2000 Conference: Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography on the topic of Emerging Issues in Graduation Education - General
Appelquist, T. (1997, April 18). Graduate students are not employees. Chronicle of Higher Education, B6.
This article argues that graduate teaching assistants should not be considered employees. It asserts that a case before the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), brought by Yale University graduate students seeking the right to organize and bargain collectively, should not be decided in their favor since applying federal labor laws to the relationship between professor and graduate student would undermine the purpose of graduate education and hinder undergraduate education nationwide. It claims that graduate teaching assistants are primarily students, that part of their education is learning how to teach and that the NLRB should not regulate matters that are so clearly educational.
Association of American Universities. (1998, October). Committee on graduate education: Report and recommenda-tions. [On-line]. Available:
This report examines criticisms of Ph.D. programs, surveys institutions and develops guidelines on the best practices in graduateeducation. It offers an overview of national and institutional perspectives and recommends guidelines on recruitment, admissions, financial support, curriculum, faculty mentoring, retaining institutional data, program evaluation, and policy implementation. Finally, it provides tabular statistical data on employment rates, career plans, and student diversity.
Damrosch, D. (1995). We scholars: Changing the culture of the university. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
This text explores an academic culture in which already isolated disciplines continue to divide into more specialized fields, resulting in alienation and territorialism replacing general discussion. In a chapter on the culture of graduate education, the author argues that substantial changes can follow from alterations in the accepted form of the dissertation, and from changes in language requirements, doctoral exams, and student contact across departmental lines. A culture of cooperation would expand better students' cultural and intellectual horizons.
Hughes, R. M., (1925). A study of the graduate schools of America, read before the Association of American Colleges. Oxford, OH: Miami University.
This text discusses the development of U.S. colleges and universities between 1875-1925, and argues that the most gratifying development took place in the graduate schools. At that time there were some forty or more institutions doing graduate work of some distinction, and a considerable number of other institutions offering excellent training for the master's degree. Around the early 1900s, colleges faced increasing pressure brought "to appoint men" with graduate training to their faculties, and already a distinct preference was growing for the doctoral degree.
LaPidus, J. B. (1997). Issues and themes in postgraduate education in the United States. In R. G. Burgess (Ed.), Beyond the first degree. United Kingdom: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
This paper examines the impact of contemporary economic, political, and technological issues on various types of graduate education in the United States (referred to as "postgraduate education" in many other countries). Increasingly scarce funding, evolving race and immigration policies, perceptions of significant "underemployment" rates among graduating students, and rapid technological innovations each provide unique challenges to and opportunities for various graduate programs. The paper explores the impact of these issues on certificate, masters, and doctoral programs of graduate education; it concludes that universities must respond to current societal realities by developing and delivering novel graduate programs which provide reasonably priced high quality education to large numbers of people, while remaining true to their fundamental commitment to scholarship and learning.
LaPidus, J. B. (1998, April). Broadening the scope of graduate education: Postbaccalaureate futures. Paper pre-sented at a meeting of the Midwest Association of Graduate Schools.
This paper suggests that emerging issues in post-baccalaureate education require us to attend to the increasingly diverse nature of the people seeking this level of education, to the nature and purposes of the enterprise itself, and to the broad question of access. Certificate, postdoctoral, doctoral and master's programs are discussed. The author also asks: whether educators can agree on a set of core values which define the identity and purpose of graduate education; whether this shared vision might serve as a basis for responding to emerging issues; and what choices make sense in an environment where political, social and financial pressures push universities to compromise their principles an their customary stands on difficult issues.
Murray, Bridget. (2000) The growth of the new Ph.D.: higher education takes a hard look at the Ph.D. and finds much that needs changing. Monitor on Psychology. November 2000 ; 24-27.
This article discusses key points in the current dialog of reshaping the Ph.D. Murray discusses key issues and concerns of different stakeholders in the process, mentioning the work of Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Lee Shulman at Carnegie, National Science Foundation and Jody Nyquist with "Re-envisioning the Ph.D. Project.".
