf, Jr., M.C. Dinauer, Y.S. Xu, and F.C. Fang. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for Salmonella typhimurium virulence and resistance to reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Infect Immun 67:436-438, 1999.

47. Shiloh, M.U., J. MacMicking, S. Nicholson, J. Brause, S. Potter, F. Fang, M. Marino, L. Old, M. Dinauer, and C. Nathan. Bactericidal activity of mice and macrophages deficient in both NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Immunity 10:29-38, 1999.

48. Fang, F.C., M.A. DeGroote, J.W. Foster, A.J. Bäumler, U. Ochsner, T. Testerman, S. Bearson, J.C. Giárd, Y. Xu, G. Campbell, and T. Laessig. Virulent Salmonella typhimurium has two periplasmic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 96:7502-7, 1999.

49. Vazquez-Torres, A., J. Jones-Carson, A.J. Bäumler, S. Falkow, R. Valdivia, W. Brown, M. Le, R. Berggren, W.T. Parks, and F.C. Fang. Extraintestinal dissemination of Salmonella via CD18-expressing phagocytes. Nature 401:804-8, 1999.

50. Lu, S., A.R. Manges, Y. Xu, F.C. Fang, and L.W. Riley. Analysis of virulence of clinical isolates of Salmonella enteritidis in vivo and in vitro. Infect. Immun. 67:5651-7, 1999.

51. Fang, F.C., ed. Nitric Oxide and Infection. New York: Plenum, 1999.

52. Fang, F.C. An Overview of Nitric Oxide in Infection. In: Fang, F.C., ed., Nitric Oxide and Infection. New York: Plenum, pp. 3-9, 1999.

53. De Groote, M.A. and F.C. Fang. Antimicrobial Properties of Nitric Oxide. In: Fang, F.C., ed., Nitric Oxide and Infection, New York: Plenum, pp. 231-261, 1999. 54.

Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Therapeutic Applications of Nitric Oxide in Infection. In: Fang, F.C., ed., Nitric Oxide and Infection, New York: Plenum, pp. 475-488, 1999.

55. Cotton, M.F., E. Wasserman, C.H. Pieper, D.C. Theron, D. van Tubbergh, G. Campbell, F.C. Fang, and J. Barnes. An outbreak of invasive disease due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal unit: the possible role of cockroaches. J. Hosp. Infect. 44:13-7, 2000.

56. Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Cellular routes of invasion by enteropathogens. Current Opinion in Microbiology 3:54-9, 2000.

57. Vazquez-Torres, A., Y. Xu, D. Holden, S. Lucia, M. Dinauer, P. Mastroeni and F.C. Fang. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2)-dependent evasion of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Science 287:1655-8, 2000.

58. Vazquez-Torres, A., J. Jones-Carson, P. Mastroeni, H. Ischiropoulos and F.C. Fang. Antimicrobial actions of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental salmonellosis. I. Effects on microbial killing by activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 192:227-37, 2000.

59. Mastroeni, P., A. Vazquez-Torres, F.C. Fang, Y. Xu, S. Khan, C.E. Hormaeche and G. Dougan. Antimicrobial actions of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental salmonellosis. II. Effects on microbial proliferation and host survival in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 192:237-47, 2000.

60. Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Mechanisms of Resistance to NO-related Antibacterial Activity. In: Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, 3rd edition. J.A. Roth, ed. Washington: ASM Press, pp. 131-142, 2000.

61. Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Salmonella Pathogenesis: The Trojan Horse or the New York shuttle?-- Reply. Gastroenterology 118:805, 2000.

62. Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Oxygen-dependent anti-Salmonella activity of macrophages. Trends Microbiol. 9:29-33, 2001.

63. Vazquez-Torres, A., G. Fantuzzi, D. Holden, C. Edwards 3d, C. Dinarello and F.C. Fang. Defective localization of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase to Salmonella-containing phagosomes in TNFp55 receptor-deficient macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2561-5, 2001.

64. Allen, C.A., P.J. Fedorka-Cray, A. Vazquez-Torres, M. Suyemoto, C. Altier, L.R. Ryder, F.C. Fang and S.J. Libby. An in vitro and in vivo assessment of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 virulence. Infect Immun 69:4673-4677, 2001.

65. Piddington, D.L., F.C. Fang, T. Laessig, A.M. Cooper, I.M. Orme and N.A. Buchmeier. The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for resistance to superoxide-dependent cytotoxicitiy and survival in activated macrophages. Infect Immun 69:4980-4987, 2001.

