Flammability Characteristics of Vehicle Fluids
- NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations, 2017 Edition.
- ASTM D 56-16a, “Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester.”
- ASTM D93-20, “Standard Test Methods for Flash-Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester.”
- ASTM D 92-18, “Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester.”
One or the other closed cup standard is used depending on the liquid viscosity and flash point range. Other ASTM flash point tests are also available.
- ASTM E659-15, “Standard Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Liquid Chemicals.”
- ASTM D1310-14, “Standard Test Method for Flash Point and Fire Point of Liquids by Tag Open-Cup Apparatus.”