It would be very rare that such
an important finding was not criticized by some. Papers here reflect the
opinions of some who feel that health has not been adequately related to
relative deprivation, or income inequality. Essentially all of the published
studies are presented here. Responses to these publications from the principle
investigators have been provided as well. While none of the investigators
deny the possibility of a strong income inequality health relationship,
they question the validity of the current research, that is they question
the process of arriving at the conclusion, rather than the conclusion itself.
For such a major finding, it is remarkable that there are so few criticisms
and these do not cast major doubt on the results.
Judge K, Mulligan J-A, Benzeval M. Income inequality and population
health. Soc Sci Med 1998 46:567-79.
2. Wilkinson, R.G. Letter to the Editor. Soc Sci Med 1998;47(3):411-12.
3. Judge K, Mulligan JA, Benzeval M. Reply to Richard Wilkinson. Soc
Sci Med 1998;46(7):983-85.
How much of the relation between population mortality and
unequal distribution of income
is a statistical artefact?
BMJ 1998;316(31 January 1998):382-5
Wilkinson RG. Mortality and distribution of income. Low relative income
affects mortality [letter;
Mortality and distribution of income. Widening income inequalities
cause poorer health
H. Mortality and distribution of income: Widening income inequalities cause
poorer health: Author's
reply. BMJ 1998;316(23, May 1998):1612.
8. Wolfson M, Kaplan G, Lynch J, Ross N, Backlund
E. Relation between income
inequality and mortality:
empirical demonstration. BMJ 1999;319(7215):953-7.
9. Gravelle H. Diminishing returns to aggregate
10. Wilkinson RG. Two pathways, but how much
do they diverge?
. BMJ 1999;319(7215):956-7.
Fiscella K, Franks P. Poverty or income inequality as predictors of
mortality: longitudinal cohort study.
British Medical Journal 1997; 314: 1724-8
Wilkinson RG. Commentary: income inequality summarises the health burden
of individual relative
British Medical Journal 1997; 314: 1727-8
13. Muntaner C, Lynch J. Income inequality,
social cohesion, and class relations:
a critique of Wilkinson's
neo-Durkheimian research program. International Journal of Health Services
Wilkinson RG. Income inequality, social cohesion, and health: clarifying
the theory-- a reply to Muntaner
and Lynch. International Journal of Health Services 1999: 29(3):525-43.
Judge K. Income distribution and life expectancy: a critical appraisal.
British Medical Journal, 1995;311:
Wilkinson RG. A reply to Ken Judge: mistaken criticisms ignore overwhelming
Medical Journal 1995; 311: 1285-7
Saunders P. Poverty, Income Distribution and Health: An Australian
Study. Social Policy Research
Centre Reports and Proceedings No. 128: University of New South
Income and mortality in the United States. Incomes should have
been adjusted in the
two studies. British Medical Journal 1996;313: 1206-7.