Review Articles

Clinical significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer

Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) play an essential role in mediating response to
chemotherapy and improving clinical outcomes in all subtypes of breast cancer. Triple
negative breast cancers (TN) are most likely to have tumors with >50% lymphocytic
infiltrate, termed lymphocyte predominant breast cancer, and derive the greatest
survival benefit from each 10% increase in TIL. The majority of HER2+ breast cancers
have similar level of immune infiltrate as TN breast cancer yet the presence of TILs has

Immunotherapy for gynecologic cancers

In choosing the Breakthrough of the Year in 2013, the editors of Science recognized years of efforts toward the tantalizing goal of enlisting the body’s own immune system to fight cancer [1]. Since then, we have seen the acceleration of multiple approaches from the laboratory to the clinic including immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive cellular therapy, and cancer vaccines. How these strategies fare in clinical trials may ultimately lead to paradigm shifts in therapy.

Therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancer

While therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancer represent only a small fraction of active clinical trials, growing interest in this area and the accumulated data supporting the use of vaccines in cancer treatment portend further expansion of trials incorporating these strategies. This review explores the rationale for the use of vaccines for the treatment of ovarian cancer. It examines vaccine platforms that have been investigated and reviews the data from these studies. We also highlight recently reported phase 2 and 3 clinical trials with clinical outcomes as endpoints.

Can immunity to breast cancer eliminate residual micrometastases?

An effective immune response has the potential for breast cancer sterilization with marked reduction in the potential for disease relapse. Adaptive type I immune cells uniquely have the capability of (i) cytotoxic T-cell activation and proliferation until all antigen expressing cells are eradicated, (ii) traversing endothelial barriers to penetrate tumor deposits wherever they occur, and (iii) immunologic memory, which allows the persistence of destructive immunity over the years it may take for breast cancer micrometastases to become clinically evident.

Expanding assessments of translational research programs: supplementing metrics with value judgment

The University of Washington (UW) Institute for Translational Health Sciences (ITHS), funded by a Clinical and Translational Sciences Award program, has supplemented its initial Kellogg Logic Model-based program evaluation with the eight judgment-based evaluative elements of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health Services Assessment Model.

Evaluation of Cancer Immunity in Mice

There have been significant advances in the development and application of novel therapeutic approaches and improved diagnostics for cancer in the past decade. Manipulation and/or assessment of cancer-specific immunity have been central to these advances. Murine models are a standard for the preclinical development of cancer immunotherapeutics. However, critical advances in our understanding of the role of the immune microenvironment and the assessment of cancer-specific immunity have not been fully applied to rodent models.


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