Section 27 – The Further [i.e. Northern] Jushi Tribe 車師後 (near Guchen)

1. Wutu Valley 務塗谷 [Wu-t’u Valley]. Stein (1928), pp. 553-556, first correctly identified Hu-p’u-tzu (Hupuzi), a small village near Guchen (Ku-ch’eng-tzu or Guchengzu), and about ten km north of Jimasa, as the centre of the ancient Further Jushi. It was known as Beiting during the Tang. It is, as the text indicates, just about exactly 208 km from Lukchun. See notes 1.21; 1.37.

2. For a discussion of these ‘Six Kingdoms of Jushi,’ see Stein (1928), pp. 541-543. See also note 1.49 above.

3. The Weilue gives us the following account of the various routes:

“Heading west from the Yumen frontier-post, leaving the Dadujing (‘The Protector General’s Well’), turning around the northern end of the Sanlongsha (‘Three Sand Ridges’), one passes by the Julucang (‘Depot Dwellings’). Then, on leaving the Shaxijing (‘Sandy Western Well’), and turning northwest, passing by the Longdui (‘Dragon Dunes’), one arrives at ancient Loulan and, turning west, goes to Quici (Kucha), and on to the Congling (Pamir) mountains. This is the Central Route.
          The New Northern Route goes west reaching the kingdom of Eastern Jumi (near modern Dashituo), the kingdom of Western Jumi (near modern Mulei), the kingdom of Danhuan, the kingdom of Bilu, the kingdom of Pulu, and the kingdom of Wutan, which are all dependencies of the king of the Further Jushi (near Jimasa).
          The king has his capital in the city of Yulai. The Wei (dynasty) conferred the title of ‘Royal Attendant Guarding the Wei’ on Yiduoza, the king, and he was named ‘Great Wei Commander.’ He received the seal of ‘King (appointed by the) Wei.’
          The (New Northern) Route turns northwest to reach Wusun (Issyk-kol and Semirechiye), and Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas and middle Jaxartes basins). These kingdoms existed previously and have neither grown nor shrunk.”

4. maoji xiaowei = Maoiji Commandant. See note 1.5 above. 

5. jiangbing zhangshi 將兵長史 [chiang-ping chang-shih] = Aide-Commander. “HAN: Aide-Commander, designation of certain Aides (chang-shih) on the staffs of frontier Commanderies (chün) or in campaigning areas, serving in active command of troops....” Hucker No. 701.

6. bu sima 部司馬 [pu szu-ma] = Regional Commander. bu = ‘Regional’ – Hucker No. 4764 and 4811 See also notes 1.5: sima = ‘Commander’ – Hucker No. 5713, and note 1.63 above.

7. “The Hou Hanshu omits mention of the victory reported in 137 CE over the Huyan king by  the Prefect of Dunhuang, named Pei Chen. An inscription found near Lake Barkol has alone preserved the memory of this great feat (cf. Dix inscriptions chinoises de l’Asie Centrale, p. 17 and following).” Translated from Chavannes (1907), p. 214, n. 1.