Gale Lab


Human Immunodeficiency Virus

AIDS is a global health problem directly linked to immune regulation and immune cell depletion by HIV. Our studies are centered on defining the processes of innate immune governance in T cells and their control by HIV.


Global distribution of adults and children estimated to be living with HIV in 2008

Global HIV Distribution, 2008
Image adapted from the UNAIDS AIDS epidemic update 2009
HIV Replication Cycle
HIV Replication Cycle
Steps in the HIV Replication Cycle

1. Fusion of the HIV cell to the host cell surface
2. HIV RNA, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and other viral proteins enter the host cell
3. Viral DNA is formed by reverse transcriptase
4. Viral DNA is transported across the nucleus and integrates into the host DNA
5. New viral RNA is used as genomic RNA and to make viral proteins
6. New viral RNA and proteins move to cell surface and a new, immature, HIV virus forms.
7. The virus matures by protease releasing individual HIV proteins.



Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from a cultured lymphocyte.

Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding virons.

SEM of HIV budding from cultured lymphocyte
HIV Genome
HIV Genome  
Research Projects:
Innate Immune Defense Against HCV and HIV: The Chimeric Mouse Model

This project aims to define the molecular processes, and identify novel therapeutic targets, within the virus/host interface that regulate the host response to HCV and control infection outcome in a chimerical mouse model in vivo system. The project is also focused on defining the innate immune correlated that regulate HIV infection in vitro and to develop a dual infection model in the chimeric mouse in vivo.
More information about HIV/AIDS: