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Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Concussion Key Facts

A concussion is an injury to the brain. Recognizing it is critical for a full recovery.

All injuries to the brain are potentially serious. The signs and symptoms of concussion may include headache, dizziness, memory loss, confusion, loss of balance, nausea and more.

An athlete with a possible concussion should immediately be removed from play.

If a sideline check suggests a concussion, the athlete should not return to play on the same day, and should see a licensed healthcare professional who is knowledgeable about concussions right away. Returning to play too soon can be dangerous or even deadly.

Getting better after a concussion usually just takes time.

Treatment normally involves stopping exercise and sports as well as mental activities that make symptoms worse, then gradually returning to activities.

Most athletes improve quickly after concussion.

Most athletes can safely return to school and sports within a week or two, although younger athletes may take a bit longer. Some athletes may take months or longer to fully recover. By law, a healthcare provider must approve an athlete’s return to play.

If symptoms persist, see an expert.

If the signs and symptoms continue to linger beyond 10-14 days, see a licensed healthcare provider who is an expert in diagnosing and treating athletes with concussions.

Concussion Basics

A concussion is a brain injury that changes the way the brain works. It is often caused by a direct hit to the head, face or neck. A sudden jolt to the body or a hard fall to the ground can also send enough force to the head to cause a concussion.

Nearly four million athletes and active people suffer a concussion every year. Most—90%—get better in a matter of days. But because all concussions are potentially serious, it is important to recognize and properly treat them early.

This information is for you if you want to learn more about concussions, including knowing the signs and symptoms, and what to do when you recognize one.

Why It Is Critical To Report Concussions

Many athletes don’t report their symptoms, and many coaches fail to recognize them.

It is important to report a concussion both to speed an athlete’s recovery and to prevent a potentially more devastating repeat concussion. The risk of a repeat concussion appears to be highest in the first 10 days after a concussion, and this heightened risk may continue for some time. During this period, the brain is more vulnerable to injury, even from minor hits or impacts.

The Treatment Is Usually Just Time

Recovering from a concussion is usually just a matter of time. For most, symptoms last about a week. Some people will improve almost immediately, while others take longer. Every athlete is different.

Experts recommend an initial period of brief rest followed by a gradual return to increasingly more demanding activities.

Return to Play: Weighing Pros And Cons

Deciding whether a child can safely return to sports—or whether sports risk too much harm—is the responsibility of a trained healthcare provider judging the individual circumstances of a particular young athlete. Informed athletes and parents are their critical partners.

Their choices usually include:

  • Returning the athlete to the same sport after fully recovered
  • Returning to a different sport or activity that has a lower risk of concussion
  • Stopping sports and activities that pose even a small risk of concussion

To participate in the decision-making conversation, parents will need to understand the risks and benefits of returning to play, and discuss with their child’s healthcare provider how they feel about them.

Their choices usually include:

  • Returning the athlete to the same sport after fully recovered
  • Returning to a different sport or activity that has a lower risk of concussion
  • Stopping sports and activities that pose even a small risk of concussion

Athletes and their parents will need to understand the risks and benefits of returning to play, and discuss how they feel about them with their healthcare provider.

Concussion FAQs

What activities cause the most concussions in young people?

A 2011 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that bicycling caused the most visits to hospital emergency departments for concussions in males and females age 19 and younger.

When broken down by sex, the number one cause of concussions (or “mild traumatic brain injuries”) was football among males and playground injuries among females.

The report tallied total number of concussions (not rates) from each type of activity. As a result, it was not able to show which activities caused the most concussions per 1,000 kids participating in the activity. By that standard, a lower-participation sport such as horseback riding would rank higher on the list.

Can blood tests or imaging scans diagnose a concussion or detect recovery?

Blood tests can’t yet reliably diagnose a sports-related concussion or track the brain’s progress toward recovery. Imaging tests are usually not recommended for the same reason. Researchers continue to explore new technologies, but there is no perfect test.

