Pinecone photo courtesy of Jeff Bisbee’s gallery at Arboretum de Villardebelle: http://www.pinetum.org/PhotoJEFFlasiocarpa.htm
Branch photo courtesy of the Dr Donald
Farrar’s dendrology page at
Coast ranges of
Range photo courtesy of Michael Kuo at MushroomExpert.com: http://www.bluewillowpages.com/mushroomexpert/trees/abies_lasiocarpa.html
Beginning at about 3500 ft until you reach treeline, where soon before treeline, its growth will be stunted. Will tolerate moist or dry sites. Shade tolerant, but grows in full sun (6).
Local occurrence (where, how common)
“Associated with glacial refugia on dry
sites, especially limestone” north of the Olympics on the outer coast. Some small, isolated populations occur in dry
sites in the eastern Olympics (6). Found on both slopes of the Cascades as far
Prefers cool, moist sites (7). Needs sun and well drained soil (4), but is known to be shade tolerant (9). Not exacting in its soil preferences (3). Found in floodplain valley-bottom forests and at higher elevations in such cold air drainages (6).
Plant strategy type/successional stage (stress-tolerator, competitor, weedy/colonizer, seral, late successional)
Engelmann spruce; lodgepole, whitebark, limber, or bristlecone pines; alpine larch; cork fir; aspen (7). White spruce; white spruce – paper birch; mountain hemlock; interior douglas fir; western larch; grand fir; western white pine; blue spruce; sitka spruce; western hemlock; coastal true fir-hemlock; alaska cedar; pacific silver fir; western red-cedar (3).
May be collected as: (seed, layered, divisions, etc.)
Collection restrictions or guidelines
Collect early through mid September. Seed is fragile and can be easily damaged during de-winging (5).
Seed germination (needs dormancy breaking?)
Seed life (can be stored, short shelf-life, long shelf-life)
Seed longevity is up to 5 years in sealed containers (5).
Recommended seed storage conditions
Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow (5).
Propagation recommendations (plant seeds, vegetative parts, cuttings, etc.)
Bare root, container, seed (9.
Container plants grown from seeds, bare-root, seeds (9). If you don’t have sufficient seeds, grow at least first winter in pots. “Plant in permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after last expected frosts” (1).
Minimum planting density: 300/acre; Maximum planting density: 1200/acre (9). (Equivalent to 1 tree per 37-146 ft2). “One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 trees per square metre, [Equivalent to 51 plants per ft2] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position” (1).
At timberline, reduced to shrub. Annual height growth for first 10-15 years at
high elevations is commonly 2.5 cm. At
lower elevations, 8.1-11.4 cm (3).
(3) Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H.
Honkala, tech. coords.
1990. Silvics of
(8) Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Abies lasiocarpa. Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
Department of Agriculture, U.S. ForestService. Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). 31 March, 2005. <http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/abilas>