66. Hickman-Davis, J.M., F.C. Fang, C. Nathan, V.L. Shepard, D.R. Voelker and J.R. Wright. Lung surfactant and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: antimicrobial activity and host/pathogen interactions within the lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281:L517-L523, 2001.

67. Méresse, S., K.E. Unsworth, S.R. Waterman, M.J. Martínez-Lorenzo, F. Fang, A. Habermann, G. Griffiths, J.P. Gorvel and D.W. Holden. Actin assembly is induced by intracellular Salmonella and is involved in the maintenance of its vacuolar membrane. Cell Microbiol 3:567-577, 2001.

68. Stamler, J.S., S. Lamas and F.C. Fang. Nitrosylation: the prototypic redox-based signaling mechanism. Cell 106:675-683, 2001.

69. Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Salmonella evasion of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase. Microbes and Infection 3:1313-1320, 2001.

70. Lu, S., P.B. Killoran, F.C. Fang and L.W. Riley. Global regulator ArcA controls resistance to reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates in Salmonella enteritidis. Infect Immun 70:451-461, 2002.

71. Testerman, T.L., A. Vazquez-Torres, Y. Xu, J. Jones-Carson, M.U. Shiloh, C. Nathan, and F.C. Fang. The alternative sigma factor σE controls antioxidant defenses required for Salmonella virulence and stationary phase survival. Mol Microbiol 43:771-782, 2002.

72. Fang, F.C. and A. Vazquez-Torres. Nitric oxide production by human macrophages: There's NO doubt about it. Am J Physiol 282:L941-3, 2002.

73. Fang, F.C. and A. Vazquez-Torres. Salmonella selectively stops traffic. Trends Microbiol 10:391-2, 2002.

74. Schapiro J., S. J. Libby, and F.C. Fang. Inhibition of bacterial DNA replication by zinc mobilization during nitrosative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8496-8501, 2003.

75. Bader, M.W., W.W. Navarre, W. Siau, H. Nikaido, J. Frye, M. McClelland, F.C. Fang and S.I. Miller. Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene expression by cationic antimicrobial peptides. Mol Microbiol 50:219-230, 2003.

76. Halsey, T.A., A. Vazquez-Torres, D. Gravdahl, F.C. Fang and S.J. Libby. The ferritin-like Dps protein is required for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium oxidative stress resistance and virulence. Infect Immun 72:1155-1158, 2004.

77. Vazquez-Torres, A., B.A. Vallance, M.A. Bergman, B.B. Finlay, B.T. Cookson, J. Jones-Carson and F.C. Fang. TLR4-dependence of innate and adaptive immunity to Salmonella: importance of the Kupffer cell network. J Immunol 172:6202-6208, 2004.

78. Zaharik, M.L., V.L. Cullen, A.M. Fung, S.J. Libby, S.L. Kujat Choy, B. Coburn, D.G. Kehres, M.E. Maguire, F.C. Fang and B.B. Finlay. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium divalent cation transport systems MntH and SitABCD are essential for virulence in an Nramp1G169 murine typhoid model. Infect Immun 72:5522-5525, 2004.

79. Fang, F.C. Phagocyte antimicrobial actions of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: current concepts and controversies, Nature Rev Microbiol 2:820-832, 2004.

80. Pottumarthy, S., J.M. Schapiro, J.L. Prentice, Y.B. Houze, S.R. Swanzy, F.C. Fang and B.T. Cookson. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius masquerading as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 42:5881-5884, 2004.

81. Fang, F.C., editor. Host Response section. In: EcoSal. Curtiss, R. III, ed. Washington: ASM Press, 2004.

82. Fang, F.C., N. Sandler and S.J. Libby. Liver abscess caused by magA+ Klebsiella pneumoniae in North America. J Clin Microbiol 43:991-992, 2005.

83. Navarre, W.W., T.A. Halsey, D. Walthers, J. Frye, M. McClelland, J.L. Potter, L. Kenney, J.S. Gunn, F.C. Fang and S.J. Libby. Regulation of Salmonella enterica genes required for virulence and resistance to antimicrobial peptides by SlyA and PhoP/PhoQ. Mol Microbiol 56:492-508, 2005.

84. Fang, F.C. Sigma cascades in prokaryotic regulatory networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:4933-4934, 2005.

85. Crouch, M.L., L.A. Becker, I.S. Bang, H. Tanabe, A.J. Ouellette and F.C. Fang. The alternative sigma factor σE is required for resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to antimicrobial peptides. Mol Microbiol 56:789-799, 2005.

86. Bang, I.S., J.G. Frye, M. McClelland, J. Velayudhan and F.C. Fang. Alternative sigma factor interactions in Salmonella: σE and σH promote antioxidant defenses by enhancing σS levels. Mol Microbiol 56:811-823, 2005.

