The following immunizations are available from Hall Health:
Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for all travelers over the age of 2 years. Hepatitis A vaccine, as Havrix by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals is an inactivated virus vaccine. It was made available in the US March 1995. It has a proven efficacy of 80% to 98%. Vaccination is two part. First dose is at month 0, second dose at 6-12 months for adults. For children first dose at month 0, second at 1 month and third dose given in 6-12 months.
Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for health care workers and others with potential exposure to blood or body fluids or long-term travelers. Hepatitis B vaccine is given by injection. Three doses, given on three different dates, are needed for full protection. Exactly when these three doses are given can vary. Infants can get the vaccine at the same time as other baby shots, or during regular visits for well child care. Your doctor or nurse will tell you when the three shots should be given. The hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine prevents HBV infection in 85-95% of people who get all three shots. Studies have shown that in these people, protection lasts at least 10 years. Booster doses are not recommended at this time.
(Human Papilloma Virus) vaccine is the first vaccine licensed in the United States that protects adolescents and young women against 2 types of HPV that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer. The vaccine also provides protection against 2 types of HPV that cause approximately 90% of genital warts cases.
The viruses that cause influenza change often. Each year a new influenza vaccine is made using viruses that are thought to be most likely to come to the United States, or ones very similar to them. (See current year information.)
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine
The CDC recommends the JE vaccine only to at risk travelers: those who work or have extensive visits during transmission season to rural areas for four weeks or more, except in areas of outbreak. The vaccine is a 3 dose series, given on days 0, 7, and 30. Protection begins 10 days after last dose. Booster dose may be required 2 years later if traveler is still at risk for infection. The vaccine appears to be over 85% effective in persons over 1 year of age.
Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is usually employed in measles immunization programs because immunity against all three viral diseases is considered beneficial. The first dose of MMR is usually given in childhood, and a second (booster) dose of measles vaccine is recommended before the teenage years.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine contains material from the 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria that cause 88% of pneumococcal bacteremia. Most healthy adults who receive the vaccine develop protection against most or all of these types of pneumococcal bacteria 2-3 weeks after vaccination. The vaccine is given by injection. One dose of the pneumococcal vaccine is sufficient to produce lifelong immunity in adults.
Rabies vaccine is recommended for travelers who anticipate potential wildlife exposure or who travel to rural or isolated areas. Rabies vaccine administered as pre-exposure prophylaxis is a three dose series given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 28. Certain persons with continuing risk of exposure may require booster doses every two years, if immunity has declined sufficiently. Individuals with frequent or continuous exposure to live rabies virus require regular serologic testing and booster doses of HDCV when antibody levels fall below acceptable levels. No routine serology or booster doses are required for individuals with infrequent or rare exposures. Exposures to rabid or potentially rabid animals need to be evaluated as rapidly as possible. Individuals who have had the pre exposure rabies vaccine series must receive 2 more doses of the vaccine after a potential exposure.
Shingles (Zoster) vaccine is the first vaccine licensed in the United States that protects adults age 60 and older against herpes zoster virus which causes shingles. Shingles is a disease caused by reactivation of the chickenpox virus. Shingles can occur at any age however people age 60 and older are at greater risk. Shingles causes a skin rash that is very painful. One of the side effects of having shingles is that the pain can endure long after the rash is gone.
TD (Tetanus-Diphtheria) is made for people 7 years old or older. People who have not gotten at least 3 doses of any tetanus and diphtheria vaccine (DTP, DTaP, or DT) during their lifetime should do so using Td. After a person gets the third dose, a Td dose is needed every 10 years all through life. Tdap (Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis) protects adults against pertussis (whooping cough).
Tuberculosis Skin Test
The TB skin test checks for exposure to the TB bacteria. If a person tests positive, it does not necessarily mean that the person has TB, the disease. It indicates that TB can be either active or latent in the person's body. We often need to do a "2-step" TB skin test, in which we repeat the test one week (or more) later, in order to obtain a more definitive result or baseline status.
Oral or injectable vaccine for this bacterial infection is available with the decision regarding appropriate route of administrations based on individual considerations and departure date. Neither the oral nor injectable vaccine provides complete protection and travelers are urged to follow food and water precautions carefully. The injectable typhoid vaccine is given as a single dose with expected active immunization up to two years. The oral typhoid vaccine is a series of four capsules taken every other day over the course of one week. It is comparable to the injectable vaccine in efficacy, offering protection of at least five years.
Chickenpox is a much more serious viral infection in adults. Adults with neither a history if the disease chicken pox nor a blood test showing immunity to the disease should receive this vaccine. After age 13, two doses of the vaccine at least one month apart are required to achieve immunity.
Yellow Fever Vaccine is a live attenuated (weakened) viral vaccine. It is almost 100% effective. It is recommended for all travelers planning a trip to the Yellow Fever Endemic Zone (Tropical South American and tropical Africa) and countries which require a certificate of vaccination. Vaccination certificates are valid 10 days following administration through 10 years.