If symptoms worsen or don’t improve as expected, a healthcare provider who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of concussions might recommend magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). These imaging tests can identify dangerous conditions such as a skull fracture or bleeding in the brain (called a hematoma). But these situations are unusual and undertaken with caution, in part because CT scans expose athletes to potentially harmful radiation.

What is the chance that a youth athlete will have a concussion?

Scientific evidence on concussions in athletes younger than high-school age is scarce. No organized method exists for collecting data across age groups and sports.

Despite these limitations, two studies shed some much-needed light on the risk of concussion in youth football. Together they suggest that up to five out of 100 youth athletes who play football for a full season may have a concussion.

In a 2015 study, researchers enrolled more than 3,000 football players ages five to 14 from 118 teams in six states. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game, and diagnosed the injuries. They documented players’ concussions during two seasons:

  • Out of 100 youth athletes who played football for a full season, three had a concussion and 97 did not.  The authors reported similar rates of concussion at all three levels of football—youth, high school and college.

In a more recent study, colleagues at the Seattle Children’s Hospital and The Sports Institute at UW Medicine followed 863 football players ages five to 14 for two years. Athletic trainers attended every game, and documented potential concussions.

  • Out of 100 youth athletes who played football for a full season, five had a concussion and 95 did not.

smaller study of 351 female middle-school soccer players reported a considerably higher rate of concussions. Over the course of four years, parents used a sideline symptom checklist to diagnose injuries and report them through an online surveillance system. Among these elite players, 13 out of 100 had a concussion each season. The researchers believe the rates reported in other studies may be artificially low because many athletes do not report concussion symptoms to their coaches or athletic trainers.

What is the chance that a high school or college athlete will have a concussion?

Source: McCrea 2013

Reported rates of concussion in high school and college vary widely. Estimating the true risk is difficult. In part, that’s because definitions of concussion vary from place to place and methods of collecting data are uneven. It’s also because many concussions are never reported.

One large, carefully performed study may provide a helpful estimate. In that study, researchers examined concussion data from 18,531 male and female athlete-seasons over the course of 10 years. The athletes all played collision or contact sports—football, soccer, lacrosse and ice hockey.

The results? Out of every 100 athletes who played a sport for a full season, three had a concussion and 97 did not. (See chart.)

Other studies have reported higher rates. For example, among high school athletes who play football or girls’ soccer for a full season, about 10 out of 100 report a concussion. Other studies have described much lower rates, especially in noncontact sports such as baseball or gymnastics.



Which high school and college sports have the highest and lowest risk of concussion?

The rate of concussion in specific sports varies widely from study to study, so it is difficult to rank sports from highest risk to lowest with true precision.

Risk in men’s sports. Most research shows that the risk of concussion among men is highest in rugby, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer and wrestling.

Risk in women’s sports. Among women, soccer, lacrosse, ice hockey and basketball usually have the highest rates of concussion.

In sports where men and women play the same game by similar rules (for example, soccer and basketball), women generally have a higher rate of reported concussions than men. This may have to do with differences in physical characteristics or playing styles. It is also possible that women simply are more likely to report their injuries. To the surprise of some, the risk of concussion among women soccer players appears to be similar to that of male football players.

In virtually every sport, the rate of concussions is substantially higher during competitions and games than during practice. But injuries in practice are just as serious and deserve the same amount of medical attention.

The table below provides a rough estimate of concussion risk across a variety of high school and college sports.

Concussion risk in high school and college sports

(Sources: Zuckerman Am J Sports Med. 2015; Black Clin J Sport Med. 2016; Willigenburg Am J Sports Med. 2016; Graham IOM 2014; Marar Am J Sports Med 2012)

Why do some people take longer to recover than others?

