Whooping cough is a very contagious cough illness. It is spread through droplets from the mouth and nose when a person with pertussis coughs, sneezes, or talks. Young infants are at highest risk for severe illness, hospitalization and death from whooping cough.
Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a painful skin rash caused by the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. Shingles is an illness most commonly found in persons over age 60, but can occur at any age.
Rubella is caused by a virus.
Rubella spreads from person to person through the air. Rubella is contagious but less so than measles and chickenpox.
The incubation period varies from 12 to 23 days (average, 14 days). Symptoms are often mild and may be inapparent up to half of the time.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium. There are more than 90 subtypes. Most subtypes can cause disease, but only a few produce the majority of invasive pneumococcal infections. The 10 most common subtypes cause 62% of invasive disease worldwide.
Pertussis is caused by a bacterium, Bordetella pertussis.
Pertussis is spread through the air by infectious droplets and is highly contagious.
The incubation period of pertussis is commonly seven to 10 days, with a range of 5-21 days.
Pertussis disease can be divided into three stages:
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. This bacterium has at least 13 different subtypes. Five of these subtypes, A, B, C, Y, and W-135, cause almost all invasive disease. The relative importance of these five subgroups depends on geographic location and other factors.
Measles is caused by a virus.
Measles is spread through the air by infectious droplets and is highly contagious.
It takes an average of 10-12 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash doesn't usually appear until approximately 14 days after exposure, 2-3 days after the fever begins.
Chickenpox is caused by a virus, the varicella-zoster virus.
Chickenpox spreads from person to person by direct contact or through the air by coughing or sneezing. It is highly contagious. It can also be spread through direct contact with the fluid from a blister of a person infected with chickenpox, or from direct contact with a sore from a person with shingles.
Mumps is caused by a virus. In children, mumps is usually a mild disease. Adults may have more serious disease and more complications.
Due to good immunization coverage, mumps is now rare in the United States. An estimated 212,000 cases occurred in 1964, while only 258 cases were reported in 2004. In 2006, outbreaks of mumps occurred in 45 states and the District of Columbia, primarily on college campuses. During January 1-October 7, 2006, 5,783 confirmed or probable cases of mumps were reported to CDC.