Acid: Any substance that donates protons.
Alkali metals: Extremely reactive group of element in Group 1 of the periodic table.
Ampere: The Standard International base unit of current intensity. 1 Ampere flows through one Ohm of resistance, when a potential of one volt is applied. I=E/R.
Ampere-Hour: The quantity of electricity that passes through a circuit in one hour, when the rate of flow is one ampere.
Anion: A negatively charged non-metallic ion.
Anode: The electrode in an electrochemical/galvanic cell that experiences oxidation, or gives up electrons.
Aqueous: A term designating a system that involves water or a chemical mixture or solution having water as the solvent.
Battery Capacity: The total number of Ampere-hours that can be derived from a fully loaded battery, under a specified set of conditions. The current supplying capability of a battery in ampere-hours.
Cation: A positively charged metallic ion.
Cathode: The electrode in an electrochemical/galvanic cell, at which a reduction reaction occurs, or the electrode that receives electrons from an external circuit.
Ceramic: A compound of metallic and non-metallic elements, for which the inter-atomic bonding is primarily ionic.
Charge Retention: The fraction of full capacity available from a battery under a specified set of conditions, after the battery has been stored for a given amount of time.
Charge: A quantity of electricity associated with a space, particle, or body.
Charging Efficiency: The ratio of output of a secondary battery to the input required to restore it to its original state, under a specified set of conditions.
Charge Retention: The holding of an electric charge by a cell or battery when no current is being drawn from it.
Composite: Unified combination of two or more distinct material with an intended purpose to achieve desired properties.
Coulomb: All electric charge exists in discrete quantities that are integral multiples of electronic charge or 1.6022 x 10-19 Coulombs.
Coulombic Efficiency: The ratio of the output of charge by a battery to the input of charge. Coulombic efficiency is determined by the internal resistance of a cell.
Coulombic Output: The electrical energy or charge delivered by a battery when in use.
Current: The movement of charge carriers, such as electrons, holes, or ions. Expressed in amperes.
Current Drain: The withdrawal of current from a cell or battery.
Dimensional Stability: The stability of a material (both on an atomic and structural level) for a given lattice/dimension, relative to other dimensions (or allotropes).
Discharge: The conversion of the chemical energy stored within a cell to electrical energy, and the subsequent withdrawal this electrical energy into a load.
Discharge Profile: A graphic indicating the discharge characteristics of a battery system, as a function of time.
Discharge Rate: An expression of the speed with which a battery is being discharged, at a specific point in time.
Dry Cell:
A cell with an immobilized electrolyte.
Electrical Conductivity: The proportionality constant between current density and applied electric field; also a measure of the ease with which a material is capable of conducting current.
Electrochemical Reaction: A reaction whereby the chemical energy contained within cell components is converted to electrical energy, or conversely a reaction brought around by the supply of electrical energy, which gets converted to chemical energy. If only the first case is applicable, the cell is called an electrolysis cell. If only the second scenario applies, the cell is termed a galvanic cell.
Electrolyte: A solution through which an electric current may be carried through the motion of ions.
Electron: The elemental particle of an atom having a negative charge.
Energy: The capacity for doing work. Common forms of energy include electric energy, chemical energy, potential energy, heat energy, magnetic energy, mechanical energy, kinetic energy, etc. In the context of this exercise energy may be viewed as the work performed by electric power.
Energy Density: The ratio of the energy available from a battery, to its cell mass. Expressed in Joules per gram.
Float Service: The constant charging of a storage battery keeping the battery at or near a fully charged stage at all times.
Graphite: An allotrope of carbon in which carbon has sp2 hybridization.
High Rate Performance: The phenomenon whereby a cell completely discharges in a very short period of time.
Hybrid Battery: Electrochemical cell in which one of the two active reagents is in the gas phase and maybe supplied from an external source.
Intermittent Charge: The sporadic non-uniform supply of electric charge as needed by a specific application.
Internal Resistance: The opposition or resistance to the flow of an electric current, within a cell.
Interstitial Space: The lower density space between the arrangement of internal components of matter on an atomic level.
Ion: A particle in solution that carries a positive or negative charge.
Ionic Conduction: In the context of this tutorial ionic conduction is the transfer of electric charge via ions contained within an electrolytic solution.

Lattice: The regular geometric arrangement of points in crystal space.

Leclanche Battery System: The Leclanche or zinc-carbon dry cell battery has existed for over 100 years and has been the most widely used of all dry cell batteries because of a combination of low cost, ready availability, and relatively strond performance.

Load: A term used to indicate the current drain on a battery when power is delivered to external devices or circuit elements..

Load Leveling: The process aimed at reducing the non-uniform conditions in electricity demand. Load-leveling aims to store energy when demand is low, and use this stored energy to meet peak demand.
: Material with partially filled valence band and located in the left and lower portion of the periodic table. Characterized by high thermal and electrical conductivities.

Memory Effect:  A phenomenon in which a cell, operated in successive cycles to the same, but less than full depth of discharge, temporarily experiences a depression of its discharge voltage and subsequent loss of the remainder of its capacity at normal voltage levels. 
Nominal Voltage: The characteristic operating voltage or rated voltage of a battery.

Ohm: The basic unit of resistance, reactance, or impedance.

Operating Voltage: See Working Voltage

Oxidation: The loss of electrons by a chemical species.

Parallel: A term used to describe the inter-connection of cell or batteries in which all like terminals are connected together.

Polarization: The change of the potential of a cell or electrode via the passage of electric current.

Polymer: A solid non-metallic (normally organic) compound of high molecular weight, the structure of which is composed of small repeat units.

Potential: The electrical pressure causes charge carriers to move through a substance or circuit.

Power: The rate of transmitting current or charge. Expressed in Watts.

Power Density: The ratio of power available from a cell to its cell mass.

Rated Capacity: The number of ampere-hours a battery can deliver under specific (rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature) conditions.

Recharge: The conversion of the electric energy provided by an external source into chemical energy, within a cell or battery.

Reduction: The gain of electrons by a chemical species.

Resistance: The opposition to current flow; expressed in Ohms.

Separator: An ion permeable, electronically non-conductive material, which prevents electronic contact between electrodes of opposite polarity, within the same cell.

Series: The inter-connection of cells or batteries whereby, the positive terminal of the first is connected to the negative terminal of the second, and so on. (Check this)

SLI Battery:  A battery designed to start internal combustion engines and power the electrical systems in automobiles when the engine is not running.

Specific Energy: The ratio of the energy output of a battery to its weight.

Solution: A uniform mixture of chemicals. In solution it is impossible to distinguish separate solute and solvent particles.

Stable Material: A material at its equilibrium state. Typified by relatively low reactivity and ability to remain in this state for longer periods of time.

Standby Battery: A battery designed for emergency use in the vent of main power failure.

State of Charge Indicator: A device indicating the condition of the battery in terms of remaining available capacity.

Turnaround Efficiency: The ratio of average voltage during discharge to average voltage during recharge under specified conditions of charge and discharge.

Volt: The basic unit expressing a difference of potential.

Voltage: Electromotive force or difference of potential. E=IR, where I is current and R is resistance.

Voltage Delay: The time delay required for a battery to deliver the required voltage after being placed under load.

Volumetric Energy: The ratio of available energy to cell volume. Expressed in Joules per cubic centimeter.

Working Voltage: The typical range of voltages of a battery during discharge.



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