Although research shows that concussion symptoms go away within a week for 90% of athletes, some take longer. The risk that recovery will take longer than 10-14 days may be greater in athletes who:

  • Had a greater number of symptoms at the time of their concussion (four or more)
  • Had more severe symptoms at the time of concussion, such as loss of consciousness (blacked out) or amnesia (memory loss)
  • Did not immediately report symptoms of a concussion and continued to play
  • Had a previous concussion
  • Had a recent concussion

Athletes in certain sports seem to be at greater risks of prolonged recovery. In one large, careful study:

  • Lacrosse players had more than twice the risk of a long recovery compared to soccer or football players
  • Ice hockey players had three times the risk of a long recovery

Athletes ages 13 through high school may also take longer to recover than college-age athletes, especially if they have had more than one previous concussion.

And recovery may be more difficult for people with certain medical conditions that they had before their injury. These include migraine headaches, depression, anxiety or panic attacks, learning disabilities and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, although some recent research has raised questions about these risk factors.

The current evidence suggests that male and female athletes are at similar risk for experiencing persistent symptoms and a prolonged recovery.

What should I do if the symptoms don’t go away?

A few athletes have symptoms that linger for weeks or months. In a study of high school and college athletes, about two out of every 100 athletes with concussions reported symptoms that lasted longer than one to three months.

Athletes with lasting symptoms report continued headaches, disturbed sleep, fatigue, slowed thinking and other problems. These can take a heavy emotional toll. Athletes may feel frustrated, irritable and restless.

If symptoms persist beyond 10 to 14 days, athletes should seek help from a comprehensive concussion program or a healthcare provider who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of concussion. Healthcare providers who specialize in concussion management include:

  • primary care sports medicine physicians
  • physiatrists
  • pediatricians with sports medicine training
  • neuropsychologists
  • neurosurgeons
  • neurologists
Do helmets prevent concussions?

The short answer? No.

Helmets can prevent skull fractures, bleeding in the brain and other head and face injuries. But they can’t absorb the full force of a jolt that disrupts the brain and causes the many problems experienced by an athlete who has a concussion.

Do helmets lessen concussion severity? Research suggests that among athletes who have concussions, those who play sports with helmets and those who play without helmets have similar outcomes in the first few days after injury.

To the extent that helmets help, older helmets in good repair seem to offer the same level of protection as newer ones.

Learning Center


Concussion management video A 15-minute video on the importance of understanding concussions and guidelines for removal from play and return to play after a concussion. Stanley Herring, MD, director of SHSI, serves as host.

Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool. A sideline tool to help parents, coaches and athletes recognize a concussion and know when a brain injury is an emergency.

CDC Heads Up: Concussion resources for school sport coaches. An extensive set of resources that include:


Heads Up: Poster de conmoción cerebral

Doctors Often Skip Discussing Dangers of Driving After Concussion

Most doctors who treat young athletes for concussion know that the injury increases the risk of having a car accident, but barely half counsel their patients against driving, a U.S. study suggests. (Reuters Health)

Read More

High School Coaches, Players Know Little About Concussion

Most high school coaches, players and parents do not know that a concussion is a brain injury. But they generally understand the importance of being symptom-free before returning to play and the potential effects of repeated concussions. (HealthDay)

Read More

Faulty Positioning in Rugby Tackles Boosts Injury Risk

Head, neck and shoulder injuries during rugby tackles are more common when the tackler’s head is incorrectly positioned in front of the ball carrier. Athletes employing recommended techniques had significantly fewer injuries. (Reuters Health)

Read More

State Laws Have Reduced Concussion Risks In High School Kids, Study Finds

Laws spearheaded by the director of UW Medicine’s Sports Health and Safety Institute, Stan Herring, MD, and colleagues have led to a noticeable nationwide decline in repeated concussions among teenage athletes. (Washington Post)

Read More

Can You Predict Future Brain Damage? Hundreds of Pro Fighters Are Helping Researchers Find Out

The ambitious goal: to identify early signs of trauma-induced brain damage from subtle changes in blood chemistry, brain imaging and performance tests — changes that may show up decades before visible symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression and impulsive behavior. (STAT)

Read More

Movement, play and sports: What are the benefits?

The sports and activities children love often come with risks. But sports, movement and play also yield abundant benefits, and can enhance the physical, mental and social health of children long into the future.

