When a baby's on the way, moms-to-be are often overwhelmed by advice and warnings from family, friends and even strangers. But perhaps the most important advice is to stay as healthy as possible before and during your pregnancy.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that college freshmen, especially those who live in dormitories or residence halls, in consultation with their parents, seriously consider getting the vaccine that protects against meningococcal meningitis.
TB, or tuberculosis, is a disease caused by a bacteria named M. tuberculosis. This bacteria can infect any part of the body, but it most commonly affects the lungs. TB is spread through the air from one infected person to another.
There are two types, or stages, of TB. The first is latent, or inactive, TB. In latent TB, there are live TB bacteria inside a person, but that person is not sick. Someone with latent TB feels fine: no cough, no fever. Someone with latent TB cannot spread this infection.
Rubella is caused by a virus.
Rubella spreads from person to person through the air. Rubella is contagious but less so than measles and chickenpox.
The incubation period varies from 12 to 23 days (average, 14 days). Symptoms are often mild and may be inapparent up to half of the time.
Rotavirus disease is caused by a virus, the rotavirus. The name rotavirus is derived from the Latin rota, meaning "wheel," because the rotavirus has a wheel-like appearance when viewed by an electron microscope.
Polio is caused by a virus.
Polio is usually spread via the fecal-oral route (i.e., the virus is transmitted from the stool of an infected person to the mouth of another person from contaminated hands or such objects as eating utensils). Some cases may be spread directly via an oral to oral route.
The incubation period of polio is commonly 6-20 days, with a range of 3-35 days.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium. There are more than 90 subtypes. Most subtypes can cause disease, but only a few produce the majority of invasive pneumococcal infections. The 10 most common subtypes cause 62% of invasive disease worldwide.
Pertussis is caused by a bacterium, Bordetella pertussis.
Pertussis is spread through the air by infectious droplets and is highly contagious.
The incubation period of pertussis is commonly seven to 10 days, with a range of 5-21 days.
Pertussis disease can be divided into three stages:
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. This bacterium has at least 13 different subtypes. Five of these subtypes, A, B, C, Y, and W-135, cause almost all invasive disease. The relative importance of these five subgroups depends on geographic location and other factors.
Measles is caused by a virus.
Measles is spread through the air by infectious droplets and is highly contagious.
It takes an average of 10-12 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash doesn't usually appear until approximately 14 days after exposure, 2-3 days after the fever begins.