87. Fang, F.C., S.J. Libby, M.E. Castor and A.M. Fung. Isocitrate lyase (AceA) is required for Salmonella persistence but not for acute lethal infection in mice. Infect Immun 73:2547-2549, 2005.

88. Becker, L.A., I.S. Bang, M.L. Crouch and F.C. Fang. Compensatory role of PspA, a member of the phage shock protein operon, in rpoE mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol 56:1004-1016, 2005.

89. Monsieurs, P., K. Marchal, S. De Keersmaecker, W. Navarre, M. Bader, F. De Smet, M. McClelland, F. Fang, B. De Moor and J. Vanderleyden. Comparison of the PhoPQ regulon in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Mol Evol 60:462-474, 2005.

90. Vazquez-Torres, A. and F.C. Fang. Nitric oxide in Salmonella and E. coli infections. In: EcoSal, Curtiss, R. III, ed. Washington: ASM Press, 2005.

91. Onufryk, C., J. West, M. Crouch, F.C. Fang and C. Gross. Characterization of six lipoproteins in the σE regulon. J Bacteriol 187:4552-4561, 2005.

92. Jones-Carson, J., G. Fantuzzi, B. Siegmund, C. Dinarello, K.J. Tracey, H. Wang, F.C. Fang, and A. Vazquez-Torres. Suppressor αβ T lymphocytes control innate resistance to endotoxic shock. J Infect Dis 192:1039-1046, 2005.

93. Navarre, W.W., S. Porwollik, Y. Wang, M. McClelland, H. Rosen, S.J. Libby and F.C. Fang. Selective silencing of foreign DNA with low GC content by the H-NS protein in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. Science 313:236-238, 2006.

94. Richardson, A.R., P.M. Dunman and F.C. Fang. The nitrosative stress response of Staphylococcus aureus is required for resistance to innate immunity. Mol Microbiol 61:927-939, 2006.

95. Bang, I.S., L. Liu, A. Vazquez-Torres, M.L. Crouch, J.S. Stamler and F.C. Fang. Maintenance of nitric oxide and redox homeostasis by the Salmonella flavohemoglobin Hmp. J Biol Chem 281:28039-28047, 2006.

96. Velayudhan, J., A. Richardson, K.L. Main-Hester, M. Castor and F.C. Fang. The unique role of ferritin B in iron-sulfur cluster repair and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol 63:1495-1507, 2007.

97. Navarre, W.W., M. McClelland, S.J. Libby and F.C. Fang. Silencing of xenogeneic DNA by H-NS—Facilitation of lateral gene transfer by a bacterial defense against foreign DNA. Genes Dev 21:1456-1471, 2007.

98. Fang, F.C. and C.F. Nathan. Man is not a mouse-- Reply. J Leukocyt Biol 81:580, 2007.

99. Walthers D., R. Carroll, W.W. Navarre, S.J. Libby, F.C. Fang and L.J. Kenney. The response regulator SsrB activates expression of diverse Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 promoters and counters silencing by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. Mol Microbiol 65:477-493, 2007.

100. Crouch, M.L., M. Castor, J.E. Karlinsey, T. Kalhorn and F.C. Fang. Biosynthesis and IroC-dependent export of the siderophore salmochelin are essential for virulence of Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol 67:971-983, 2008.

101. Main-Hester, K.L., K.M. Colpitts, G.A. Thomas, F.C. Fang and S.J. Libby. Coordinate regulation of Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 (SPI1) and 4 (SPI4) in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. Infect Immun 76:1024-1035, 2008.

102. Richardson, A.R., J.E. Karlinsey, N. Younger, E. Payne, W.W. Navarre, M.E. Castor, L.A. Becker and F.C. Fang. A nitric oxide-inducible lactate dehydrogenase enables Staphylococcus aureus to resist innate immunity. Science 319:1672-1676, 2008.

103. Fang, F.C. and Rimsky, S. New insights into transcriptional regulation by H-NS. Curr Opin Microbiol 11:113-120, 2008.

104. Vazquez-Torres A., T. Stevanin, J. Jones-Carson, M. Castor, R.C. Read and F.C. Fang. Analysis of NO·-dependent antimicrobial actions in macrophages and mice. Methods Enzymol 437:521-538, 2008.

105. Ammendola, S., P. Pasquali, F. Pacello, G. Rotilio, M. Castor, S.J. Libby, L. Bossi, F.C. Fang and A. Battistoni. Regulatory and structural differences in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases of Salmonella enterica and their significance for virulence. J Biol Chem 283:13688-16399, 2008.

