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Possible magnetic field driving mechanisms for FSMA actuators

Several driving mechanisms (by magnetic field) of actuators based on FSMAs have been proposed and studied. Here is a summary of three main possible driving mechanisms:

  1. Magnetic Field Induced Phase Transformation [Direct Effect]
  2. Variant Rearrangement by Magnetic Field in Fully Martensitic Phase
  3. Stress Induced Martensitic Transformation by Magnetic Field Gradient
    [Indirect Effect, Hybrid Mechanism] F: Force, M: Magnetization, H: Magnetic Field

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