The benefits of physical activity

  • Physical activity in childhood and adolescence can increase muscular strength, improve the ability to perform complex movements, build bone, improve mood, and increase heart and lung fitness.
  • Physical activity can help prevent inactivity-related diseases that occur in childhood, including Type 2 diabetes, asthma, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (fatty buildup in blood vessels), asthma, sleep apnea and depression.
  • Physically active children are more likely to be physically active adults—and less likely to meet an early death or develop heart disease, breast and colon cancer, diabetes, obstructive lung disease, depression, anxiety or osteoarthritis.
  • Physical activity can help to prevent obesity and aid in its treatment.
  • Physical activity leads to better brain structure and function. It can improve thinking and mental performance, including focus, memory, attention and academic achievement.


Understanding Heat Stroke in 7 Steps

Athletes can develop life-threatening exertional heat stroke for a variety of reasons, but virtually none is acceptable among trainers and coaches who put player safety first. Summer training deaths from heat stroke serve as regular, harsh reminders of the importance of knowing how to prevent, recognize and properly treat this devastating condition.

Cold water baths for heat stroke: Every minute counts

Cooling an overheated athlete fast can be the difference between life and death. The most effective method is cold water immersion. Know how to be prepared for this medical emergency.

Beat the summer heat

In this compilation of stories, find out what science says about training in the summer. Learn what you need to know about proper hydration in the heat, avoiding and treating debilitating heat cramps,  and the prevention, recognition and treatment of life-threatening heat stroke.

Learning Center

Youth Physical Activity Guidelines Toolkit. To promote physical activity guidelines, the CDC and others developed this toolkit, which highlights strategies schools, families and communities can use to support physical activity. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Youth physical activity: The role of schools (fact sheet). Schools are an ideal setting for teaching youth how to adopt and maintain a healthy, active lifestyle. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

What is moderate and intense physical activity? This guide provides examples of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise, sports and games. (World Health Organization)

Free training, hydration and nutrition video for youth coaches. This six-minute video helps coaches get their kids to move more, drink right and snack smart. (Tufts University, Healthy Kids Out of School)

Common Sense Media, Landmark Report: U.S. Teens Use an Average of Nine Hours of Media per Day, Tweens Use Six Hours

Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, 2010. This in-depth report provides background on the health significance of physical activity, recommended levels of physical activity for different age groups and more. (World Health Organization)

Recent News
& More

Tommy John’s Son Wants to Help Kids Avoid Sports Surgeries Like the One Named for his Dad

In the U.S., costly travel leagues and private training foster early sports specialization and year-round participation. The result is that children are experiencing the kind of overuse injuries once found primarily in professional athletes. (Washington Post)

Read More

What Happens to Your Body When You Train in Hot-Weather Conditions?

Training in the heat can actually work to your advantage. This inside look explains how athletes use a lab to acclimatize to hot training conditions. (Adventure Sports Network)

Read More

‘This Was Preventable’: Football Heat Deaths and the Rising Temperature

Most states rank poorly on heat safety for their high school football players. Too many teens have paid the price, and temperatures are only getting worse. (InsideClimate News)

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Exercise Can Help Treat Mood Disorders. Here’s Why, and How to Get Started.

A growing body of research shows that exercise can be as effective as medication and psychotherapy in treating mood disorders, depression and anxiety—without the side effects. (Washington Post)

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The States That Exercise Least

The CDC found that the percentage of people who get enough exercise varies greatly by state, from a low of 13.5 percent of adults in Mississippi to a high of 32.5 percent in Colorado. (The Atlantic)

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You Can Get Even More Out of Strength Training Than Killer Abs

People who strength train for at least two non-consecutive days a week have significantly fewer symptoms of mild to moderate depression, according to a recent review. (Runner’s World)

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Commutes on Foot or Bike Tied to Lowered Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke

People who regularly add walking or cycling into parts of a longer commute or journey may reduce their risk of a heart attack or stroke, according to a study from the United Kingdom that followed more than 350,000 people for seven years. (Reuters Health)