106. Papp-Wallace, K.M., M. Nartea, D.G. Kehres, S. Porwollik, M. McClelland, S.J. Libby, F.C. Fang and M.E. Maguire. The CorA Mg2+ channel is required for the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol 190:6517-6523, 2008.

107. Fang, F.C. On rejection. Infect Immun 76:1802-1803, 2008.

108. Wang W,, A.R. Richardson, W. Martens-Habbena, D.A. Stahl, F.C. Fang, and E.J. Hansen. Identification of a repressor of a truncated denitrification pathway in Moraxella catarrhalis. J Bacteriol. 190:7762-7, 2008.

109. Casadevall, A. and F.C. Fang. Descriptive science. Infect Immun 76:3835-3836, 2008.

110. Stahlhut S.G., S, Chattopadhyay, C. Struve, S.J. Weissman, P. Aprikian, S.J. Libby, F.C. Fang, K.A. Krogfelt, and E.V. Sokurenko. Population variability of the FimH type 1 fimbrial adhesin in Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 191:1941-1950, 2009.

111. Fang, F.C. and A. Casadevall. NIH peer review reform: change we need, or lipstick on a pig? Infect Immun 77:929-932, 2009.

112. Muller, C., I.S. Bang, J. Velayudhan, K. Papenfort, J. Vogel and F.C. Fang. Acid stress activation of the σE stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 71:1228-1238, 2009.

113. Casadevall, A. and F.C. Fang. Is peer review censorship? Infect Immun 77:1273-1274, 2009.

114. Richardson, A.R., K.C. Soliven, M.C. Nartea, P.D. Barnes, S.J. Libby and F.C. Fang. The base excision repair system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium counteracts DNA damage by host nitric oxide. PLoS Pathogens. 5:e1000451, 2009.

115. Casadevall, A. and F.C. Fang. Mechanistic science. Infect Immun 77:3517-3519, 2009.

116. Nairz, M., G. Fritsche, M.L.V. Crouch, H.C. Barton, F.C. Fang and G. Weiss. Slc11a1 limits intracellular growth of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium by promoting macrophage immune effector functions and impairing bacterial iron acquisition. Cell Microbiol 11:1365-1381, 2009.

117. Nairz, M., I. Theurl, A. Schroll, M. Theurl, G. Fritsche, E. Lindner, M. Seifert, M.L. Crouch, K. Hantke, S. Akira, F.C. Fang and G. Weiss. Absence of functional Hfe protects mice from invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection via induction of lipocalin-2. Blood 114:3642-3651, 2009.

118. Casadevall, A. and F.C. Fang. Important science—it’s all about the SPIN. Infect Immun 77:4177-4180, 2009.

119. Larson, A.M., A.M. Fung and F.C. Fang. Evaluation of tcdB real-time PCR in a multi-step diagnostic algorithm for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol 48:124-130, 2010.

120. Fang, F.C. and A. Casadevall. Lost in translation: basic science in the era of translational research. Infect Immun 78:563-566, 2010.

121. Hoffman, L., A.R. Richardson, L.S. Houston, H.D. Kulasekara, W. Martens-Habbena, M. Klausen, J.L. Burns, D.A. Stahl, D.J. Hassett, F.C. Fang and S.I. Miller. Nutrient availability as a mechanism for selection of antibiotic tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the CF airway. PLoS Pathog 6:e1000712, 2010.

122. Andrews-Polymenis, H.L., A.J. Bäumler, B.A. McCormick and F.C. Fang. Taming the elephant: Salmonella biology, pathogenesis and prevention. Infect Immun 78:2356-2369, 2010.

123. Burnside, K., A. Lembo, M. de los Reyes, N.T. BinhTran, J. Connelly, W.J. Lin, B.Z. Schimidt, A.R. Richardson, F.C. Fang and L. Rajagopal. Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus hemolysin expression by a serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase. PLoS One 5:e11071, 2010.

124. Khare, S., W. Alali, S. Zhang, D. Hunter, R. Pugh, F.C. Fang, S.J. Libby and L.G. Adams. Vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica Dublin expressing E. coli O157:H7 outer membrane protein intimin induces transient reduction of fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. BMC Vet Res 6:35, 2010.

125. Navarre, W.W., S. Zou, H. Roy, A. Savchenko, A. Singer, E. Edvokimova, L.R. Prost, R. Kumar, M. Ibba and F.C. Fang. PoxA and YjeK modify elongation factor P to modulate virulence and drug resistance in Salmonella enterica. Molec Cell 39:209-221, 2010.

