Materials for this week:
- Case and discussion
- Physical Abuse of Children – Pediatrics in Review 2016
- TEN-4 rule for recognizing bruising associated with child abuse
- Great repository of parenting tip sheets in English and Spanish from the CDC. I love this from the “Bonding with your Baby” handout: “The best gift you can give your baby is YOU. The love and attention you give your baby now will stay with him or her forever and will help your baby grow into a healthy and happy child and adult.”
Take-home points for child abuse recognition:
- How many children are affected by maltreatment? We are likely to encounter child maltreatment in our practices: 1 in 8 children between 0-18 years in the U.S. have some form of substantiated maltreatment. A meta-analysis of 22 US studies suggested that 30 – 40% of girls and 13% of boys experience sexual abuse during childhood.
- How are “neglect” and “verbal abuse” defined? Neglect is failure to meet the basic emotional, physical, medical or educational needs of a child; it includes lack of adequate nutrition, hygiene, shelter, and safety. Neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, accounting for ~60% of cases. “Verbal abuse” refers to nonphysical forms of punishment intended to cause shame and humiliation.
- What is the AAP stance on corporal punishment and why? As of fall 2018, the AAP opposes any form of corporal punishment, including spanking, as it is not effective for changing long-term behavior and is associated with many adverse outcomes, including aggressive behavior and mental health problems. Here’s a very informative infographic on the psychology of spanking. Dr. Sege, who co-authored the AAP statement, discusses how you can talk to parents who were spanked themselves in this podcast (here’s the interview transcript).
- Which children are at highest risk for child abuse? Children in all SES levels are at risk, and in ~80% of cases, parents are perpetrators. Child-level risk factors include physical, emotional, or behavioral disability; result of undesired or multiple gestation pregnancy. Parent-level risk factors include poverty, multiple children under 5, substance use or mental illness (including current depression), teenage parents, cognitive deficits, single parents, history of child maltreatment or intimate partner violence, failure to empathize with children, or inappropriate expectations for development.
- What is the most overlooked form of abuse? Bruising is the most frequently missed form of abuse. The TEN-4 rule is a helpful guide to remember patterns of bruising associated with child abuse. TEN = Torso, Ears, Neck bruising and 4 = any bruise on a 4 month old or younger – those bruises should prompt more work-up and referral to CPS. Before being diagnosed with child abuse, 25% to 30% of abused infants have “sentinel” injuries, such as facial bruising, which can be a harbinger of worse injury.