Read More

America’s Fittest Cities

The 11th annual American College of Sports Medicine fitness index ranked U.S. cities for their residents’ healthy behaviors. The top 5: Arlington, VA; Minneapolis, MN; Washington D.C.; Madison, WI; and Portland, OR. Seattle came in one-tenth of a point behind Portland at #6. (King5)

Read More

Using Behavioral Science to Build an Exercise Habit

Fewer than half of Americans exercise as much as they should. Thankfully, the field of behavioral science has solutions to offer. (Scientific American)

Read More

Hydration in the heat for young athletes

Young athletes, parents and coaches frequently ask about safe ways to hydrate in the heat. They want to know how much—and what—to drink to safely perform at their best.

The answers aren’t simple. The scientific research is inconclusive, and experts disagree.

To help sort out the science and provide practical advice, we talked to E. Randy Eichner, M.D., professor emeritus of medicine at the University of Oklahoma Medical Center and former team internist for the Oklahoma Sooners football team. Eichner spent 14 years caring for Sooners football players in dauntingly hot conditions. And for three years he also served as a physician for the Hawaii Ironman, one of the longest, most grueling, and hottest athletic competitions in the U.S.

Muscle cramping in the heat

Muscle cramping is the bane of athletes playing in the heat. This painful problem can range from annoying to disabling. Find out why they happen, and how to prevent them from happening again in the future. Experts urge players who are at risk to salt their food and eat healthful salt-rich foods. Fad remedies can delay proper care.

Learning Center

Hydration. This site includes videos and information on hydration, including how to know if an athlete is hydrated, how much to drink and what to drink. (Korey Stringer Institute)

Hydration Kit. This two-page handout lists hydration supplies, from electrolyte freezer pops to pumper-style cooling stations. The handout provides prices and links to websites where individuals or teams can purchase them. (Korey Stringer Institute)

Free training, hydration and nutrition video for youth coaches from Tufts University. This six-minute video helps coaches get their kids to move more, drink right and snack smart. (Healthy Kids Out of School)

Guidelines on fluid replacement. This 2017 position stand provides evidence-based recommendations on best hydration practices for active people. (National Athletic Trainers’ Association)

Nutrition and athletic performance. Guidance on food, fluids and supplements to take for peak health and performance across a range of training and competition scenarios. (American College of Sports Medicine and American Dietetic Association)

National high school guidelines on hydration and training in heat. This position stand describes how to hydrate before, during, and after physical activity, as well as risk factors for overheating. (National Federation of State High School Associations)

NCAA guidelines on training in the heat. The NCAA Sports Medicine Handbook includes detailed recommendations on the prevention and treatment of exertional heat illness. See Guideline 2C: Prevention of heat illness, pp. 39-42 in the current edition. (National Collegiate Athletic Association)

Recent News
& More

Young Athletes Should Stay Hydrated, But Too Much Water Can Be Deadly

Overzealous obedience to hydration advice has uncovered a dark underbelly to superior hydration practices: overhydration. Drinking too much water or sports drinks dilutes blood salt levels below the normal range, triggering brain swelling, headaches, vomiting and potentially death.  (CNN)

For Questions About Dietary Supplements, NIH Website Offers Clear Answers

When it comes to dietary supplements, there are often more questions than answers. Although many Americans report using them, their benefits can be questionable. The website of the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements addresses such issues. (Washington Post)

Read More

Off Your Mental Game? You Could Be Mildly Dehydrated

A growing body of evidence finds that people who are just a little dehydrated don’t do as well on tasks that require complex processing or a lot of their attention. (NPR)

Read More

That Spitting Thing at the World Cup? It’s Probably ‘Carb Rinsing’

Players are notoriously cloistered during the World Cup and are especially loath to speak about their fitness secrets, so the contents of their bottles are not known. But they may be employing a technique called “carb rinsing” or “mouth washing.” (New York Times)

Read More

Getting Kids to a Good Weight by 13 May Help Avoid Diabetes

Overweight boys who get to a healthy weight by age 13 have the same risk of developing diabetes in adulthood as someone who never weighed too much. (US News)

Read More

Year-long Diet Study Finds It’s What You Eat, Not How Much

Research from Stanford University shows that neither low-fat nor low-carb diets are key to sustained weight loss among overweight adults. Instead, it’s back to basics: avoid refined wheat and sugar, and eat more vegetables. (University of Washington)

Read More

Why Is It so Hard to Lose Weight and Keep It Off?