National Board on Graduate Education. (1972). Graduate education: Purposes, problems, and potential. Washington, DC: Author.
This report identifies the purposes of graduate education as the education of skilled individuals, the production of knowledge, and the preservation and transmission of knowledge. It names the problems in graduate education as the depressed job market for Ph.D.s, the high costs incurred, the unequal geographic dispersion of Ph.D. programs, and the relevance of Ph.D. training to available professional opportunities in industry and community colleges. Potential solutions offered include alternative models of graduate education (part-time, or for older people in career transition), specific degrees for prospective undergraduate teachers (i.e. Doctor of Arts, Master of Philosophy), interdisciplinary programs, and programs in primarily black institutions.
Phillips, V., & Yager, C. (1998). The best distance learning graduate schools: Earning your degree without leaving home. New York: Random House.
This lists 195 regionally accredited universities offering graduate degrees via distance learning.
Syverson, P. (1996, October). The new American graduate student: Challenge or opportunity? CGS Communicator, 29(8), 7-8, 11. [On-line]. Available:
This article points out that, as a result of demographic changes, graduate students increasingly represent a more diverse range of characteristics than the traditional model (i.e. newly qualified bachelor graduates engaged in full-time study) would suggest. Today, most graduate students complete degrees on a part-time basis, although full-time numbers are higher in research intensive institutions. The average age of graduate students is on the rise, most are married, 25% have dependents, 75% of graduate students are employed, and 50% have education-related debt. Thus, the author argues, the "new American graduate student" presents new challenges to the graduate education system but also presents opportunities for the development of an innovative and influential community of students and employers. These changes, it is suggested, also invite the possibility of developing new programs and delivery systems which can enhance the quality, range and availability of graduate education.
Task Force on Distance Graduate Education. (1998, September). Distance graduate education: Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.
This text focuses on the effects of accelerated distance learning on the policies and practices of graduate education. It aims to guide students, faculty, and administrators into sound academic practices with regard to defining and giving context for distance education in higher education. Issues detailed include: the market for distance learning; changing faculty roles; conflicts of interest and commitment; organizational issues; graduate policies and procedures; program design and delivery; testing and evaluation; and faculty/student interaction. Distance graduate education policies and procedures are grouped under various headings, including: guidelines for assuring quality and demonstrating equivalency; mentoring; informational and instructional resources; and distance education outcomes.
Triggle, D. J. (1998, May). The death of the guilds and other serious matters and where are we going in graduate education and research. Presentation at the Graduate School Annual Meeting, University of Buffalo. [On-line]. Available:
This presentation maintains that modern universities are now seen as producers of "useful knowledge" and are expected, by some, to help drive the economy. It points out that the constant change occurring in universities is resisted by faculty; change is brought on by several factors including rapid change in learning technology, increased competition, education as a commodity, and funding limitations. Additionally, changes in higher education are precipitated by information, economic factors, increased demand for post-secondary education, and changes in the character of research. The presentation suggests that new forms of research and knowledge communities are emerging: e.g. Microsoft's $80-million-endowed laboratory at Cambridge University. The rise of the university is seen as leading to the death of guilds. Called for is significant change to ensure that faculty are accountable and productive, that the administrations provide leadership, and that sufficient investment is made in scientific and technological programsin universities.
Ziolkowski, T. (1990). The Ph.D. squid. The American Scholar, 59(2), 177-195.
This author asserts that the demand for Ph.D.s outstrips the supply so it is essential to attract more students into graduate schools and move them through more efficiently. The article discusses historical criticisms of the Ph.D. in terms of teaching and research and posits that today's doctorate serves to certify a degree of competence regarding a general field of study and a solid command of a field of specialization. It is recommended that, to expedite graduation, universities should impose a strict limit on time-to-degree and dissertation length (while retaining the dissertation as the center of doctoral education), and the humanities should eliminate footnotes and other time-consuming academic minutia from the dissertation.