126. Libby, S.J., M.A. Brehm, D.L. Greiner, L.D. Shultz, M. McClelland, K.D. Smith, B.T. Cookson, J.E. Karlinsey, T.L. Kinkel, S. Porwollik, R. Canals, L.A. Cummings and F.C. Fang. Humanized NOD-scid IL2rγ null mice are susceptible to lethal Salmonella Typhi infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:15589-15594, 2010.

127. Casadevall, A. and F.C. Fang. Reproducible science. Infect Immun 78:4972-4975, 2010.

128. Tenover, F.C., S. Novak-Weekley, J.H. Nomura, C.W. Woods, L.R. Peterson, T. Davis, P. Schreckenberger, F.C. Fang, A. Dascal, D.N. Gerding, R.V. Goering, T. Akerlund, A.S. Weissfeld, E.J. Baron, E. Wong, J. Whitmore and D.H. Persing. Impact of strain types on detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile: Comparison of molecular diagnostic and enzyme immunoassay approaches. J Clin Microbiol 48:3719-3724, 2010.

129. Karlinsey, J.E., M.E. Maguire, L.A. Becker, M.LV. Crouch and F.C. Fang. The phage shock protein PspA facilitates divalent metal transport and is required for virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. Molec Microbiol 78:669-685, 2010.

130. Yager, J.E., E.S. Ford, Z.P. Boas, L.A. Haseley, B.T. Cookson, D.J. Sengupta, F.C. Fang and G.S. Gottlieb. Ureaplasma urealyticum CAPD-associated peritonitis diagnosed by 16S rDNA PCR. J Clin Microbiol 48:4310-4312, 2010.

131. Wilcox, M.H., T. Planche and F.C. Fang. What is the current role of algorithmic approaches for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection? J Clin Microbiol 48:4347-4353, 2010.

132. Fang, F.C. and A. Casadevall. Reductionistic and holistic science. Infect Immun 79:1401-1404, 2011.

133. Wang, W., T. L. Kinkel, W. Martens-Habbena, D.A. Stahl, F.C. Fang and E.J. Hansen. The Moraxella catarrhalis nitric oxide reductase is essential for nitric oxide detoxification. J Bacteriol 193:2804-2813, 2011.

134. Richardson, A.R., E.C. Payne, N. Younger, J.E. Karlinsey, V.C. Thomas, L.A. Becker, W.W. Navarre, M.E. Castor, S.J. Libby and F.C. Fang. Multiple targets of nitric oxide in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Cell Host Microbe 10:33-43, 2011.

135. Casadevall, A., F.C. Fang and L.A. Pirofski. Microbial virulence as an emergent property: consequences and opportunities. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002136, 2011.

136. Mair, S.M., M. Nairz, T. Muehlbacher, A. Schroll, P.L. Moser, H. Talasz, F.C. Fang and G. Weiss. Nifedipine affects the course of Salmonella Typhimurium infection by modulating macrophage iron homeostasis. J Infect Dis 204:685-694, 2011.

137. Fang, F.C. and A. Casadevall. Retracted science and the retraction index. Infect Immun 79:3855-3859, 2011.

138. Fang, F.C. Antimicrobial actions of reactive oxygen species. mBio 2:e00141-11, 2011.

139. Shen, S. and F.C. Fang. Integrated stress responses in Salmonella. Int J Food Microbiol 152:75-81, 2012.

140. Weissman, S.J., J.R. Johnson, V. Tchesnokova, M. Billig, D. Dykhuizen, K. Riddell, P. Rogers, X. Qin, S. Butler-Wu, B.T. Cookson, F.C. Fang, D. Scholes, S. Chattopadhyay and E. Sokurenko. High-resolution two-locus clonal typing of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:1353-60, 2012.

141. Fang, F.C. and A. Casadevall. Likelihood of false-positive results in high-impact journals publishing groundbreaking research, Reply. Infect Immun 80:1301, 2012.

142. Casadevall, A. and F.C. Fang. Reforming Science. I. Methodological and Cultural Reforms. Infect Immun, 2011 Dec 19, epub ahead of print.

143. Fang, F.C. and A. Casadevall. Reforming Science. II. Structural Reforms. Infect Immun, 2011 Dec 19, epub ahead of print.

144. Murphy, S.C., J.L. Prentice, K. Williamson, C. Wallis, F.C. Fang, M. Fried, C. Pinzon, R. Wang, A.K. Talley, S.H. Kappe, P.E. Duffy and B.T. Cookson. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR for quality monitoring of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infection in malaria human challenge trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:383-94, 2012.