Why exactly are some people able to maintain a healthy weight while others can try and try with no luck? The process of weight gain and weight loss involves a complicated combination of genetics, complex body systems and the environment. (University of Washington)

Read More

Dangers of Energy Drinks for Kids

Energy drinks may be dangerous for kids and young adults, a new survey found. The most common problems included a fast heartbeat, insomnia and headaches. (MedPage Today)

Read More

‘Raw water’ Is the Latest Health Craze. Here’s Why Drinking It May Be a Bad Idea

By shunning recommended water safety practices, raw water purveyors may also be selling things you don’t want to drink that can make you sick. (Washington Post)

Read More

Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Six Key Facts

Sudden cardiac arrest is the number one cause of sudden death in exercising young athletes.

It usually strikes without warning in individuals with a structural or electrical abnormality of the heart, often inherited. Males, African-Americans and male basketball players are at increased risk.

No method of detecting heart problems in athletes is perfect.

A comprehensive medical history and physical exam is required for all young athletes before they participate in sports. Some medical experts are adding a screening electrocardiogram (EKG) to the standard pre-participation physical exam.

In some cases, warning signs or symptoms can help identify an athlete at risk of a sudden cardiac arrest

Signs of a potentially risky heart condition include fainting or passing out during exercise; excessive shortness of breath or chest pain with exercise; palpitations (heart racing) for no reason; and unexplained seizures.

Until proven otherwise, you should suspect sudden cardiac arrest in any collapsed and unresponsive athlete.

Unless effective emergency steps are taken immediately, death or serious disability will occur.

Every team should have—and practice—an emergency action plan for sudden cardiac arrest.

It is critical to review and practice your emergency action plan in the preseason with all personnel who may be involved in the emergency response.

Life-saving measures include calling 9-1-1, immediate chest compressions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and shocking the athlete with an AED as soon as possible.

Early initiation of all of these measures is important. Early defibrillation (shock) with an automated external defibrillator (AED) is the most important factor for survival. A few minutes’ delay can be the difference between life and death.

Sudden cardiac arrest: What it is and who is at risk

Every two to three days in the U.S., a young athlete dies as the result of sudden cardiac arrest. In fact, sudden cardiac arrest is the number one cause of sudden death in exercising young athletes.

In most cases, the arrest occurs with no warning. In the midst of play or practice, the athlete suddenly collapses. And if appropriate action is not taken within minutes, the athlete will die or be left with serious brain damage.

This information is for you if you want to learn about the causes of sudden cardiac arrest and the athletes who are at greatest risk. Being aware of the danger is the first step in preparing to save an athlete’s life.

Sudden cardiac arrest: Know warning signs and how to respond

In most cases, sudden cardiac arrest strikes young athletes without warning. However, in some cases, there are warning signs or symptoms that an athlete may have a heart condition that puts him at risk of a sudden cardiac arrest.

This information is for you if you want to learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of sudden cardiac arrest and know the four essential steps in the “chain of survival.”

How to prepare for sudden cardiac arrest

It’s important to act quickly should one of your athletes suffer sudden cardiac arrest.

This information explains the role of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in improving survival after sudden cardiac arrest, and will help you develop an organized plan for responding to emergencies.

Learning Center


Sudden Cardiac Arrest (video). A seven-minute course to prepare youth coaches and league administrators for an acute sudden cardiac arrest emergency (planning, recognition, screening and four steps to survival). USA Football developed the course, but the information is relevant to basketball, baseball and other sports in which sudden cardiac arrest can occur. The video features University of Washington and Seattle Seahawks team physician Jonathan A. Drezner, M.D.

American Heart Association

American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

National Athletic Trainers Association

Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation

UW Medicine Center for Sports Cardiology

Research publications

Baggish AL. A decade of athlete ECG criteria: where we’ve come and where we’re going. J Electrocardiol. 2015 May-Jun;48(3):324-8.

Brosnan M, La Gerche A, Kalman J et al. The Seattle Criteria increase the specificity of preparticipation ECG screening among elite athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(15):1144-50.

Drezner JA, Rao AL, Heistand J, Bloomingdale MK, Harmon KG. Effectiveness of emergency response planning for sudden cardiac arrest in United States high schools with automated external defibrillators. Circulation. 2009;120(6):518-25.

Drezner JA, Toresdahl BG, Rao AL, Huszti E, Harmon KG. Outcomes from sudden cardiac arrest in US high schools: a 2-year prospective study from the National Registry for AED Use in Sports. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(18):1179-83.

Elston J, Stein K. Public health implications of establishing a national programme to screen young athletes in the UK. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(7):576-82.

Harmon KG, Asif IM, Maleszewski JJ et al. Incidence and Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death in High School Athletes in the United States. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(11):1493-1502.

Harmon KG, Asif IM, Maleszewski JJ et al. Incidence, Cause, and Comparative Frequency of Sudden Cardiac Death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes: A Decade in Review. Circulation. 2015;132(1):10-9

Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Wilson MG, Sharma S. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes: a state-of-the-art review. Heart. 2014;100(16):1227-34.

Maron BJ, Friedman RA, Kligfield P et al. Assessment of the 12-lead ECG as a screening test for detection of cardiovascular disease in healthy general populations of young people (12-25 Years of Age): a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation. 2014;130(15):1303-34.

Toresdahl BG, Rao AL, Harmon KG, Drezner JA. Incidence of sudden cardiac arrest in high school student athletes on school campus. Heart Rhythm. 2014;11(7):1190-4.



Recent News
& More

Screening Fails to Predict Most Heart Deaths In Young Soccer Players

Examinations of more than 11,000 adolescent soccer players in the UK over 20 years have found that routine heart testing prevented very few sudden heart-related deaths during exercise. (Reuters Health)

Read More

Bystander Defibrillator Use Tied to Better Cardiac Arrest Outcomes

Cardiac arrest patients may be more likely to survive and avoid permanent disabilities when bystanders use a defibrillator to treat them before an ambulance arrives, a new study suggests. (Reuters Health)

Read More

A Hoop Player’s Sudden Return from Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Fewer than 8 percent of those who suffer cardiac arrest outside a hospital survive. But this high school basketball player did—because there was an automated external defibrillator on hand and people who knew how to use it. (Rivard Report)

Read More

Surprisingly High Number of NBA Players Have Abnormal Heart Scans

Heart data from elite basketball players show that a surprising number have abnormalities—but these results are likely false positives that don’t take into account how the heart changes during training, according to researchers. (The Verge)

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Cardiac Arrest Rare In Young Athletes but Tough to Predict

Young athletes have a very low risk of suffering a fatal cardiac arrest. But more important, researchers found that more than 80 percent of cases probably won’t be caught through “pre-participation screening” that includes electrocardiograms to detect electrical abnormalities in the heart. (HealthDay)

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This Mistake Can Cost the Lives of Athletes in Cardiac Arrest

Athletes are dying from cardiac arrests that occur during play because teammates, coaches and other bystanders don’t know how to best save their lives, a new study claims. (Chicago Tribune)

Read More

Heart Screening for Teens May Cause More Problems than It Solves

Dozens of not-for-profit organizations have formed in the past decade to promote free or low-cost heart screenings for teens. The groups often claim such tests save lives by finding abnormalities that might pose a risk of sudden cardiac death. (NPR)

Read More

Olympic Athletes Have Heart Problems, Too

Some Olympic athletes could be at risk while training and competing because of heart defects or dysfunction that they may not even know about, Italian researchers say. (Reuters Health)

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